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XLhc  IbaMu^t  Society. 

VOL.   II. 

No.  XXVII. 

ISSUED   FOR    191 1. 



Albert  Gray,  Esq.,  K.C.,  President. 

The  Right  Hon.  The  Lord  Belhaven  and  Stenton,   Vice-President. 

Sir  Clements  Robert  Markham,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S.,    Vice-President. 

The  Right  Hon.  The  Lord  Peckover  of  Wisbech,   Vice-President. 

Thomas  B.  Bowring,  Esq. 

Colonel  Charles  Frederick  Close,  C.M.G.,  R.E. 

Bolton  Glanvill  Corney,  Esq.,  I.S.O. 

Major  Leonard  Darwin,  late  R.E.,  Pres.  R.G.S. 

William  Foster,  Esq. 

The   Right  Hon.  Sir  George  Taubman  Goldie,  K.C.M.G.,  D.C.L., 

LL.D.,  F.R.S. 
F.   H.  H.  Guillemard,  M.D. 
Edward  Heawood,   Esq.,    Treasurer. 
John  Scott  Keltie,  LL.D. 

Admiral  Sir  Albert  Hastings  Markham,  K.C.B. 
Alfred  P.  Maudsi.ay,  Esq. 
Admiral   of   the   Fleet   The    Right    Hon.    Sir    Edward    Hobart 

Seymour,  G.C.B.,  O.M. 
Basil  Harrington  Soulsby,  Esq. 
H.  R.  Tedder,  Esq. 

Lieut. -Colonel  Sir  Richard  Carnac  Temple,  Bart.,  CLE. 
Basil  Home  Thomson,  Esq. 
Roland  Venables  Vernon,  Esq. 

J.  A.  J.  DE  ViLLiERS,  Esq.,  Hon.  Secretary. 

24 — 2 







C.    A.    HARRIS,   C.B.,    C.M.G., 


J.   A.    J.   DE   VILLIERS, 


VOL.    II. 



CTambrilige : 



.,   _  miVERSii  V  OF  CALIFORNU 







P.R.O.   470/174 

May  2,  1760. 

I  am  in  receipt  of  Your  Honours'  letter  of  the 
3rd  December  last\  and  since  there  has  been  no  oppor- 
tunity of  writing  you  prior  to  the  departure  of  the 
"  Essequibo  Welvaeren,"  I  have  now  the  honour  to 
discharge  that  duty,  and  will  speak  of  the  matter  of 

I  trust  and  doubt  not  that  Their  High  Mightinesses 
will  obtain  proper  satisfaction  for  an  act  that  is  so  entirely 
contrary  to  the  law  of  nations,  and  I  can  very  well  under- 
stand that  the  death  of  the  King  of  Spain  must  delay  the 
settlement  of  the  matter. 

I  have  very  little  to  add  to  what  I  have  already  had 
the  honour  of  submitting  to  YY,  HH.  in  several  of  my 
despatches,  and  although  I  am  aware,  as  YY.  HH.  are 
pleased  to  inform  me,  that  no  Treaties  have  been  made 
which  decided  that  the  dividing  boundary  in  South 
America  should  run  inland  in  a  direct  line  from  the  sea- 
coast,  as  is  the  case  with  the  English  in  North  America,  it 
still  appears  to  me  {salvo  meliori)  to  be  an  irrefutable  fact 
that  the  rivers  themselves,  which  have  been  in  the  possession 
of  YY.  HH.  for  such  a  large  number  of  years,  and  have  been 
inhabited  by  subjects  of  the  States  without  any  or  the  least 

*  See  note,  p.  362. 



opposition  on  the  part  of  the  Spanish,  are  most  certainly 
the  property  of  YV.  HH.  I  am  strengthened  in  my  view  of 
this  matter  by  the  fact  that  Cuyuni  is  not  a  separate  river 
like  Weyne  and  Pomeroon  (which  last  has  been  occupied 
by  us,  and  still  contains  the  foundations  of  Your  Honours' 
fortresses^),  but  an  actual  part  of  the  River  Essequibo 
itself,  which  is  divided  into  three  arms  about  8  to  lo  miles 
above  Fort  Zeelandia,  and  about  one  long  cannon  shot 
below  Fort  Kijkoveral,  and  to  each  of  which  the  Indians  give 
a  separate  name — the  first  Cuyuni,  the  second  Massaruni 
(in  which  is  Kijkoveral),  and  the  third  Essequibo — the 
principal  stream  below  this  division  being  called  not 
Essequibo  but  Araunama  by  the  Arawaks,  the  real 
aborigines  of  this  country. 

Although  I  do  not  doubt  that  YY.  Hll.  will  now  have 
received  the  map  compiled  by  M.  d'Anville,  I  have,  in 
order  to  make  the  matter  clear,  copied  that  part  of  the 
map  which  relates  to  our  possessions,  and  filled  in  with  as 
much  precision  as  possible  the  sites  of  Your  Honours' 
plantation  of  "  Duynenburg,"  situated  partly  in  Massaruni 
and  partly  in  Cuyuni.  In  Cuyuni  I  have  marked  Your 
Honours'  coffee  and  indigo  plantations,  the  dwelling-place 
of  the  half-free  Creoles  (to  which  the  Spaniards  came  very 
close),  the  Blue  Mountains,  and  the  Post  which  was  sacked, 
together  with  the  sites  of  Your  Honours'  three  other  Posts 
in  Maroco,  Maykouny,  and  Arinda,  up  in  Essequibo. 

This  copy  I  have  the  honour  to  inclose-. 

I  am  well  aware,  YY.  HH.,  that  to  undertake  measures 
of  reprisal  a  distinct  order  from  the  Sovereign  is  necessary, 
and  I  should  be  very  careful  not  to  take  upon  myself  any- 
thing of  the  kind.     Although  the  appearance  of  some  such 

^  Concerning  the  early  settlements  on  the  Pomeroon,  see  pp.  14-19, 
20-2 1 . 

'^  It  was,  however,  forgotten,  and  not  really  sent  until  A/an/i,  ij6i 
(see  p.  382). 


threat  is  contained  in  my  letter  to  the  Commandant  of 
Orinoco,  it  has  never  entered  my  head  to  proceed  to  such 
extremities,  because  even  in  a  case  of  the  utmost  emergency 
I  should  shudder  to  employ  the  cruelties  indulged  in  by  the 
Carib  nation.  I  only  wished  to  show  the  Commandant 
what  we  could  do  if  we  were  forced  to  it,  and  His  Honour 
is  well  aware  that  what  I  told  him  is  the  truth. 

P.R.O.   471/3 

July  31,  1760. 

Having  had  the  honour  to  write  to  YY.  HH.  circum- 
stantially by  "Het  Essequebo  Welvaeren  "  this  will  be  very 
short,  the  more  so  since  it  has  pleased  the  Almighty  to  lay 
His  hand  very  heavily  upon  me,  for  I  have  had  intermittent 
burning  fever  and  insufferable  headache ;  this  has  now 
changed  to  cold  fever,  but  has  left  me  very  weak.  I  did 
not  think  I  should  ever  have  the  honour  to  write  to  YY.  HH. 
again  and  had  already  sent  to  Mr  Spoors  asking  him  to 
take  the  command.  I  am  now,  thank  God,  somewhat 
better,  but  am  compelled  to  take  advantage  of  an  interval 
of  respite  to  write  this  letter. 

I'.R.O.  471/8 

Demerara,  October  24,   1760. 

I  have  been  obliged  to  send  a  detachment  of  four  of 
the  best  soldiers  to  the  Post  of  Maroco  as  quickly  as 
possible  because  the  Spaniards  are  beginning  to  put  their 


horns  out  again.  Besides  a  fine  boat  belonging  to  Mr 
Persik,  and  used  only  for  trade  (to  which,  therefore,  no 
blame  attaches),  they  have  also  taken  five  canoes  belonging 
to  this  Colony  which  were  engaged  in  salting ;  on  their 
way  back  they  also  took  some  canoes  on  this  side  of 
Barima,  and  thus  within  the  Honourable  Company's 
territory \  Amongst  these  was  the  canoe  of  "  Aechte- 
kerke"  and  that  of  "  Duynenburg"- — a  brand  new  one 
out  on  its  first  journey.  They  also  threatened  to  deal 
with  the  Post  in  Maroco  ere  long  in  the  same  way  as 
they  had  done  with  that  in  Cuyuni.  I  have  given  the 
Postholder  instructions  that  in  case  such  a  thing  should 
happen  he  was  to  defend  the  Post  with  his  subordinate 
Indians  to  the  last  man,  and  I  also  made  the  necessary 
arrangements  for  an  effectual  defence. 

To  what  will  this  lead,  YY.  nil.?  If  such  acts  of 
violence  are  not  stopped,  what  will  the  results  be  ?  The 
River  Cuyuni  is  still  unguarded,  and  presents  an  easy  road 
to  fugitive  slaves.  I  have  not  yet  re-established  the  Post 
there,  always  hoping  that  the  matter  might  receive  redress 
in  Europe.  I  could  not  act  in  the  matter  without  using 
violence,  and  this  I  would  not  do  without  special  orders. 

It  being  presumed  that  the  taking  of  the  boats  was 
really  the  work  of  the  Spaniards  who  came  up  this  river 
with  tobacco  and  other  commodities,  I  have,  at  the  request 

*  The  Company's  reply  to  this  was  dated  March  i6, 1761^  and  ran : — 
"The  new  outrages  of  the  Spaniards  in  seizing  the  boat  of  Mr  Persik 
and  the  five  canoes,  which  were  busy  salting,  have  greatly  surprised 
us ;  but  we  could  have  wished  that  you  had  transmitted  to  us  circum- 
stantial and  sworn  declarations  of  all  this,  so  that,  acting  upon  these, 
we  might  have  made  the  necessary  remonstrances  to  the  States- 
General  about  that  matter.  We  shall  still  hope  to  receive  these,  and 
the  earlier  the  better,  together  with  the  reasons  why  you  deem  that 
everything  which  has  happened  on  this  side  of  Barima  must  be 
deemed  to  have  occurred  on  territory  of  the  Company  ;  in  order  that, 
when  we  shall  have  examined  all  this,  we  may  take  further  resolution 
as  to  what  it  behoves  us  to  do  in  this  matter." 


of  Mr  Spoors,  supported  by  the  principal  inhabitants,  sent 
an  order  to  the  Post  to  let  no  Spaniards  pass  this  way  on 
any  account  whatever,  except  a  single  one  who  might  be 
the  bearer  of  letters  from  the  Government. 

I  have  for  a  long  time  had  the  intention  to  write  to 
YY.  HH.  regarding  the  old  decrepit  slaves  on  Your  Honours' 
plantations,  but  the  matter  has  repeatedly  slipped  from  my 
memory  by  reason  of  the  various  things  that  crop  up  ;  I 
will  now,  whilst  I  think  of  it,  take  the  liberty  of  alluding 
briefly  to  it. 

The  linen,  hats,  caps  and  other  things  which  YY.  HH. 
are  good  enough  to  send  each  year  are  just  sufficient,  and 
only  barely  so,  to  give  the  able-bodied  slaves  their  annual 
share  according  to  custom,  so  that  the  old  ones  get  nothing 
at  all. 

Is  it  not  indeed  hard.  Your  Honours,  that  these  old 
people  (whose  number  is  fairly  large),  having  spent  their 
younger  years  in  working  for  the  Honble.  Co.,  should, 
when  they  have  grown  old  and  weak,  be  driven,  like  old 
horses  (as  it  were),  naked  and  uncared  for,  from  pillar  to 
post }  Of  rations  too  they  have  no  share  and  are  obliged 
to  live  upon  the  mercy  of  their  children  and  friends,  who 
have  not  too  much  themselves.  I  am  convinced  that 
YY.  HH.  are  unaware  of  this,  for  I  am  sure  Your  Honours' 
Christian  spirit  would  not  tolerate  such  a  state  of  things, 
and  I  doubt  not  that  YY.  HH.  will  give  the  matter  gracious 

Manager  Munk  (and  he  is  the  only  one  who  has  pity 
upon  them)  does  sometimes  sell  a  hogshead  of  bread,  when 
he  can  spare  it,  for  thirty  or  forty  ells  of  Osnaburgh  linen, 
which  he  then  divides  among  those  old  folks,  but  that  does 
not  nearly  suffice. 

It  is  true  that  it  would  cost  the  Honble.  Co.  something 
more  annually,  but  I  doubt  not  that  the  blessing  of  the 


Lord,  Who   never  leaves  good  deeds  unrewarded,  would 
richly  repay  that. 

P.R.O.  471/7 

Demerara,  November  20,  1760. 

Mr  G.  Clarke,  Sen.,  has  arrived  here  from  Barbados 
after  a  voyage  of  four  weeks  with  a  very  big  vessel  which 
is  computed  to  hold  about  a  thousand  hogsheads  of  sugar. 
It  was  his  intention  to  load  the  vessel  here,  if  possible,  and 
send  it  to  Zeeland,  but  it  having  been  represented  to  him 
that  "  Het  Loo  "  was  hourly  expected  and  that  it  was  still 
impossible  to  load  two  such  big  vessels  at  once  he  changed 
his  mind  and  is  sending  the  ship  to  Philadelphia,  at  which 
I  am  very  pleased. 

The  aforesaid  gentleman  has  asked  my  permission  to 
have  a  church  built  at  his  own  cost  at  the  spot  marked  out 
for  a  village,  and  as  I  have  granted  it  the  work  will  be 
commenced  at  once.  I  shall  have  some  houses  built  there 
too,  so  that  the  work  will  soon  be  in  full  swing.  His 
Honour  being  also  very  desirous  of  having  a  road  made 
from  here  to  Essequibo  and  having  offered  to  contribute 
400  guilders  towards  it  this  matter  too,  which  has  been  so 
long  upon  the  tapis,  will  be  put  into  execution. 

P.R.O.  471/ 1 1 

December   17,   1760. 

Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs, 

Having  but  recently  had  the  honour  of  writing 
to  YY.  HH.  circumstantially  by  "De  Jonge  Abraham,"  Capt. 
R.  Robberts,  which  left  Demerara  on  the  23rd  November 
last,  I  have  on  this  occasion  very  little  to  report  worthy  of 
Your  Honours'  attention. 


Immediately  after  the  departure  of  the  said  vessel  I  set 
out  for  Essequibo  and  had  a  very  bad  voyage,  the  waves, 
dashing  over  the  boat  several  times,  leaving  me  wet  through 
from  head  to  foot  and  sitting  up  to  my  knees  in  water ; 
after  having  been  nine  hours  under  way  (though  the 
journey  is  generally  performed  in  four)  I  reached  Mr 
Steward's  plantation  "  Zorgvliet,"  where  I  changed  into 
dry  clothes. 

A  warship  having  arrived  to  fetch  Mr  Clarke^  he  is  on 
the  point  of  departure  and  is  coming  to  dine  with  me 
to-morrow  and  say  good-bye.  All  the  gentlemen  with 
him,  including  even  the  captain^  of  the  warship,  are 
extremely  pleased  with  Demerara  and  are  all  desirous 
of  buying  or  laying  out  plantations  there.  They  have 
pressed  me  earnestly  to  beg  YY.  HH.  to  send  a  preacher 
to  Demerara  who  shall,  if  possible,  be  acquainted  with 
Dutch  and  English',  since  the  English  are  in  the  majority 
and  very  many  respectable  people  are  about  to  establish 
themselves  there. 

Upon  my  return  from  Demerara  I  found  Mr  Spoors 
better  and  free  from  fever,  but  I  fear  it  will  be  some  time 
before  he  is  restored  to  perfect  health,  for  in  my  opinion 
he  is  far  from  being  as  he  should  be.  He  set  out  for  his 
plantation  yesterday. 

The  fever  epidemic  is  now  on  the  wane  with  the 
beginning  of  the  rainy  season  and  very  few  have  died 
through  it ;  of  the  whites  I  know  of  none  other  than  the 
wife  of  Mr  J.  van  Roden. 

The  pain  in  my  right  shoulder  is  as  great  as  ever  and 
the  journey  from  Demerara  has  not  done  it  much  good  ; 
I  can  write  only  with  great  trouble  and  at  intervals,  which 
is  very  annoying,  as  I  must  write  almost  daily,  and  my 

1  Cf.  p.  378. 

2  Captain  Robert  Douglas  (see  p.  391). 

3  This  question  had  already  been  mooted  in  VJJ  (see  p.  292). 


son-in-law,  the  Commandant^  who  assists  me  a  great  deal, 
has  had  to  stay  in  Demerara  to  measure  some  plantations 
and  to  mark  the  village  boundaries,  as  Mr  Clarke  is  pushing 
that  matter  forward. 

The  coffee  crop  in  Demerara  is  exceptionally  good  this 
year  and  far  beyond  expectations  ;  there  will  be  a  yield  of 
no  less  than  double  the  estimated  quantity,  so  that  if  the 
weather  permits  of  the  cleaning  "  Het  Loo"  will  take  a 
considerable  shipment. 

That  vessel  is  anxiously  awaited  ;  there  are  no  ships 
arriving  from  North  America,  for  most  of  them  fall  into 
the  hands  of  the  French,  so  that  there  is  a  dearth  of 
everything  in  the  Colony.  The  last  cod  was  sold  some 
months  ago  at  sixpence  per  pound  and  a  barrel  of  blubber, 
containing  a  little  over  half  an  awm^  at  ninety-six  guilders ; 
the  fishery,  too,  being  now  stopped  by  the  Spaniards  one 
hardly  knows  which  way  to  turn  to  find  food  for  the  slaves. 

P.R.O.  471/19 

March  18,  1761. 

The  vessels  "  Het  Loo "  and  "  Essequebo  Welvaeren," 
which  set  out  from  Zeeland  together  but  were  not  within 
sight  of  each  other  the  whole  voyage,  anchored  off  Deme- 
rara on  the  same  day  after  a  favourable  passage  and 
subsequently  entered  that  river,  since  in  the  pilot's  opinion 
they  were  both  too  fully  laden  to  come  in  here. 

The  simultaneous  arrival  of  those  two  big  ships  will 
probably  give  rise  to  some  difficulty  in  loading  them,  but 

1  van  Bercheyck,  Commander  (not  Commandant)  of  Demerara 
(see  p.  335)  ;  Storm  frequently  confounds  the  two  titles.  His  second 
daughter  was  not  married  to  Commandant  Bakker  until  iy66. 

2  An  awm  was  equal  to  about  40  gallons. 


I  think  there  will  be  cargo  enough  to  get  them  both  off  in 
due  time. 

The  letters  to  the  Courts  not  yet  being  opened  I  will 
say  nothing  of  the  proposed  mill  on  the  "  Duynenburg " 
plantation,  except  that  YY.  HH.  would  not  be  the  first  in 
the  Colony  to  erect  a  windmill,  one  having  been  put  up 
already  long  since  upon  the  plantation  "Nieuw  Walcheren" ; 
it  was  demolished,  not  because  it  was  of  no  use,  but  because 
Mr  Clarke  removed  the  whole  plantation  to  Demerara, 
having  been  impelled  to  this  through  the  ill  condition  of 
the  soil.  It  is  now  called  "  Het  Loo"  there  and  has  a 
water-mill,  since,  being  situated  too  far  up  the  river,  a 
windmill  would  not  work  ;  Mr  Daniel  Steward  has,  how- 
ever, now  erected  a  windmill  upon  his  plantation  "Dundee." 

I  should  indeed  have  been  careful  about  recommending 
such  a  mill  to  YY.  HH.  if  I  had  not  seen  and  examined 
some  and  was  morally  convinced  that  they  yielded  good 
results  and  were  more  advantageous  than  others. 

I  perceive.  Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs,  that 
although  I  have  now  had  the  honour  to  serve  the  Honble. 
Co.  with  all  possible  fidelity,  zeal  and  attention  for  already 
more  than  twenty-three  years  and  am  the  oldest  in 
command  in  Your  Honours'  service  or  that  of  private 
companies,  I  am  not  yet  regarded  as  being  what  I  have 
always  tried  to  be,  namely  (and  with  modesty  be  it  said), 
the  most  faithful  and  zealous  servant  of  the  Company,  who 
has  never  from  selfish  or  other  motives  lost  sight  of  the 
true  interest  and  welfare  of  the  Honble.  Co.  and  the 

The  approval  of  my  efforts  and  conduct,  which  YY.  HH. 
are  pleased  to  accord  me,  is  certainly  the  greatest  honour 
at  which  I  can  aim  and  for  which  my  deepest  gratitude  is 
due  and  shall  all  my  life  be  shown,  but  it  is  nevertheless 
hard  for  an  honest  man  who  does  all  in  his  power  to  treat 


everyone  in  a  friendly  and  propitious  manner  and  gives 
himself  so  much  trouble  to  bring  the  Colony  into  a 
flourishing  condition  to  find  that  his  secret  and  undeserved 
enemies,  whom  he  has  endeavoured  to  win  over  by  all 
gentle  means,  do  all  in  their  power  to  blacken  him  in 
secret  and  crafty  ways,  nay,  even  to  ruin  him,  if  they 
could.  Of  this  I  have,  alas  !  but  all  too  many  proofs  in 
my  private  letters,  so  that  I  may  justly  and  with  pain 
repeat  what  I  already  said  some  years  ago : — 

Et  Liber  Pater  Castorque  Polbixqiie 

Post  ingentia  facta,  &c. 

P  lor  aver e  stiis  nan  resp07idere  favorem  speratum  merit  is'^. 

I  shall,  however,  not  allow  myself  to  be  frightened  by 
these  things  but  ride  the  waves  and  make  straight  for  my 
goal,  doing  my  duty  as  long  as  the  Almighty  is  pleased  to 
grant  me  strength,  following  up  my  enemies  (who,  though 
hidden,  are  perfectly  well  known  to  me)  in  order  to  render 
them  good  for  evil,  and  leaving  the  issue  to  Him  Who 
said,  "Vengeance  is  m.ine,  I  will  repay-." 

I  learn  with  great  surprise  from  Your  Honours'  most 
highly  esteemed  missive  that  YY.  HH,  had  not  received 
the  small  copy  which  I  had  taken  of  M.  d'Anville's  map^ 
I  immediately  went  through  my  drawings  and  found  it 
amongst  them.  I  enclose  the  map  herein  and  humbly 
beg  YY.  HH.  to  pardon  this  oversight,  which  I  am  sure 
YY.  HH.  will  do,  considering  that  I  can  never  close  my 
despatches  home  except  at  the  moment  of  the  skipper's 
departure,  having  always  to  wait  for  the  cargo-lists  and 
bills  of  lading.  At  that  moment,  too,  my  house  is  generally 
full  of  people  bringing  their  letters  for  the  bag  and  who  have 
the  wretched  habit  of  choosing  that  moment  to  talk  about 

^  Cf.  p.  216.  2  Rom.  xii.  19. 

3  See  pp.  374  and  397. 


their  business,  so  that  in  this  way  something  can  easily  be 

I  am  frequently  coerced  into  taking  a  course  which  I 
really  believe  to  be  disadvantageous,  and  into  which  I  am 
forced  because  I  do  not  want  to  have  seven-eighths  of  the 
Colony  against  me 

This  is  the  case  with  the  order  I  gave  last  year  to  allow 
no  more  Spaniards  to  come  up  the  river,  for  this  measure 
really  appears  to  me  to  be  injurious  to  our  interests. 

I  have  always  imagined  that  it  was  best  for  our  inhabi- 
tants to  send  few  or  no  boats  to  Orinoco,  and  so  compel 
the  Spaniards  to  come  here  with  their  merchandize  ;  in  this 
way  our  people  would  not  be  exposed  to  the  least  danger, 
and  the  arrangement  began  to  work  very  well.  But  the 
jealousy  of  those  who  had  been  accustomed  to  have  that 
trade  in  their  own  hands  caused  many  remarks  to  be  made 
concerning  the  permission  given  the  Spaniards,  and  brought 
me  many  remonstrances.  Seeing  that  I  took  no  notice  of 
all  this,  and  merely  answered  that  the  trade  was  free,  and 
that  it  was  only  right  that  all  the  colonists  should  be  able  to 
profit  by  it,  they  brought  things  to  such  a  pass  that,  just 
before  the  arrival  of  R.  Robberts,  a  Petition  was  laid  before 
the  Court  in  the  name  of  the  colonists,  asking,  amongst 
other  things,  that  the  permission  should  be  withdrawn 
from  the  Spaniards,  and  that  they  should  be  forbidden 
to  come  here. 

Finally,  on  receiving  in  Demerara  a  despatch  from  Mr 
Spoors,  which  I  have  the  honour  to  inclose,  I  was  obliged 
to  bring  myself  to  issue  the  desired  orders,  which  still  hold 


P.R.O.  471/20 

May  28,   1761. 

My  Lords, 

On  the  1 8th  March  last  I  had  the  honour  to 
write  YY.  HH.  per  the  brigantine  "  Demerary  Welvaeren," 
which  I  trust  arrived  safely.  With  the  same  vessel  I  had 
the  honour  to  send  a  copy  of  the  map  of  this  coast,  which 
I  had  forgotten  to  inclose  in  my  previous  letter.  I  hope 
the  matter  concerning  Cuyuni  will  be  brought  to  a  happy 
issue,  because  it  is  really  of  the  greatest  importance  for  the 
Honourable  Company.  As  the  case  appears  to  me,  there 
can  be  no  dispute  about  it  with  the  Court  of  Spain,  it 
being  only  too  clear  and  evident  that  the  Post  not  only 
stood  upon  the  Honourable  Company's  territory,  but  that 
that  territory  extends  much  farther. 

I  am  informed  by  the  Indians  that  messengers  are  still 
constantly  being  sent  to  that  river  evidently  to  ascertain 
whether  we  are  re-establishing  the  Post,  in  which  case  they 
would  probably  again  make  a  raid  upon  the  same. 

Concerning  my  pains  to  give  the  English  government 
as  far  as  possible  no  reasons  for  complaint  I  have,  Your 
Honours,  always  been  of  opinion  that  in  these  critical 
times  and  circumstances  it  was  better  to  be  somewhat  too 
careful  than  somewhat  too  careless,  having,  nevertheless, 
always  endeavoured  to  see  that  no  private  individuals 
suffered  loss  and  that  our  own  commerce  was  not  in  any 
way  impeded.  I  can,  however,  not  be  blamed  for  trying 
to  cover  myself  as  far  as  possible  in  matters  which  are 
doubtful.  It  would  be  most  disagreeable  to  me  to  see  my 
name  figuring  in  any  complaint  made  to  Their  High 
Mightinesses,  and  I  remember  as  if  it  were  but  yesterday 


in  what  manner  I  heard  Milord  Holderness^  speak  of  the 
then  Commander  of  St  Eustatius,  when,  being  in  The 
Hague  in  the  year  175 1,  I  had  the  honour  of  dining 
together  with  his  lordship  at  the  house  of  the  Heer  van 
Roon  en  Pendrecht^. 

In  Demerara  everything  is,  thank  God,  going  on 
prosperously,  and  the  plantations  in  that  river  are  doing 
well.  Whilst  I  am  speaking  of  that  river,  I  feel  it  my  duty 
to  suggest  to  YY.  HH.  that  since  the  coffee  plantations  there 
are  beginning  to  make  good  yields,  and  the  cocoa  crop  is 
also  very  good,  it  will  soon  be  time  for  YY.  HH.  to  recall 
the  permission  kindly  given  some  years  ago  to  sell  these 
products  to  strangers  (on  payment  of  certain  dues).  There 
is  a  great  difference  between  those  times  and  now.  At  the 
time  of  the  concession  these  products  were  merely  extras 
and  of  no  importance,  but  enabled  the  poor  to  buy  what 
they  required  from  the  English.  Your  Honours'  favour 
was  then  of  very  great  service,  but  since  these  things  are 
now  in  a  fair  way  to  become  some  of  our  chief  products, 

1  Robert  D'Arcy,  fourth  Earl  of  Holderness  {lyiS-jyyS)  was  edu- 
cated at  Westminster  School  and  Trinity  Hall,  Cambridge.  In  1741 
he  became  one  of  the  lords  of  the  King's  bedchamber  and  in  that 
capacity  attended  George  II  to  Hanover  in  ///J,  and  was  present 
with  him  at  the  battle  of  Dettingen.  In  May^  J^749i  he  became 
minister  plenipotentiary  at  The  Hague  and  in  May,  //jz,  was  re- 
called to  England,  succeeding  the  Duke  of  Bedford  as  Secretary  of 
State  for  the  southern  department  in  Henry  Pelham's  ministry,  and 
holding  the  same  post  in  that  of  the  Duke  of  Newcastle.  Holderness 
owed  the  political  position  to  which  he  attained  rather  to  his  rank 
and  foreign  connections  than  to  any  great  intellectual  qualities.  He 
married  in  1742,  Mary,  the  daughter  of  Francis  Doublet,  a  member 
of  the  States  of  Holland.  The  Duke  of  Newcastle  wrote  of  him  to  his 
brother :  "  He  is  universally  loved  and  esteemed,  almost  by  all  parties? 
in  Holland. ...He  has  no  pride  about  him,  though  a  D'Arcy."  Diet,  of 
Nat.  Biog.  vol.  v.  igo8. 

^  Count  William  Bentinck,  Heer  van  Rhoon  en  Pendrecht  (see 
p.  276). 

v.  s.  II.  25 

386  STORM  VAN  's  gravesande's 

and  apparently  of  very  great  importance,  it  would  not  be 
at  all  reasonable  to  allow  strangers  to  profit  by  them,  and 
so  damage  the  shipping  of  Zeeland. 

As  soon  as  there  is  a  big  fall  in  sugar  it  will  also  be 
necessary  to  impose  a  duty  upon  kiltum\  because  the 
English  planters  are  sure  to  take  that  in  hand  at  once.  It 
will,  however,  be  impossible  to  carry  out  this  measure  in  a 
proper  manner  in  Demerara  unless  YY.  HH.  be  pleased  to 
increase  the  number  of  the  garrison  there  to  about  a  dozen 
soldiers,  so  that  the  captains  may  be  compelled  to  show 
their  passports  to  the  harbour-master  in  order  that  we  may 
know  whether  they  have  paid  their  dues.  At  the  present 
time  they  treat  the  matter  as  a  joke  ;  not  long  ago  an 
English  captain  named  Metcalfe,  after  having  concluded 
his  business,  left  the  river  without  a  passport  and  without 
having  paid  a  penny  of  the  dues,  letting  the  sentinels  shoot  as 
much  as  they  liked.  The  two  soldiers  there  could  not  prevent 
him  from  going,  and  I  could  not  send  more  because  I  have 
only  seventeen  more  privates  here,  of  whom  but  very  few 
remain  when  there  is  some  patrol  to  be  sent  out,  as  has 
frequently  been  the  case  lately.  At  the  present  moment 
I  have  sent  one  out  to  Wayni  in  search  of  a  party  of  fugitives. 

P.R.O.  471/26 

Demerara,  May  29,  1761. 

Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs, 

It  has  pleased  Almighty  God,  in  accordance 
with  His  eternal  and  immutable  decree  and  to  my  deep 
and  heartfelt  grief,  to  take  from  this  world  to  His  Eternal 

^  Kiltum  occurs  only  in  Storm's  despatches.  It  is  clearly  rum. 
"Kill-devil"  was  the  original  name  given  in  Barbados  to  the  new 
drink ;  doubtless  the  Dutch  took  it  thence  (cf.  Darnell  Davis  in 
Timehri,  i88j,  vol.  iv.  p.  76). 


Kingdom,  very  suddenly  and  after  a  few  days'  illness,  my 
eldest  son,  Jonathan  Samuel  Storm  van  's  Gravesande^, 
Commander  of  the  River  Demerara,  at  the  age  of  34  years  ; 
of  this  great  loss  to  me  I  have  considered  it  my  duty  to 
inform  YY,  HH. 

YY.  HH.  can  very  well  imagine  how  severely  this  blow, 
coming  so  shortly  after  the  loss  of  my  dear  wife,  must  fall 
upon  me.  I  received  these  sad  tidings  after  finishing  my 
letter  to  YY.  HH.  and  thirty-six  hours  before  closing  the 
letter-bag  in  Essequibo,  whereupon  I  immediately  set  out 
for  Demerara,  requesting  Mr  Secretary  Spoors  to  enclose 
the  papers  which  were  not  yet  ready  in  his  letter  to  YY.  HH. 
It  being  quite  impossible  for  the  River  Demerara  to  be 
without  a  chief  the  Court  of  Policy  resolved  to  bestow  the 
command  provisionally  and  until  Your  Honours'  further 
orders  upon  the  Commandant,  Laurens  Lodewijk  van 
Bercheyckl  I  take  the  liberty  of  humbly  requesting 
YY.  HH.  to  be  pleased  to  favour  Your  Honours'  old  servant 
by  bestowing  that  office  upon  the  aforesaid  Commandant. 
Should  YY.  HH.  be  good  enough  to  add  this  kindness  to  so 
many  other  proofs  of  favour  which  I  have  had  the  good 
fortune  to  enjoy,  YY.  HH.  will  impose  upon  me  indelible 
gratitude  by  affording  me  so  great  a  consolation  and  a 
support  in  my  old  age,  for  I  can  with  truth  attest  that  his 
behaviour  towards  me  is  equal  to  that  of  a  son.  I  can 
confidently  pledge  my  word  for  it  that  YY.  HH.  could  not 
have  a  more  faithful  and  zealous  servant  and  he  has  more- 
over the  good  fortune  of  being  liked  by  all  the  burghers  of 
Demerara  to  such  a  degree  that  if  the  choice  were  left  to 
them  it  would  undoubtedly, bya  large  majority,fall  upon  him. 

Expecting  Capt.  Spanjaerd  every  moment  to  close  the 
letter-bag  here  and  having  still  to  get  a  number  of  letters 
ready   I    shall  conclude  this    by  commending  myself  to 

1  See  p.  32.  "^  See  p.  335. 


388  STORM  VAN  's  gravesande's 

Your  Honours' gracious  favour  and  with  the  assurance  that 

I  shall  always  be  with  the  deepest  respect  and  esteem, 

Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs, 

Your  Honours'  most  humble,  obedient  and  sorrowing 


L.  Storm  van  's  Gravesande. 

p.R.o.  471/44 

August  12,  1 76 1. 

The  sworn  depositions  for  which  YY.  HH.  ask  concerning 
the  canoes  captured  by  the  Spaniards  cannot  possibly  be 
made  out,  especially  those  relating  to  the  canoes  which 
were  out  salting,  and  which  were  consequently  seized 
contrary  to  all  right  and  reason.  On  those  canoes  there 
were  no  whites  ;  there  was  only  one  negro,  and  the  rest 
were  free  Indians.  With  regard  to  the  others,  the  whites 
that  were  captured  in  them  are  prisoners  in  Orinoco,  and 
are  in  the  fortress  there,  and  it  will  possibly  be  some  time 
before  they  are  released. 

After  taking  everything  out  of  the  Company's  canoe  of 
"  Aechtekerke  "  they  let  it  go,  and  it  came  home,  but  they 
have  kept  the  fine  new  canoe  belonging  to  the  plantation 
"  Duynenburg."  The  latter  having  been  captured  this  side 
of  Barima,  I  am  of  opinion  that  it  was  captured  upon  the 
Honourable  Company's  territory,  for,  although  there  are 
no  positive  proofs  to  be  found  here,  such  has  always  been 
so  considered  by  the  oldest  settlers,  as  also  by  all  the  free 
Indians.  Amongst  the  latter  I  have  spoken  with  some 
very  old  Caribs,  who  told  me  that  they  remember  the  time 
when  the  Honourable  Company  had  a  Post  in  Barima',  for 
the  reestablishment  of  which  they  had  often  asked,  in  order 
that  they  might  be  relieved  from  the  annoyance  of  the 

^  See  p.  19. 


Surinam  pirates  ;  and  then,  lastly,  because  the  boundaries 
are  always  thus  defined  by  foreigners,  as  may  be  seen  on 
the  map  prepared  by  d'Anville,  the  Frenchman,  a  small 
extract  of  which  I  have  sent  by  the  "  Demerary  Welvaeren*." 
These  are  the  only  reasons,  YY.  HH.,  upon  which  I  base 
my  opinions,  because  there  are  no  old  papers  here  out  of 
which  any  information  could  be  obtained.  It  appears  to 
me  that  the  Spaniards  are  not  ignorant  of  this,  else  they 
would  not  have  made  so  many  complaints  concerning  the 
behaviour  of  the  depredators  in  Barima.  I  believe  that 
had  they  considered  it  to  be  their  territory  they  would 
have  found  some  means  of  stopping  it,  especially  since 
they  dared  to  do  so  in  such  a  violent  manner  in  Cuyuni, 
when  they  were  perfectly  convinced  that  that  place  was 
beyond  their  own  jurisdiction.  I  hope  this  business  will 
not  be  shelved,  as  it  is  of  too  great  an  importance  for  the 

The  matter  referred  to  in  tJie  foregoi7ig  despatch  %uas  reported 
by  Storm  October  2^,  lydo"^,  the  Company  asked  for 
fuller  information  on  March  16,  iy6i ',  and  Storm  now 
zvriting  in  August  of  that  year,  fourteen  or  fifteen 
montJis  were  to  elapse  since  the  occurretice  before  the 
Company  could  make  "  the  necessary  remonstrances  "  to 
the  States-General,  who  might  then  instruct  their 
A  mbassador  to  act ! 

P.R.O.  471/47 

August  28,  1761. 

I  was  very  pleased  to  see  from  Your  Honours'  letter 
that  YY.  HH.  are  beginning  to  appreciate  the  rise  of 
Demerara,  and  in   truth.  Noble  and   Right   Honble.  Sirs, 

^  See  pp.  374  and  382.  ^  See  p.  376.  ^  /^^^^  ^//_ 


that  Colony  is  growing  to  such  an  extent  that  it  gives 
reason  for  wonder  ;  it  will  surpass  this  in  a  very  short  time, 
that  is  certain.  Everything  there  succeeds  beyond  expecta- 
tion ;  it  was  but  recently  told  me  that  the  plantation,  "  Het 
Loo,"  belonging  to  Mr  G.  Clarke,  Jr.,  situated  rather  high 
up  and  having  by  far  not  the  best  soil  there,  cost  that 
gentleman  iJ"i 2,000  sterling,  that  he  had  not  only  recouped 
that  amount  during  the  past  year,  but  had  made  a  net 
profit  by  the  end  of  December  of  ^4000  and  estimated  to 
make  fully  ^^5000  this  current  year. 

His  plantation  "  De  Vriendschap,"  being  No.  12  on  the 
east  shore,  will  be  something  else  altogether,  one  acre  of 
land  there  being  worth  ten  acres  of  "  Het  Loo,"  and  it  is 
the  same  with  all  the  land  lying  thereabouts. 

The  journey  to  and  fro  between  here  and  Demerara  is 
very  irksome  and  fatiguing  for  me  and  yet  my  presence 
there  is  often  very  necessary  for  getting  everything  into 
proper  order  and  upon  a  good  footing.  The  people  are 
used  to  me  ;  I  can  speak  their  own  tongue  with  most  of 
them  and  can,  by  arguing  with  them,  get  a  good  deal  done 
that  would  not  be  attainable  by  issuing  commands  or  using 
force.  I  fear  that  if  I  do  not  stop  there  for  a  good  while 
uninterruptedly  neither  the  road  to  Essequibo  nor  other 
necessary  matters  will  see  completion  for  a  long  time  yet. 
Of  this  old  Mr  Clarke  was  so  convinced  that  he  used  every 
endeavour  to  persuade  me  to  stay  there  somewhat  longer ; 
I  showed  him,  however,  that  it  was  impossible  for  me  to  do 
so  by  reason  of  the  unpleasantness  it  would  create  here. 
In  fact  this  went  so  far  last  year  that  when  I  stayed  in 
Demerara  at  the  time  of  the  ordinary  meeting  here,  the 
Councillors  of  Justice  refused  to  sit  and  transact  business, 
so  that  everyone  had  to  leave  with  his  affairs  unsettled. 
I  expressed  my  surprise  to  the  Councillors  hereat,  telling 
them  that  Mr  Secretary  Spoors  having  presided  in  their 
assembly  for  two  years  by  Your  Honours'  special  command 


whilst  I  was  in  Europe  he  could  indeed  again  have  done  so 
for  that  single  meeting. 

Were  I  honoured  with  positive  orders  from  YY.  HH.  to 
reside  in  Demerara  for  a  certain  time  each  year  (as  long  or 
as  short  as  YY.  HH.  should  deem  fit)  there  would  be  no 
more  to  say  upon  the  matter  and  the  inhabitants  there 
would  be  greatly  pleased.  If  anything  of  importance 
occurred  I  could  always  be  at  the  Fort  in  twenty-four 
hours  and  when  the  road  is  finished  in  about  eight.  It  is 
true  that  those  periods  would  be  irksome  and  very  incon- 
venient for  Mr  Secretary  Spoors  if  at  such  times  he  were 
compelled  to  live  with  his  family  at  the  Fort,  but  as  he  can 
get  there  from  his  plantation  in  ten  minutes,  and  since 
either  the  Commandant  or  Assistant  Loof  is  always  there, 
that  would  not  be  necessary,  because  at  a  preconcerted 
signal  he  could  be  at  the  Fort  immediately. 

Captain  Douglas^  is  very  well  pleased  with  Demerara 

^  Captain  Robert  Douglas,  a  brother  of  the  British  admiral  men- 
tioned in  the  note  following  this,  had  (according  to  Netscher,  Op.  cit. 
p.  225)  married  a  Dutch  lady,  and,  though  still  in  the  English  navy 
(cf.  p.  379),  evidently  contemplated  becoming  a  Demerara  colonist. 
From  the  series  of  letters  described  on  p.  448  (and  which  may  be 
consulted  in  Titnehri,  vol.  ii.  New  Series,  1888)  we  learn  that  he 
was  in  Zeeland  in  I-/62  with  Gedney  Clarke,  Jr.  (cf.  p.  42),  and  in 
correspondence  with  Count  William  Bentinck  (cf  p.  276),  introducing 
the  former  to  the  latter,  the  patron  of  Demerara.  Upon  the  outbreak 
of  the  serious  slave  rising  in  Berbice  in  //dj  (see  pp.  415  et  scq.)  and 
when  a  relief  corps  was  being  raised  in  the  Netherlands  Gedney 
Clarke,  Jr.,  wrote  to  Bentinck  {July.,  ^763)  "We  should  be  all  rejoiced 
to  have  Capt.  Douglas  command  the  troops  sent  to  Demerara  as  he  is 
a  "man  of  great  prudence  and  steadiness  and  one  fit  to  govern  both 
Dutch  and  English."  But  in  August  Bentinck  replied,  "Captain 
Douglas  goes  on  the  expedition  as  Lieutenant-Colonel.  He  is  the 
second  person."  The  command  was  given  to  Colonel  Jan  Marius 
de  Salve. 

Douglas  (says  Netscher,  loc.  cit.)  was  a  particular  protege  and 
friend  of  the  Duke  of  Brunswick- Wolfenbuttel,  Field-Marshal  com- 
manding the  troops  of  the  United  Provinces  and  Guardian  of  the 
youthful  Hereditary  Stadholder  Prince  William  V  after  the  death  of 
the    Gouvernante   Anna   in   I75g,  and   during  his   stay   in    Berbice 


and  with  the  plantation  which  his  brother  bought  for  him  ; 
he  is  going  to  Barbados  at  the  earliest  opportunity  to  speak 
to  his  brother,  the  Admiral \  and  thence  back  to  Zeeland 
to  fetch  his  family.  I  have  no  doubt  he  will  on  his  arrival 
have  the  honour  of  giving  YY.  HH.  a  verbal  and  circum- 
stantial account  of  the  state  of  these  Colonies. 

Everything  in  the  upper  part  of  the  river  is  again  in  a 
state  of  upset,  the  people  who  live  there  bringing  their 
best  goods  down  the  stream.  This  is  because  a  party  of 
Spaniards  and  Spanish  Indians  in  Cuyuni  have  been  down 
to  the  lowest  fall,  where  Your  Honours'  indigo  plantation 
is  situated,  driving  all  the  Indians  thence,  and  even,  it  is 
said,  having  killed  several.  The  Indians  sent  in  complaint 
upon  complaint.  I  fear  that  bloodshed  and  murder  will 
come  of  this,  because,  if  they  come  below  the  fall,  the 
inhabitants  will  surely  shoot  upon  them,  and  not  allow 
them  to  approach,  and  what  will  the  consequences  of  that 
be .''  We  leave  those  people  in  peace.  So  long  as  I  have 
had  the  honour  of  holding  the  command  here  I  have 
embraced  every  opportunity  of  preventing  the  Indians 
from  annoying  them,  and  in  this  I  have  been  fairly  success- 
ful. Why  cannot  they  leave  us  in  peace  ?  It  is  really 
insupportable  how,  contrary  to  the  law  of  nature  and  the 

addressed  to  the   Duke  in   Holland  a  series  of  reports,    written    in 
French  and  English,  now  in  the  Konitiklijk  Huisarchief. 

1  Douglas  (Sir  James),  Admiral  ;  b.  //oj,  d.  lySj,  son  of  George 
Douglas  of  Friarshaw,  Roxburghshire.  Promoted  to  the  rank  of 
captain  in  17441  he  was  in  1756  a  member  of  the  court-martial  which 
tried  and  condemned  Admiral  Byng.  In  1760  he  was  appointed 
commodore  and  commander-in-chief  on  the  Leeward  Islands  station, 
and  in  1761  his  squadron  captured  the  island  of  Dominica.  In  1762 
he  was  superseded  by  Rear-Admiral  Rodney,  under  whom  he  served 
as  second  in  command  at  the  reduction  of  Martinique,  and  was 
advanced  to  the  rank  of  rear-admiral  before  the  end  of  that  year. 
Promoted  to  be  vice-admiral  in  1770^  he  was  commander-in-chief 
at  Portsmouth  for  three  years  from  177J  and  attained  the  rank  of 
admiral  in  1778.     He  was  created  a  baronet  in  1786. 


right  of  nations,  they  first  come  and  attack  our  Post,  make 
prisoners,  and  ill-treat  the  people  in  such  a  way  that  the 
Postholder's  assistant  has  died  from  it,  burn  down  the 
house  and  all  it  contained,  and  now  still  constantly  come 
and  disturb  us. 

It  is  no  use  complaining  because  the  Commandant, 
Don  Juan  Valdez,  in  Orinoco,  whilst  sending  back  the 
letter  unopened^  which  I  had  requested  the  Commandant 
to  write  to  him,  has  written  me  to  say  that  he  is  forbidden 
to  enter  into  any  written  correspondence  concerning  the 
matter,  and  that  we  must  address  ourselves  to  the  Court 
at  Madrid. 

If  I  were  permitted,  YY.  HH.,  to  do  as  they  are  doing, 
I  would  risk  my  old  head  once  more,  and  make  them  pay 
doubly  for  the  annoyance  they  are  causing  us. 

P.R.O.  471/55 

December  10,  1761. 

Having  already  concluded  my  letter  to  YY.  HH.  by  this 
vessel  I  receive  from  Barbados,  by  a  small  boat  containing 
not  more  than  four  men,  a  letter  from  Sir  J.  Douglas^, 
Commander  of  His  Britannic  Majesty's  squadron  in  these 
seas,  which,  had  it  not  come  too  late,  would  have  greatly 
embarrassed  me,  since  I  do  not  know  how  I  am  to  act  in 
such  matters. 

I  answered  the  letter  immediately  and  informed  His 
Honour  that  the  deserters  in  question  having  distributed 
themselves  upon  various  ships  had  left  the  Colony,  with 
the  exception  of  one  who  had  sought  employment  upon 
the  plantation  of  a  colonist  named  E.  Lonke  and  had  died 

^  See  p.  367.  2  See  p.  392. 


I  have  the  honour  to  send  YY.  HH.  enclosed  a  copy  of 
the  letter  with  the  humble  request  that  it  may  please 
YY.  HH.  to  send  me  orders  what  I  am  to  do  in  similar 
occurrences,  feelings  here  being  greatly  at  variance  in  the 


p.R.o.  471/56 

Barbadoes,  October  30,  1761. 


Ten  sailors  having  deserted  from  his  Majestys  schooner 
the  Barbadoes  when  att  Demarary,  flatter  my  self  that  in  consequence 
of  the  application  made  to  your  Exellency,  they  are  already 
secur'd;  if  not  I  shall  take  it  as  a  particular  favour,  if  your 
Exellency  would  give  the  necessary  orders  therefore,  &  keep 
them  in  secure  confinement  till  the  situation  of  affairs  here  permit 
my  sending  for  them,  or  till  som  better  opportunity  offer  than  the 
present  one,  for  bringing  them  away. 

In  Return  I  most  chearfuUy  offer  you  all  the  assistance  in  my 
power,  that  may  in  any  way  tend  to  the  improvement  of  your 
infant  Colony  of  Demarary  of  which  it  gives  me  great  pleasure  to 
hear  such  good  Reports  &  which  my  Brother  Capt.  Douglas  has 
strongly  confirm'd  to  me  ;  I  thank  your  Exellency  for  you  civilities 
shown  to  him,  &  further  recomend  him  to  your  protection,  when 
he  shall  come  to  settle  at  Demarary. 

I  am  sorry  to  tell  your  Exellency,  that  many  of  the  Dutch 
vessells  that  have  been  brought  into  port  by  my  squadron  have 
been  seiz'd  going  into  Martinique  &  the  other  french  Islands, 
although  clear'd  out  for  Demarary ;  this,  I  am  sensible  your 
Colony  is  not  the  least  concern'd  in  ;  on  the  contrary  if  any  of 
them  shall  meet  with  the  least  hardship,  upon  proper  application 
made,  your  Exellency  will  always  find  me  ready  &  willing  to 
redress  the  same,  &  give  them  all  the  assistance  in  my  power. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be 
Your  Exellency's  most  obedient  and  most  humble  servant 

James  Douglas. 

His  Exellency  Mr  Storm  van  's  Gravesande. 




P.R.O.   471/60 

January  9,  1762. 

Trade  with  Orinoco  is  going  on  pretty  fairly,  a  number 
of  mules  and  horses  having  lately  come  from  there.  It  is 
a  pity  that  the  mutual  jealousy  causes  the  trade  so  much 
hindrance.  A  little  while  ago  a  barque  and  some  other 
small  vessels  belonging  to  Mr  Persik,  being  on  their  way 
there,  fell  in  with  a  canoe  belonging  to  Dr  B.  Struys  ; 
the  barque  opened  fire  upon  the  canoe,  and  compelled  it  to 
hang  back.  The  canoe,  arriving  late,  could  not  get  a 
single  mule,  and  had  to  take  only  eleven  horses.  This 
causes  bad  blood,  and  such  behaviour  may  possibly  lead 
to  the  ruin  of  the  whole  business.  I  fear  that  this  event 
may  give  some  trouble  to  the  Court  when  the  barque 

The  New  Year  having  commenced  I  have  the  honour 
to  wish  YY.  HH.  every  possible  happiness,  blessing  and 
good  fortune  in  the  course  of  the  same  and  in  a  long  series 
of  following  ones.  I  hope  that  the  Omnipotent  Creator 
and  Ruler  of  the  Universe  may  shower  in  full  measure 
upon  Your  Honours'  persons,  families  and  government  His 
dearest  blessings,  both  temporal  and  spiritual.  May  He 
grant  YY.  HH.  unfailing  health,  perfect  peace  and  prosperity 
in  all  Your  Honours'  undertakings,  in  a  word,  all  that  can 
be  desired  by  us  mortals  here  in  this  sublunary  and  here- 
after in  His  Eternal  Realm.  These  are  the  honest  wishes 
of  him  who  will  ever  be  with  the  deepest  respect  and 

Your  Honours'  most  humble  and  obedient  servant, 

L.  Storm  van  's  Gravesande. 

396  STORM  VAN  's  gravesande's 

P.R.O.  471/67 

January  18,  1762. 

I  have  the  honour  humbly  to  thank  YY.  HH.  for 
graciously  conferring  upon  my  son-in-law^  the  commander- 
ship  of  Demerara.  I  trust  that  by  honest  zeal  and  care  for 
Your  Honours'  service  and  the  welfare  of  the  Colony  he 
will  prove  worthy  of  a  continuance  of  Your  Honours' 
favour  and  protection,  and  of  this,  too,  I  have  little  doubt.... 

I  had  flattered  myself  that  YY.  HH.  would  have  been 
good  enough  to  grant  the  newly-appointed  Commander 
some  increase  of  salary  since  now,  though  raised  in  rank 
and  importance  by  Your  Honours'  favour,  he  has  lost  in 
income,  for  here  he  had  some  emoluments,  such  as  six 
guilders  flag  money  from  every  English  barque  entering, 
whilst  in  Demerara  there  are  no  emoluments  at  all  or  very 
small  ones  ;  there  he  is  moreover  compelled  to  incur  more 
expense,  especially  when  the  ordinary  meetings  are  held 
and  his  house  is  full  of  people. 

Your  Honours'  commands  with  regard  to  doubling  the 
rations  and  provisions  for  Mr  Spoors  shall  be  strictly 
obeyed.  It  is  always  most  agreeable  and  a  real  pleasure  to 
me  to  see  YY.  HH.  bestow  any  favour  upon  the  Company's 
servants.  But  I  beg  that  YY.  HH.  will  not  take  it  amiss  if 
I  make  bold  humbly  to  desire  to  be  informed  wherein 
I  have  given  YY.  HH.  cause  for  displeasure,  so  that  I  may 
endeavour  to  remedy  this  as  far  as  lies  in  my  power.  For, 
YY.  HH.,  must  it  not  be  hard  for  me  to  see  my  fortunes 
thus  reduced  without  knowing  why,  when  I  have  had  the 
honour  of  serving  YY.  HH.  for  so  long  a  series  of  years  and 
have,  to  the  best  of  my  knowledge,  always  endeavoured  to 
do  my  duty.     From  the  accompanying  list  YY.  HH.  will  see 

1  See  p.  335. 


that  by  this  new  regulation  Mr  Secretary  receives  of  some 
provisions  double  the  quantity  that  I  do. 

In  tlie  despatcJi  of  Feb.  p,  1^62^,  Storm  returns  to  the  question 
of  his  diminished  provisions  ;  evidently  the  increase  to 
the  Secretary  came  out  of  some  remainder  that  fell  to  the 
share  of  the  Director-General. 

P.R.O.  471/69 

February  9,  1762. 

I  was  very  glad  to  see  that  YY.  HH.  were  pleased  with 
my  copy  of  d'Anville's  Map-^.  That  map  is  not  only  the 
best,  but  the  only  one  in  which  this  coast  is  exactly  and 
truly  given,  wherefore  I  did  not  rest  until  I  had  it,  having 
seen  the  same  in  the  hands  of  His  late  Serene  Highness, 
who  was  kind  enough  to  show  it  me  as  soon  as  it  was 
published  in  the  year  175 1.  I  trust  that  YY.  HH.  will  not 
lose  sight  of  the  outrage  in  Cuyuni'*.  That  matter  is  of 
the  utmost  importance  for  many  very  weighty  reasons,  and 
more  than  any  one  in  Europe  could  imagine.  Neither  my 
true  zeal  nor  the  real  interest  1  take  in  the  welfare  of  the 
Company  or  Colony,  nor  yet  my  oath  and  duty  will  allow 
me  to  sit  still  or  to  neglect  this  matter,  and  even  if  there 
were  no  important  reasons  which  compelled  the  Honourable 
Company  to  take  a  real  interest  in  the  possession  of  Cuyuni, 
I  cannot  see  why  we  should  permit  the  Spaniards  to  disturb 
and  appropriate  our  lawful  possessions.  Have  they  not 
land  enough  of  their  own,  the  possession  of  which  is  not 
disputed  .-*  Yes,  much  more  than  they  can  or  ever  will  be 
able  to  govern. 

'  The  extract  is  given  on  p.  53. 

'  .See  p.  382.  3  See  p.  392. 

398  STORM  VAN  's  gravesande's 

They  are  not  yet  quiet,  but  send  detachments  from 
time  to  time,  which  come  down  as  far  as  the  lowest  fall, 
close  to  the  dwelling  of  Your  Honours'  Creoles,  by  which 
both  the  settlers  and  our  Indians  are  continually  being 
alarmed,  and  take  refuge  each  time  down  stream.  This  is 
very  annoying.  They  must  have  great  and  important 
reasons  to  make  such  attempts  to  obtain  possession  of  this 
branch  of  our  river,  and  I  have  not  the  least  doubt  that 
such  is  the  case,  but  I  hope,  too,  that  YY.  HH.  may  find  a 
means  of  stopping  them. 

As  long  as  the  Almighty  gives  me  strength  I  shall  not 
relax  my  efforts  in  looking  for  and  bringing  back  run- 
aways. I  am  far  too  deeply  convinced  of  the  important 
consequences  of  this  matter  to  let  it  rest.  So  long  as  we 
have  the  good  fortune  to  stand  well  with  the  Indians  (and 
I  shall  always  try  to  remain  so),  and  keep  them  under  our 
protection,  so  long,  I  say,  we  need  have  no  fear,  for  every 
possible  precaution  has  been  taken  along  the  sea-coast,  and 
no  negroes  can  get  away  unless  the  Indians  connive  at 
their  escape  or  unless  they  go  over  to  the  Spaniards,  which, 
since  the  occurrence  at  Cuyuni,  can  scarcely  be  prevented. 
It  is  some  consolation,  however,  that  those  who  do  go  to 
the  Spaniards  cannot  do  us  any  harm. 

Having  beeji  requested  to  f7irnisJi  the  W.  I.  Co.  with  a  Register 
similar  to  that  compiled  in  Berbice  Storm,  having 
obtained  a  copy  of  the  latter,  says : — 

Wherefore  I  have  compiled  a  similar  (but  much  more 
accurate)  one  of  this  Colony,  which  I  have  the  honour  to 
send  by  this  occasion,  hoping  it  will  fulfil  its  aim. 

From  this  Register^  YY.  HH.  will  be  able  to  see  what  a 

^  This  Register  has  furnished  the  data  for  the  following  compilation : 
In  iy62  Essequibo  had  68  plantations  belonging  to  private  planters 



small  number  of  slaves  there  are  in  this  Colony,  and  that 
it  is  really  a  matter  of  wonder  where  all  the  produce  comes 

and  employing  at  least  {vide  Storm's  sarcastic  remarks  above)  2571 
slaves,  and  three  plantations  belonging  to  the  West  India  Company. 
Plantations  owned  by  Englishmen  were : — • 

Nieuw  Walcheren 
De  Vriendschap 
Nieuw  Antigoa 

Austin  (Thomas) 
Brownrig  (John) 
Clarke  (Gedney)  Sr. 
Croydon  (William) 
Fitzpatrick  (Edward) 
Leary  (Cornelius) 
Millikin  (James) 
Stewart  (Daniel) 

In  the  same  year  Demerara  had  93  plantations,  employing  1648 
slaves,  and  all  in  the  hands  of  private  planters.  Here  no  fewer  than 
34,  or  over  a  third,  were  owned  by  Englishmen. 

Spring  Garden 
Dalgin  | 

Lucky  Hit  I 

Garden  of  Eden 


De  Vriendschap 

Hampton  Court 

Het  Loo 

Golden  Grove 



De  Herstelling 

Irish  Hope 


Fitz  Hope 
Little  Barbados 
Peter's  Hall 
The  Retrieve 


Austin  (Thomas) 
Bermingham  (John) 

Calloway  (Joseph) 
Carter  (Samuel) 
Clarke  (Francis) 
Clarke  (Gedney)  Sr. 

Clarke  (Gedney)  Jr. 

Clarke  (Peter) 

Clarke  (William) 

Cox  (John) 

Dally  (Richard  Bass) 

Douglas  (Sir  James)  &  Co. 

Fitzpatrick  (Edward) 

Fitzpatrick  (John)  &  Co. 

Floyd  (Samuel) 

Hall  (Elizabeth) 

Halley  (Peter) 

Knott  (Isaac) 

Maynard  (John) 

Nichols  (Benjamin) 

Nichols  (Edward) 

*  In  several  instances  the  name  of  the  plantation  (possibly  still  unworked) 
omitted . 


Whether  the  returns  of  the  slaves  are  properly  and  truly 
made  out  by  the  settlers  there  is  great  reason  to  doubt, 

Name.  Owner. 

The  Bell  Roberts  (William) 

Donoon  Rowan  (John) 

Glasgow  Sampson  (Ralph) 

Adventure  Simons  (Thomas) 

The  Friendship  Simmons  (John) 

Wismar  Somersall  (Anthony) 

Warrapanna  Sutton  (John) 
John  Trewern's  Folly        Thomas  (John) 

Philanthropia  Toppin  (William) 

Diamond  Welsh  (Samuel) 

For  a  period  covering  eight  years  of  Storm's  administration  we 
have  extant  these  "Registers"  of  Essequibo  and  Demerara,  laboriously 
compiled  in  his  own  handwriting — a  valuable  record  of  his  methodical 
care.  From  the  Register  for  iy6g,  the  latest  of  the  series,  we  find 
that  there  were 

in  Essequibo    92  plantations  with  3986  slaves 
in  Demerara  206  „  ,,      5967       „ 

the  number  of  plantations  in  Demerara  owned  by  English  being  56. 

It  is  probable  that  many  of  the  Dutch  plantations  in  Demerara 
were  either  not  occupied  or  left  in  the  hands  of  English  attorneys,  as 
Storm  writes  (p.  379)  of  an  English-speaking  majority. 

These  Registers,  which  the  descendants  of  planters  established  in 
the  Colony  at  the  date  of  their  compilation  may  desire  to  consult,  are 
contained  in  the  following  volumes. 

1762  and  1763  in  P.R.O.  471  (Documents  70  and  161) 
1764  and  1765  ,,  472  (  ,,  8S    ,,     139) 

1766  ,,  473  (  ..  38) 

1767  and  1768  ,,  474  (  >,  83  and  183) 

1769  "  475  (  .>  19) 

Whilst  this  work  was  in  the  press  we  were  informed  by  the  Public 
Record  Office  that  it  had  been  necessary  to  re-number  all  the  volumes 
described  on  pp.  5  and  6,  including  the  above-mentioned,  but  the 
following  key  to  the  eleven  volumes  that  contain  Storm's  despatches 
was  very  courteously  furnished  us. 

Old  Designation. 



CO.  Transmissions  Vol. 

,  466 


116  N°.  28 
















because  there  are  many  who  have  an  elastic  conscience,  or 
probably  none  at  all. 

P.R.O.  471/82 

April  3,   1762. 

Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs, 

It  is  not  without  great  difficulty  and  many 
breaks  that  I  have  the  honour  to  write  this  letter,  by 
reason  of  incessant  pains  in  my  shoulders,  which,  in  the 
present  exceptionally  severe  drought,  overpower  me  to 
such  an  extent  that  I  fear,  not  without  reason,  I  may  lose 
all  power  to  write.  Wherefore,  too,  I  commence  this  letter 
early,  the  vessel  having  departed  but  three  days  ago  for 
Demerara,  where  it  must  lie  for  four  weeks. 

Chagrin,  coming  on  top  of  this,  weakens  me  terribly, 
although  it  never  did  have  a  great  hold  upon  me,  for  I  was 
taught  from  my  youth  upwards  to  submit  with  resignation 
to  the  will  of  the  Most  High  ;  but  one  cannot  entirely 
divest  oneself  of  human  nature,  perfect  satisfaction  being 
laid  aside  for  a  future  life.  For,  Noble  and  Right  Honour- 
able Sirs,  when  I  put  forth  my  utmost  endeavours  to  further 
the  interests  of  the  Honourable  Company  and  the  Colony 
(relegating  all  my  own  to  the  background),  when  I  am  for 
ever,  night  and  day,  contriving  how  to  keep  all  things  in 
good  order,  and  then  find  that  all  is  in  vain  and  gets 
daily  more  impracticable — ^how  very  painful  this  must  be 
to  me  YY.  HH.  can  easily  imagine. 

If  I  were  to  take  matters  lightly  and  not  insist  upon 
what  was  really  for  the  best,  in  the  idea  that  it  would  well 
serve  my  time  (as  has  often  been   suggested  to  me  by 

V.  S.    II.  26 


Others)  I  could  be  easy  in  my  mind,  but  that  is  impossible 
for  me  to  do,  for  as  long  as  I  live  or  have  the  honour  to 
serve  the  Honourable  Company  I  neither  shall  nor  can 
deviate  from  my  duty. 

YY.  HH.  will  probably  ask  the  reason  of  this  long 
prologue,  but  I  hope  to  have  the  honour  to  explain  it. 

Some  years  ago  it  pleased  YY.  HH.  considerably  to 
reduce  the  number  of  slaves  belonging  to  the  Fort  here, 
although  there  were  really  too  few  than  too  many,  as  I 
had  the  honour  to  inform  YY.  HH.  on  several  occasions^ 
Since  then  most  of  the  Creoles  have  died  too,  and  although 
the  foreman  does  all  that  is  in  human  power  to  do,  he 
cannot  get  done  what  is  necessary.  We  have  seven  negro 
carpenters  and  four  masons — no  more.  Of  the  carpenters 
one  is  a  macroon'^,  and  the  masons  have  to  work  fully  eight 
months  in  the  year  on  the  three  plantations. 

The  Fort  has  now  become  so  dilapidated  that  the  top- 
most beams  of  the  redoubt  have  rotted,  and,  although 
propped  up  by  supports,  run  great  danger  of  coming 
down.  The  moats  are  choked  up,  the  sluice  out  of  order, 
and  of  the  seven-  or  eight-and-forty  pieces  of  ordnance 
only  about  six  have  gun-carriages,  the  rest  lying  on  the 
ground.     The  guard-house  is  almost  an  utter  ruin. 

The  church,  being  entirely  of  stone,  is  in  good  con- 
dition, but  the  roof  has  almost  disappeared,  and  when  the 
rain  comes  the  building  will  be  untenantable. 

My  house  is  in  an  even  worse  condition — the  roof  has 
rotted  away,  the  slabs  on  which  it  rests  have  entirely  dis- 
appeared and  it  is  a  marvel  that  it  is  still  standing,  for  in 
the  front  hall  I  have  had  half  the  beams  sawn  away  to 
diminish  the  weight  and  only  by  continual  repairing  is  it 
kept    upright.      The    galley    is    open    on    every    side    and 

1  In  1744  (see  pp.  212,  213),  in  iy^2  (seep.  282) and //jj  (see  p.  328). 

2  Decrepit. 


almost  without  a  roof.  When  the  house  begins  to  fall  in 
I  shall  not  know  where  to  go. 

The  Secretariat  is  in  pretty  much  the  same  condition 
and  quite  as  bad  as  my  house.  The  Honourable  Company's 
warehouse  is  also  in  absolute  need  of  a  new  roof  The  new 
house  for  the  expected  preacher  is  nearly  finished  but  has 
no  galley  or  storehouse  yet,  and  although  the  house  of  the 
deceased  ship's  carpenter  (which  was  on  the  point  of 
tumbling  in)  and  the  beams  from  my  house  were  used, 
eight  weeks,  with  all  the  men  working,  were  spent  in 
building  it. 

The  house-carpenter's  dwelling  is  in  so  bad  a  state 
that  it  is  a  wonder  it  does  not  fall  in. 

We  have  no  white  workmen  left,  the  only  one  being 
Arnoud  Vermeere,  who  is  too  old  and  decrepit  to  do 

If  YY.  HH.  will  be  good  enough  to  examine  the  Berbice 
register  it  will  be  seen  that  the  number  of  employees  there 
is  a  good  deal  larger,  and  I  am  informed  that  there  are  far 
above  a  hundred  slaves  at  the  Fort.  I  submitted  all  this 
to  Mr  Spoors  when  he  was  here  last  week  to  close  the 
letter-bag  of  "  De  Demerary  Planter,"  and  he  replied  that 
when  the  Honble.  Co.'s  canoes  took  sugar  to  Demerara  he 
would  order  them  to  bring  back  some  trouille^  for  the 
church,  as  being  absolutely  necessary.  This  is  all  very 
well,  but  how  far  will  it  go  ? 

1  The  word,  of  French  origin,  employed  by  Storm,  is  now  written 
"troolie"  in  the  Colony. 

"  Each  gigantic  undivided  leaf  of  the  troolie  palm  {Manicaria 
saccifera)  is  really  a  shelter  in  itself;  and  a  few  of  these  laid,  without 
further  preparation,  so  as  to  overlap  like  tiles,  make  a  most  perfect 
roof"     (im  Thurn,  Among  the  Indians  of  Guiana,  i88j,  p.  209.) 

26 — 2 


P.R.O.  471/128 

August  28,  1762, 

The  Postholder  of  Maroco  has  come  up  stream,  and 
has  reported  to  me  that  he  has  been  warned  on  three 
different  occasions  by  the  Warouws^  of  Trinidad  that  it 
is  the  intention  of  the  Spaniards  to  make  a  raid  upon 
that  Post,  and  has  asked  for  reinforcements. 

The  garrison  being  extraordinarily  weak,  and  finding 
myself  compelled  to  send  at  least  eight  men  to  Demerary, 
I  was  unable  to  give  him  any  men,  but  instructed  him  to 
engage  one  or  two  mulattoes  for  three  months  at  soldiers' 
wages  if  he  could  get  them,  telling  him  that  I  would  provide 
them  with  arms  and  ammunition ;  in  such  cases  these  people 
are  better  than  soldiers,  for  they  can  make  their  way  through 
the  bush  and  speak  the  Indian  languages. 

The  Indians  round  the  Post  are  continually  asking  for 
guns  and  cutlasses  ;  as  it  is  impossible  to  spare  these  now 
I  am  compelled  to  ask  YY.  HH.  to  send  me  a  parcel  of 
good  guns  and  cutlasses.  These  will  be  urgently  required, 
especially  if  the  piracies  continue,  in  which  case  we  shall 
be  obliged  to  employ  the  Carib  nation,  who  cannot  or  will 
not  fight  without  guns^. 

1  See  p.  343. 

^  The  Directors'  reply,  dated  Nov.  .?p,  1762.,  ran  : — 
"We  approve  of  your  having  authorized  the  Postholder  in  Moruca 
to  engage  one  or  two  mulattoes  for  two  to  four  months  at  soldier's  pay. 
We  also  send  you  herewith  fifty  muskets  and  cutlasses,  in  order  if  need 
be  to  arm  therewith  the  natives  for  the  defence  of  the  Colony  ;  more- 
over, you  receive  by  this  ship  eight  men  for  the  reinforcement  of  the 
garrison."     See  also  p.  86  as  to  the  policy. 


P.R.O.   471/130 

August  29,  1762. 

The  Indians  have  also  informed  me  that  the  Spaniards 
up  in  Cuyuni  are  engaged  in  building  boats.  What  can  all 
these  things  mean,  YY.  HH.  ?  I  fear  that  this  may  lead  to 
the  entire  ruin  of  the  Colony  (which  God  forbid)  unless 
vigorous  measures  are  taken.  Our  forbearance  in  the 
matter  of  Cuyuni  makes  them  bolder  and  bolder.  At  the 
time  of  that  occurrence  the  Caribs  were  full  of  courage 
and  ready  for  all  kinds  of  undertaking  ;  now  they  are  all 
driven  away  from  there  and  have  retired  right  up  into 

P.R.O.  471/150 

November  6,   1762. 

On  the  nth  September  the  Carib  nation  unexpectedly 
sent  messengers  down  the  river,  inquiring  how  matters 
stood  with  the  Spaniards,  saying  that  they  would  certainly 
not  allow  the  latter  to  obtain  a  footing  here,  and  that  they 
were  ready  to  aid  us  with  all  their  might. 

I  answered  them  that  there  was  no  great  danger  }'et,  it 
being  only  one  small  pirate  who  was  causing  this  com- 
motion, but  I  requested  them  to  be  good  enough  to  keep 
their  arms  and  boats  ready  to  come  down  at  the  least 
warning,  and  that  in  such  an  event  we  would  provide  them 
with  powder  and  shot.     This  they  accepted  and  promised. 

Just  after  noon  on  the  loth  of  September  we  had  a 
sudden  and  violent  whirlwind  that  carried  off  the  topmost 
part  of  the  roofs  of  most  of  the  houses  here.  Although  it 
was  raining  very  hard  I  was  obliged  to  flee  from  the  house 


with  my  children,  fearing  it  would  fall  in,  for  it  has  now 
got  into  such  a  state  as  to  be  beyond  repair ;  I  shall 
therefore  be  compelled  nolens  vole?ts  to  move  out  of  it  in 
about  four  weeks'  time,  to  inhabit  one  of  the  small  houses, 
and  to  store  my  belongings  here  and  there  while  I  have  the 
old  house  pulled  down  and  re-built.  I  have  put  off 
doing  so  until  the  very  last  moment  and  cannot  remain  in 
it  any  longer  without  actual  danger  to  life,  especially  in 
the  windy  season,  which  begins  at  the  end  of  November. 

P.R.O.  471/138 

December   13,   1762. 

It  is  impossible  for  me  to  answer  Your  Honours'  letters 
circumstantially  now,  both  on  account  of  the  short  time 
that  is  left  and  of  my  having  moved  into  another  house 
where  everything  lies  upside  down  and  I  can  scarcely 
turn,  for  it  is  very  small,  consisting  only  of  two  rooms 
twenty  feet  square  and  a  vestibule.  Your  Honours'  letters, 
too,  requiring  a  detailed  reply  I  shall  postpone  the  same 
until  the  departure  of  "  De  Gezusters  "  or  of  the  "  Spreeu- 
wenburg  "  if  the  latter  goes  first,  as  I  believe  it  will. 

Upon  that  of  the  7th  October  I  shall  however  have  the 
honour  to  reply  briefly  that  I  am  bitterly  grieved  to  hear 
of  Your  Honours'  displeasure  concerning  the  yields  of 
Your  Honours'  plantations,  the  more  so  since  YY.  HH.  are 
perfectly  justified  therein.  But  what  am  I  to  say,  Noble 
and  Right  Honourable  Sirs  ?  I  am  in  great  difficulties 
respecting  the  matter  and  it  has  given  me  many  an  anxious 
hour.  It  is  true,  YY.  HH.,  the  Company's  plantations  should, 
accidents  excluded,  yield  annually  at  least  3C0  hogsheads 
of  sugar  each — that  is,  taking  one  with  the  other,  for  they 
are  by  far  not  equal  either  in  slaves  or  in  the  quality  of 


the  soil.  But  my  authority  in  these  matters  is  of  so  Httle 
weight  and  my  advice  so  little  valued  that  I  can  very 
easily  answer  before  God  and  man  for  my  share  of  the 
blame.     But   I   will  not  dilate  upon  that  now\ 

P.R.O.  471/158 

February  22,   1763. 

The  arrival  here  of  the  Rev.  I.  Lingius  was  a  great 
pleasure  to  everyone  and  we  have  every  reason  to  be  most 
grateful  to  YY.  HH.  for  the  good  care  taken  on  behalf  of 
this  Colony  in  the  choice  of  such  a  pastor  ;  not  only  is  he, 
as  far  as  can  be  judged  at  present,  more  than  worthy  of  the 
post,  but  he  will  be  respected  and  beloved  by  all  and  his 
service  will,  with  the  Lord's  blessing,  bear  good  fruit.  I 
must  say  that  not  only  was  I,  but  all  the  colonists  were 
greatly  prepossessed  by  the  reverend  gentleman,  a  proof  of 
which  YY.  HH,  will  see  in  the  proposal  and  petition  to  be 
laid  before  YY.  HH.  on  behalf  of  the  Councillors  asking  that 
the  pastor  may  be  enabled  to  pay  with  due  decorum  the 
pastoral  visits  before  Holy  Communion  and  to  perform 
other  of  his  offices  without  laying  any  burden  upon  the 
Honble.  Co.  This  petition  I  take  the  liberty  of  earnestly 
commending  to  YY.  HH.  as  a  matter  of  necessity  and  beg 
for  a  favourable  reply. 

The  Rev.  H.  van  Grevenbroek,  our  old  and  much  re- 
spected pastor,  took  leave  of  his  congregation  on  January  9 
with  the  words  of  the  Apostle  Paul,  chap.  3,  verse  12: — 
"  Take  heed,  brethren,  lest  there  be  in  any  of  you  an  evil 
heart  of  unbelief,  in  departing  from  the  living  God." 

^  Storm  exculpates  himself  more  amply  in  the  despatch  of  Feb.  22^ 
1763,  pp.  408-412. 


In  the  afternoon  of  the  same  day  the  Rev.  Mr  Lingius 
(after  having  been  installed  by  his  colleague  in  the  morning) 
entered  upon  his  sacred  duties  by  expounding  the  words  of 
Nehemiah,  chap.  2,  the  middle  portion  of  the  20th  verse: — 
"  The  God  of  Heaven,  He  will  prosper  us ;  therefore  we, 
His  servants,  will  arise  and  build." 

Both  of  these  texts  (especially  the  latter)  were  ex- 
pounded in  excellent,  soul-stirring  and  very  eloquent 
words  before  a  numerous  gathering,  the  church  being 
very  full,  as  I  had  announced  the  occasion  some  time 
before  in  both  rivers 

Do  YY.  HH.  not  think  that  we  might  without  exercising 
the  least  violence,  again  take  possession  of  the  Post  in 
Cuyuni,  and  place  a  subaltern  officer  there  with  ten  or 
twelve  men  as  a  guard,  against  which  I  do  not  think  the 
Spaniards  would  dare  to  undertake  anything?  I  take  the 
liberty  of  recommending  this  to  Your  Honours'  serious 
consideration  as  a  matter  of  great  importance  both  for  the 
Honourable  Company  and  for  the  Colony,  several  slaves 
having  already  run  away  in  that  direction,  and  the  Colony 
lying  open  on  that  side  to  all  Spanish  undertakings. 

Be  pleased  not  to  take  it  amiss,  YY.  HH.,  if,  in  defence 
of  my  well-grounded  and  legitimate  complaints  concerning 
the  dilapidated  state  of  all  the  buildings  and  works  here, 
I  dilate  somewhat  in  answering  a  paragraph  of  Your 
Honours'  highly  esteemed  letter. 

YY.  HH.  are  pleased  to  say,  "  Even  if  there  had  been 
no  negro  carpenter  at  the  Fort  for  years  it  could  not  be  in 
a  worse  condition  than  it  is  now.  It  is  true  that  they  were 
reduced  to  five  at  the  great  reform  but  formerly  not  only 
were  the  present  Fort  and  Kijkoveral  kept  up  with  five, 
but,  etc."  What  answer  am  I  to  make  to  this,  YY.  HH.  ? 
The  deep  respect  I  owe  yy.  HH.,  of  which  I  hope  never  to 
lose  a  tittle,  would  constrain  me  to  remain  silent  and  to 


say  naught  were  I  not  on  the  other  hand  impelled  to 
defend  myself  before  YY.  HH.  as  my  masters,  and  masters 
to  whom  I  owe  eternal  gratitude  for  the  manifold  benefits 
I  have  received — to  answer  for  my  conduct  and  to  expose 
clearly  and  plainly  to  YY.  HH.  the  error  (be  it  said  with 
due  respect)  in  the  above-quoted  words. 

I  know  very  well  (although  I  have  been  unable  to 
obtain  the  inventories  of  that  period,  often  as  I  have 
asked  for  them)  that  when  I  arrived  in  this  country  in 
the  year  1738  there  were  many  more  than  twenty  negroes 
at  the  Fort ;  besides  these  there  were  fully  fifteen  or  six- 
teen good  Creole  carpenters,  half  of  which  number,  being 
half-free,  always  worked  at  the  Fort.  The  number  of 
negroes  did  not  increase,  but  remained  much  about  the 
same  until  the  year  1753.  Upon  my  return  from  Europe 
there  were  at  the  Fort,  according  to  the  inventory,  and  in 
addition  to  the  smiths  (who  are  always  reckoned  apart), 
twenty-six  negro  artizans,  including  the  bomba^  and  the 
foreman's  boy.  The  Creoles  decreased  steadily  and  there 
are  now  not  more  than  three  who  can  do  carpenters'  work. 

(The  inventory  given  me  after  writing  the  above  shows 
that  there  were  more  slaves  than  I  have  enumerated  ;  the 
number  of  Creoles  is  correct.) 

Be  pleased,  YY.  HH.,  to  consider  also  that  at  that  time 
there  were  here,  at  Fort  Zeelandia,  20  negroes  belonging 
to  the  colonists  and  three  from  each  of  Your  Honours' 
plantations — therefore  32  altogether — who  built  all  the 
houses,  &c.,  here  (for  nothing  was  being  done  at  the  Fort), 
as  was  fully  brought  home  to  YY.  HH.  by  reason  of  the 
pilfering  that  went  on  and  the  complaints  that  were  then 
being  made. 

The  26  slaves  that  were  at  the  Fort  in  the  years  1752 
and  1753  were  always  reinforced  by  three  from  each  plan- 

^  Foreman. 


tation,  therefore  by  nine,  and  still  it  was  only  with  great 
difficulty  that  the  work  was  got  through. 

In  addition  to  all  this  my  predecessor  had  the  privilege 
of  sending  to  the  plantations  for  as  many  men  as  he  pleased 
whenever  there  was  anything  extra  to  be  done. 

It  has  always  been  an  iron  law  to  me,  and  especially 
since  my  return  from  Europe,  to  carry  out  Your  Honours' 
commands  strictly  and  literally,  without  deviating  or 
allowing  the  least  deviation  therefrom  except  on  extra- 
ordinary occasions  when  there  w^ls  periadiini  in  mora^  and 
whereupon  I  have  then  had  the  honour  of  reporting  toYY.  HH. 
at  the  first  opportunity.  I  have  therefore,  since  the  time 
when  YY.  HH.  were  pleased  to  institute  the  great  reform^, 
never  borrowed  a  single  slave  from  the  plantations,  except 
once  (I  believe)  in  the  year  1761,  when,  and  even  that  at 
the  instance  of  Mr  Spoors,  I  had  some  sent  for  in  order  to 
clean  out  the  moats  of  the  Fort,  which  were  choked  up, 
and  at  which  work  they  were  not  quite  a  fortnight. 

I  took  great  care  that  for  household  work  not  a  single 
slave  more  should  be  employed  than  YY.  HH.  allowed — 
indeed,  fewer,  if  possible,  for  the  Commander  has  only  one 
instead  of  two,  whilst  I  have  in  my  house  two  macroons  of 
little  or  no  use.  One  of  these  is  my  cook ;  she  was  the 
first  slave  allotted  me  on  my  arrival  in  this  country  and 
being  very  honest  and  faithful  I  have  not  cared  to  exchange 

Accustomed  to  make  the  round  of  this  river  once  every 
year  I  have  now  omitted  doing  so  for  the  last  three  or  four 
years  since  it  is  impossible  to  get  about  with  less  than 
eight  men  and  a  coxswain,  and  therefore  all  work  would 
have  to  be  neglected  in  the  meantime. 

The  four  negro  bricklayers  (one  of  whom  is  a  macroon) 
figuring  upon  the  Fort  inventory  have  always  worked  more 

»  See  p.  yj. 


upon  the  Company's  plantations  than  at  the  Fort,  since  all 
the  brickwork  required  is  done  by  them.  I  openly  confess, 
Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs,  that  I  very  well  under- 
stand that  YY.  HH.  cannot  grasp  the  fact  that  seven 
carpenters  and  four  bricklayers  do  not  get  through  more 
work.  Had  we  the  good  fortune  and  honour  (as  had  those 
in  Berbice)  of  having  a  member  of  Your  Honours'  body 
with  us  for  but  one  year,  YY.  HH.  would  have  quite  different 

Heat  and  constant  humidity  produce  fermentation  and 
consequent  rot;  this  is  an  immutable  law  in  physics  and 
chemistry.  Hence  the  fact,  as  I  have  repeatedly  had  the 
honour  of  pointing  out,  that  nothing  lasts  out  here  ;  what 
will  serve  in  Europe  for  50  years  or  even  longer  will 
scarcely  last  ten  here.  Even  iron  and  steel  will  rot  away 
of  themselves,  though  unused.  Take  for  example  my 
house  (into  which  I  moved  in  May,  1749)  and  in  which  all 
the  wood-work  was  cypress  (called  iron-wood  in  Europe^). 
It  was  well  and  solidly  built,  and  yet  notwithstanding  that 
it  was  well  looked  after  (as  YY.  HH.  can  easily  imagine), 
that  several  new  doors  and  window-frames  were  put  in, 
that  a  new  roof  was  made  and  that  the  outer-gallery  was 
re-bricked — notwithstanding  all  this  it  is  in  ruins,  unin- 
habitable and  utterly  beyond  repair,  and  that  in  thirteen 
years.  The  timber  which  in  Europe  has  only  to  be  fetched 
from  the  saw-mills  according  to  measure  must  in  this 
country  be  felled  and  squared  in  the  woods  hours  off, 
dragged  out  and  brought  here  by  boat  and  then  planed 
down  to  the  required  measurement  before  it  can  be  put  to 
any  use. 

Whilst  in  Europe  carts  and  horses  are  employed  for 
bringing  wood,  stone  and  other  materials  to  the  spot  where 

1  On  account  of  its  hardness.     Siderondendron  trifiorinn.     Rich. 
Schomburgk,  Reisen  i?t  Britisch  Guiana^  1848^  iii.  p.   826. 


they  are  wanted  everything  here  has  to  be  dragged  and 
brought  up  by  negroes.  The  leaves  for  the  roofs'  have  to 
be  cut  in  Demerara,  dragged  to  the  water's  edge  and 
brought  here  by  canoe  ;    the  same  with  spars,  etc. 

All  this  adduced  as  briefly  as  possible  (for  much  more 
could  be  said)  is  the  honest  and  irrefutable  truth  and  if 
YY.  HH.  will  kindly  weigh  it  with  deliberation  I  have  little 
doubt  that  YY.  HH.  will  agree  that  the  complaints  I  made 
are  just. 

I  was  fairly  certain  that  the  great  reform^  would  not 
increase  the  annual  yield  of  sugar  from  Your  Honours'  plan- 
tations by  a  single  hogshead  and  if  I  remember  rightly  I  had 
the  honour  of  foretelling  as  much  to  some  members  of 
Your  Honours'  body  at  the  time.  Experience  has  con- 
firmed my  prophecy. 

Every  change  is  not  for  the  better,  Noble  and  Right 
Honourable  Sirs.  A  similar  case  was  that  of  Your  Honours' 
Posts ^  Had  matters  remained  in  statu  quo  what  profits 
would  they  not  have  produced  with  the  high  price  of 
annatto  dye^?  This  is  irreparable,  for  the  Indians  have 
neglected  or  cut  down  all  their  dye  trees. 

Everything  is  going  on  pretty  well  at  Post  Arinda, 
I  having  discharged  the  Postholder  on  the  last  day  of 
December  1762,  on  account  of  his  neglect  and  unpardon- 
able laziness,  and  appointed  the  assistant,  Hendrik  Bakker, 
in  his  place  ;  but  I  have  as  yet  selected  no  fresh  assistant, 
because  I  would  like  to  have  a  competent  and  trustworthy 

Whilst  considering  the  importance  of  that  Post  and  the 
meagre  knowledge  we  have  of  it,  I  came  to  the  resolve  last 
year  to  send   two  persons,   named    EHas    Lindgreen  and 

1  "  Troolie  "  (see  p.  403).  ^  See  p.  y]. 

^  Cf.  p.  430.  *  See  p.  289. 


Joseph  la  Chau,  who  appeared  to  me  very  competent  to 
undertake  such  a  matter,  up  the  River  Demerary,  and  so 
to  the  Post  and  further  up  Essequibo  for  discovery.  But 
as  the  best  planned  undertaking  often  miscarries,  ill-luck 
willed  that  these  two  persons  fell  out,  Joseph  La  Chau 
returning  to  me  from  the  Post,  and  the  other  proceeding 
on  his  journey  alone,  from  which  I  promise  myself  but 
little  good. 

Joseph  la  Chau  brought  me  one  of  the  most  exact 
accounts  of  his  journey  that  I  have  ever  seen,  and  since 
both  that  and  the  list  of  necessities  made  out  by  him  in 
view  of  such  an  undertaking  have  convinced  me  of  his 
fitness,  I  resolved  to  send  the  list  immediately  to  Mr  de 
Bruyn,  with  a  request  to  furnish  me  with  the  things  at  the 
first  opportunity.  It  is  my  intention  to  send  the  same 
person  up  river  again  as  speedily  as  possible  and  well 
escorted,  and  to  risk  a  little  sum  in  this  because  I  feel 
pretty  certain  that  it  will  be  of  very  great  use,  and  bring 
us  much  profit,  over  and  above  the  fact  that  an  acquaint- 
ance with  the  interior  and  the  course  of  our  river  is  well 
worth  the  trouble  expended  ;  the  only  reason  why  such 
was  not  done  much  earlier  is  that  I  had  no  proper  people 
to  do  it\ 

The  Postholder  of  Arinda  has  reported  to  me,  and  his 
report  has  been  corroborated  by  Joseph  la  Chau,  who  came 

1  Pieter  de  Bruyn  was  Storm's  agent  in  Zealand  for  his  private 
affairs,  and  the  despatch  of  the  list  to  him  leads  to  the  inference 
that  the  Director-General  regarded  the  expedition  as  a  business 
venture  of  his  own.  That  the  W.  I.  C.  so  read  his  letter  and 
determined  to  take  over  the  matter  for  its  own  account  seems 
probable  from  their  reply,  dated  /u/y  20,  i/6j,  which  ran  : — 

"We  approve  the  explorations  which  you  intend  having  made 
above  the  Post  Arinda,  and  likewise  we  have  no  doubt  that,  if  they 
are  carefully  done,  they  will  be  of  no  slight  importance  to  us.  In 
view  of  this,  we  take  upon  ourselves  the  expenses  occasioned  thereby." 


down  from  the  Post  about  that  time,  that  the  tribe  of 
Manoas  (usually  called  Magnouws  here),  being  dissatisfied 
with  the  treatment  they  received  from  the  Portuguese  of 
Brazil,  had  resolved  to  come  to  this  Colony  to  make  a 
Treaty  of  Commerce  with  us,  and  that  a  strong  body  had 
set  out  with  that  object.  Also  that  the  Carib  nation, 
jealous  of  its  trade,  had  a  few  years  before  my  arrival 
in  this  Colony  (as  the  old  Protocols  show),  been  the  means, 
by  bringing  false  information,  of  getting  the  Envoys  of 
that  tribe  badly  treated  (several  of  them  having  been 
killed),  and  that,  moved  by  the  same  spirit,  it  had  now 
assembled  on  hearing  this  news,  and  had  lain  in  ambush 
for  the  Manoas  in  order  to  prevent  their  progress.  This 
caused  a  sharp  fight,  in  which  both  sides  lost  heavily ;  but 
the  Caribs  were  totally  defeated  and  put  to  flight.  The 
Manoas,  feeling  themselves  too  weak  after  their  losses, 
postponed  their  journey  till  this  year,  and  sent  word  to 
the  Postholder  that  they  would  come  down  in  such 
numbers  as  to  have  no  fear  of  the  Caribs.  On  the  other 
hand,  the  Caribs  are  assembling  from  all  sides  in  order 
to  oppose  them,  so  that  it  is  possible  that  we  shall  this 
year  see  one  of  the  bloodiest  and  most  obstinate  fights 
that  has  probably  taken  place  in  these  parts  for  lOO  years 
or  more.  I  hope  the  Caribs  may  get  a  good  hiding, 
because  I  have  always  wished  to  see  a  few  Manoas  here, 
being  convinced  that  it  would  be  of  considerable  advantage 
to  this  Colony,  Mr  Bandeyra,  who  was  the  second  voice  in 
Brazil,  and  who  had  fled  from  there  on  account  of  some 
difference  with  the  Bishop  of  Pernambuco,  and  who  had 
lodged  with  me  here  for  some  weeks,  having  given  me  full 
information  concerning  that  tribe  and  the  great  advantages 
the  Portuguese  derived  from  it^ 

I  have  informed  the  Chiefs  of  the  Manoas,  through  the 

^  Cf.  pp.  464  and  614. 


Parhavvaens^  their  friends,  that  we  should  welcome  them 
and  receive  them  well ;  that  in  order  not  to  give  umbrage 
they  should,  however,  not  come  down  stream  in  such  great 
force,  but  that  on  arriving  at  the  Post  their  Chiefs  could 
come  here  under  the  escort  of  the  Postholder  or  his  assis- 
tant, whilst  the  others  would  wait  there ;  and  that  the 
Caribs  would  not  dare  to  do  anything  to  them  whilst  they 
were  under  that  escort.  I  am  very  anxious  to  hear  the 
outcome  of  this  matter. 

The  followhig  despatch  is  the  first  of  a  series  dealing  ivith  a 
crisis  bronglit  about  by  a  general  rising  of  slaves  in 
Berbice.  That  colony  was  exploited  by  a  '■'■  Societeit "  in 
the  same  way  as  Esseqiiibo  and  Denierara  were  run  by 
the  West  India  Company — and  with  qnite  as  strict  a 
regard  for  economy.  The  Governor  was  Wolfert  Simon 
van  HoogenJieim — like  Storm,  a  man  who  had  seen 
military  service,  afid  who,  on   taking  office   in   1760, 

^  Paravilhanas  seems  the  best  form  of  the  name,  though  we  also 
find  the  same  tribe  called  Parahans,  Parhavianes,  Paravianas,  Para- 
vianos,  Paravilhanos  and  Parauanas.  Nicolas  Horstman  (in  the  long- 
lost  account  of  his  inland  journey  from  Essequibo  to  Brazil,  see 
pp.  167 — 174)  records  his  stay  of  four  months  in  a  settlement  of  this 
tribe  on  the  Essequibo  near  the  mouth  of  the  R.  Siparuni,  but  from 
Storm  we  hear  nothing  of  them  until  lydj,  when  they  carry  this 
message  from  him  to  the  Manaos.  Again  there  is  silence  con- 
cerning them  until  //dp,  when  Storm's  emissary  Jansse  finds  them 
on  the  banks  of  the  Mahu,  whither  they  had  removed  "being  too 
greatly  molested  by  the  Caribs"  (see  p.  618). 

Joz^  Monteiro  de  Noronha,  in  an  itinerary  written  in  i^yo  or  ijji 
{Braz.  A^'b.  Brit.  Attn.  i.  89),  speaks  of  the  tribe  as  dwelling  on  the 
R.  Tacutu,  and  Ribeiro  de  Sampaio,  a  Chief  Magistrate  on  the 
R.  Negro  (see  p.  25),  calls  them  in  7777  {Braz.  Art.  Brit.  Ann.  i. 
pp.  109  and  132)  still  the  ruling  tribe  on  the  R.  Branco,  the  Indian 
name  of  which  is  Paraviana.  These  statements  render  it  only  the 
more  interesting  to  find  some  of  them,  on  the  authority  of  Richard 
Schomburgk  {Reiseti  in  Britisch  Giiiana,\.  p.  313),  forming  part  of  the 
British  settlement  at  Pirara  in  1840. 


found  Berbice  in  a  pitiable  state  owing  to  a  long- 
continued  epidemic  and  European  neglect.  In  iy62  he 
tvrote  home  that  there  were  fw  more  provisions  or 
trading  wares  in  stock  and  that  there  was  a  total  lack 
of  everything.  "  Your  Honours  cannot  believe  what  a 
bad  impression  this  makes  upon  the  temperament  of  the 
slaves  and  in  our  critical  circumstances  worse  restdts 
might  easily  ensued  "  This  cry  of  distress"  says  Nets- 
cher'^,  "gives  a  true  idea  of  the  sad  state  of  Berbice  at 
that  period."  The  story  of  the  revolt  that  van  Hoogen- 
heim  hid  feared  is  sufficiently  set  out  for  our  purpose  in 
Storm's  despatches. 

Berbice  was  tiot  so  far  off  Essequibo — a  matter  of 
8§  miles  overland,  ii^  by  sea — but  that  the  flame  of 
rebellion  might  easily  have  spread  had  it  not  been  checked 
in  time ;  as  it  was,  Demerara  was  already  in  im'tninent 
danger.  It  was  by  Storvis  energy  and  the  aid  of  the 
English  forces  sent  from  Barbados  that  both  Essequibo 
and  Demerara  were  saved. 

P.R.O.  471/166 

March   17,   1763. 

Noble  and   Right  Honourable  Sirs, 

I  had  the  honour  of  informing  YY.  IIH.  by 
Captains  Roberts  and  Leger  (by  means  of  a  supple- 
mentary letter  sent  out  to  sea  with  the  boat  of  "  't  Esse- 
quebo  Welvaeren  "  and  which  caught  the  ship)  of  the  sad 
reports  received  concerning  the  Colony  of  Berbice. 

I  had  flattered  myself  that  things  would  not  prove  to 
be  so  bad  as  had  been  reported  by  the  first  fugitives. 
But,  alas  !  it  is  only  too  true.  Administrative  Councillors 
Bouguer  and  Perrotet,  of  that  Colony,  Councillor  of  Justice 
van  Daelen,  Lieutenant  Sejourne  and  a  large  number  of 
others  who  fled,  together  with  many  women  and  children, 

1  Op.  cit.  pp.  193,  194. 


to  Demerara,  have  given  us  but  too  certain  news  of  the 
sad  and  pitiable  fate  of  Berbice.  A  large  number  of 
colonists  having  fled  to  the  Society's^  plantation  "  Dubbel- 
mine "  were  attacked  there  by  the  mutineers.  They 
defended  themselves  bravely  but  the  latter  set  fire  to  the 
house  and  then  murdered  them  all  in  a  gruesome  manner. 
Among  the  victims  are  the  Rev.  Mr  Ramring,  his  wife  and 
sister-in-law,  the  whole  Nicolas  family,  Manager  Hoerle, 
Mrs  George  and  seven  children,  and  many  others. 

All  the  plantations  as  far  as  the  Fort  were  abandoned. 
What  had  happened  to  the  Fort  they  did  not  know,  since 
the  whole  river  as  far  as  that  was  occupied  by  the  muti- 
neers, but  they  had  grave  fears  about  it,  especially  as  the 
garrison  was  exceptionally  weak  through  the  despatch  of 
most  of  the  soldiers  in  pursuit  of  the  first  party  of  rebels. 
When  half  way  to  Demerara  they  heard  several  loud 
reports  at  night  but  were  not  certain  whether  they  came 
from  the  Fort  or  from  a  plantation  near  by  which  has 
twelve  powerful  swivel-guns. 

The  Commander  of  Demerara  on  receipt  of  these  news 
summoned  the  Old  Councillors  and  burgher  officers  in 
order  to  frame  measures  for  the  protection  of  the  Colony  ; 
they  met  on  the  14th  inst.  and  passed  a  number  of  resolu- 
tions. These  were  immediately  sent  here  for  ratification 
by  the  Court  of  Justice,  a  special  meeting  of  which  I  had 
convoked  for  the  i6th;  the  resolutions  and  regulations, 
having  been  carefully  examined,  were  approved  and  ratified 
without  amendment.  This  meeting  sent  a  letter  to  the 
Governor  of  Berbice'^  by  a  white  man  via  Mahaicony  and 

Mr  Persik's  barque  is  in  process  of  being  armed  here 
and  will  be  sent  to  Berbice  by  sea  as  speedily  as  possible. 

^  See  p.  415.  2  /^^ 

v.  s.   II.  27 


Old-Captain^  Schutz  will  be  in  command  and  it  will  be 
manned  by  some  sailors  belonging  to  the  vessels  lying 
here  in  addition  to  the  ordinary  crew, 

I  have  summoned  the  burgher  captains  here  and  expect 
them  to-day.  The}'  must  draw  up  lists  of  the  burghers 
and  determine  which  of  them  are,  at  the  first  alarm,  to 
come  to  the  Fort  with  the  Creoles  set  apart  for  that  duty, 
and  to  proceed,  if  necessary  (which  the  Almighty  mercifully 
forfend),  to  Demerara,  for  which  purpose  Mr  Zeagers' 
schooner  lies  ready. 

In  a  word,  YY.  HH.,  we  have  endeavoured  to  take  every 
possible  precaution  and  for  the  rest  and  above  all  we  must 
hope  and  trust  upon  the  protection  and  merciful  support  of 
the  Almighty. 

I  am  writing  by  this  same  vessel  via  St  Eustatius  to  the 
Directors  of  the  Society  of  Berbice  and  shall  this  week 
write  to  Surinam  and  also,  if  there  be  an  opportunity,  as  is 
probable,  to  Barbados,  sending  a  copy  hereof 

We  shall  do  all  that  lies  in  our  power  to  aid  the  poor, 
unfortunate  fugitives. 

I  remain,  with  deepest  respect  and  esteem, 

Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs, 

Your  Honours'  most  humble  and  obedient  servant 

L.  Storm  van  's  Gravesande. 

P.S. — After  this  had  been  closed  and  copies  already 
sent  off  to  Barbados  I  was  told  by  men  sent  out  by  the 
Commander  of  Demerara  (this  being  the  fifth  express  he 
sends)  that  in  coming  here  they  had  spoken  in  the  mouth 
of  Demerara  with  Mr  Jacobus  Gelskerke,  who  had  just 
arrived  there  in  a  big  boat  with  all  his  slaves.  From  him 
they  learnt    that  the   Fort  in    Berbice  was   in    the    hands 

1  Another  honorary  title  for  veterans  (see  pp.  194  and  417). 


of  the  rebels,  that  the  Governor  had  retired  to  the  ships 
with  a  party  of  men  and  had  dropped  down  stream.  Bad 
news,  indeed. 

Demerara  is  in  utmost  danger.  I  hope  for  speedy 
assistance  from  YY.  HH.  I  am  really  half  dazed,  getting 
no  rest  night  or  day  and  having  to  write  about  and  see  to 
everything.  May  the  Almighty  protect  us  ;  in  Him  and 
His  all-powerful  support  I  put  all  my  trust. 

P.R.O.  471/167 

May  2,   1763. 


By  the  vessels  "  De  Gezusters  "  and  "  Spreeuwenburg" 
I  had  the  honour  of  sending  YY.  HH.  the  first  reports  we 
received  of  the  painful  fate  of  our  neighbouring  colony 
Berbice  ;  having  subsequently  received  further  information 
I  wrote  to  YY.  HH.  somewhat  more  fully  via  St  Eustatius 
and  Barbados. 

Since  that  time,  YY.  HH.,  I  have  not  had  a  moment's 
rest,  everything  being  in  a  tumult  here  and  especially  in 
Demerara,  whence  I  have  received  one  express  after 
another  by  reason  of  the  not  ungrounded  fear  that  it 
would  be  attacked  by  the  mutineers  from  Berbice  (in 
accordance  with  the  latter's  threats)  and  also  because 
the  spirit  of  revolt  and  mutiny  appeared  to  be  getting  the 
mastery  upon  some  of  the  topmost  English  plantations. 

Most  of  the  women  and  children  have  left  Demerara, 
some  coming  here,  some  going  to  St  Eustatius.  The  able- 
bodied  men  have  been  forbidden  to  leave  the  Colony  and 
every  human  effort  has  been  made  to  stifle  the  revolt.  I 
hope  the  Almighty  may  graciously  grant  His  blessing 

27 — 2 


I  am  now  beginning  to  realize  the  weakness  of  my 
garrison.  Demerara,  being  most  exposed  to  danger,  could 
not  be  left  without  aid ;  one  sergeant,  two  corporals,  a 
drummer  and  fourteen  men  are  at  present  there  and  I 
have  now  only  a  sergeant,  a  corporal,  a  drummer  and 
eighteen  men  here,  three  or  four  of  whom  are  disabled 
through  age  or  some  other  cause.  With  these,  unless  the 
burghers  come  up  smartly,  it  is  an  absolute  impossibility 
to  hold  the  Fort  if  anything  happen  (which  God  forfend). 

How,  too,  can  such  be  expected  of  the  burghers,  when 
twenty-four  of  them,  with  two  officers  and  two  non-coms. 
have  gone  to  Demerara?  Would  they  not  try  to  join 
forces  in  order  to  defend  their  possessions  and  lives  as  far 
as  possible? 

To  see  a  colony  like  Berbice  totally  ruined  and  deserted 
in  nine  days,  more  than  forty  whites  (according  to  report) 
massacred  in  the  most  barbarous  manner,  the  Fort  burnt 
and  abandoned  by  the  Governor,  who  retreated  to  the 
river  mouth  whilst  the  mutineers  had  the  assurance  to 
attack  the  vessels  as  they  dropped  down  stream,  to  fire 
upon  them  from  the  shore  (although  for  this  they  got  well 
paid  out)  and  to  capture  in  sight  of  the  ships  a  vessel  in 
their  wake  containing  ninety  faithful  slaves — these  oc- 
currences fill  everyone  with  terror  and  amazement. 

I  thank  God  that  in  these  circumstances  it  has  pleased 
Him  to  grant  me  so  much  strength  so  shortly  after  a  long 
and  severe  illness,  for  I  did  not  think  I  could  have  endured 
half  as  much.  Neither  by  night  nor  by  day  have  I  rest  and 
I  am  not  free  from  work  for  a  moment. 

I  had  sent  the  letters  going  to  YY.  HH.  via  Barbados 
to  Demerara  with  instructions  to  the  Commander  to 
despatch  a  barque  lying  up  the  river  as  speedily  as 
possible   to   Barbados,   to   inform   the  Governor'    and    Mr 

^  Charles  Pinfold,  LL.D.,  arrived  in  the  Colony  May  lo,  ijjd,  and 


Clarke'  of  the  sad  fate  of  Berbice  and  of  the  danger,  and 
to  inquire  whether  it  were  not  possible  to  come  to  the  aid 
of  that  colony-. 

A  small  barque  had  just  arrived  there  and  set  sail 
again  at  once  with  the  letters. 

YV.  HH.  can  easily  imagine  what  consternation  those 
letters  caused  there.  Mr  Clarke  was  immediately  up  and 
doing^  and  on  the  second  day  after  the  arrival  of  the  little 

left  it  May  26^  1766^  "having,"  says  Voytr  {Hisfory  of  Barbados,  1808, 
p.  329),  "exercised  the  executive  authority  with  a  propriety  which 
added  lustre  to  his  reputation  and  afforded  satisfaction  to  the  com- 
munity over  which  he  presided."  He  died  Nov.  4,  I78g,  in  the  80th 
year  of  his  age. 

1  Gedney  Clarke,  for  an  account  of  whom  see  pp.  39-43. 

^  It  is  of  interest  to  compare  Storm's  remarks  on  pp.  444,  445. 

3  The  following  letter  {Brit.  Mits.  Eg.  MSS.  1720— d.  Note  i 
on  p.  448)  addressed  by  Gedney  Clarke  to  Count  William  Bentinck 
(see  p.  276)  is  of  interest  here. 

Barbados,   3  April,   1763. 

My  Lord, 

My  Son  when  he  was  at  the  Hague,  had  the  honour  of 
being  introduced  to  your  Lordship;  he  wrote  me  that  you  had  some 
discourse  with  him  concerning  that  new  Settlement  of  Demorary  and 
that  you  was  inclined  to  give  it  all  proper  encouragement : 

I  am  sorry  to  inform  you,  Sir,  that  Richard  Wiltshire,  Esq.,  a 
Gentleman  who  went  over  to  make  a  purchase,  had  just  arrived,  when  he 
heard  that  there  was  an  Insurrection  of  the  Negroes  at  Berbice  ;  that 
they  had  taken  possession  of  the  greatest  part  of  the  Plantations  ;  and 
that  the  Guvernour  had  blown  up  the  Fort,  and  made  his  escape,  on 
board  a  ship  that  lay  very  near  ;  That  they  gave  out  they  wou'd 
proceed  to  Demorary  and  Isequebe  and  do  the  same  there;  Upon 
this  Intelligence  Mr  Wiltshire  returned  as  fast  as  he  cou'd  and  arrived 
here  last  Monday  evening;  on  Tuesday  I  dispatched  a  Vessel  with 
some  arms  and  ammunition  and  yesterday  I  dispatched  a  Ship  of 
Eighteen  Guns  and  two  armed  Brigantines,  with  Lieutenant  Towers, 
and  one  hundred  Marines  and  Sailors,  that  Cap*  Wheelock,  of  his 
Majestys  ship  Pembroke  (Admiral  Rodney  not  being  here)  was  so 
kind  as  to  send  in  the  Ship;  In  the  Brigantines  there  were  Cap' 
Jacob  Smiths  Company  of  Men,  raised  here,  besides  the  Saylors ;  and 
I  shall  send  another  Vessel  over  to-morrow ;  so  that  I  hope,  if  those 
Negroes  dont  pay  the  Visit  before  those  Vessels  arrive  all  may  be  safe  ; 

I  have  wrote  to  Mr  Gravesande  and  desired  he  wou'd  order  the 


barque  in  Barbados  there  sailed  thence  a  frigate  carrying 
sixteen  pieces  of  heavy  ordnance  and  a  full  crew  and  the 

Ships  from  Isequebe  to  Demorary  and  to  make  a  proper  stand  there; 
As  the  Plantations  are  all  upon  the  brink  of  the  River  one  armed 
Vessel  wou'd  defend  a  Plantation  against  the  attack  of  many  thousand 
Negroes,  but  I  do  not  expect  that  they  will  be  sent.  I  dispatched 
also  a  Vessel  on  Tuesday  to  Governor  De  Windt  desiring  he  wou'd, 
without  delay,  send  up  some  armed  sloops  and  men.  The  Negroes  of 
Berbice,  it  is  said,  have  sent  to  Demorary  that  those  that  will  not  join 
them  they  will  cut  of. 

I  have,  Sir,  had  great  trouble  and  been  at  a  vast  expence  in  my 
Buildings  and  to  clear  the  Plantations  that  my  Sons  and  friends  have 
there ;  and  now,  just  as  they  are  brought  into  order,  to  have  them 
destroyed  hurts  me  greatly ;  And  this  I  must  take  the  liberty  to  say  is 
owing  to  the  neglect  and  indolence  of  those  that  had  the  Care  and 
direction  of  those  Colonys  ;  They  have  known  that  the  Inhabitants  in 
Berbice  have  been  reduced  greatly  within  the  last  three  Years ;  I  do 
not  know  how  many  soldiers  there  were  there ;  I  know  there  are  none 
at  Demorary;  and  I  think  not  aboveTwenty  at  Isequebe.  By  this  piece 
of  parsimony  the  States  will  loose  the  best  Settlement  in  the  West 

You  may  judge  Sir  of  that  by  my  assuring  you  that  every  year, 
after  the  next,  I  and  my  son  G.  C.  shou'd  have  certainly  produced 
from  our  Estates  as  much  Sugar,  Rum,  Rice  and  Indigo  as  wou'd 
amount  to  near  Twenty  thousand  pounds  Sterling.  I  have  reason 
Sir  to  complain,  and  I  do  so  not  only  for  myself,  but  in  behalf  of 
every  Inhabitant  in  that  River ;  I  will  take  upon  me  to  say  that  if  the 
blow  be  even  now  warded  of,  it  will  never  thrive  under  the  direction 
and  management  it  now  is ;  if  the  States  will  take  it  into  their  own 
hands  and  send  a  Governour  of  some  consequence  with  a  Regiment 
and  make  it  a  free  Port,  it  will  very  soon  exceed  every  other  Settle- 
ment they  have  in  the  West  Indies:  At  present  the  Company  allow 
their  Governour  not  so  much  as  I  do  the  Manager  of  one  of  my 

In  short.  Sir,  everything  has  gone  on  so  heavily  and  in  such  a 
languid  manner  that  I  have  been  very  uneasy  for  some  time;  I  am 
now  much  more  so.  I  wou'd  not  have  presumed  to  have  taken  up  so 
much  of  your  Lordship's  lime  and  wrote  in  this  free  and  open  manner 
did  I  not  beleive  that  you  wou'd  be  glad  to  know  the  particulars  I 
have  mentioned ;  and  I  think  if  I  had  not  given  your  Lordship  this 
Information  I  wou'd  not  have  been  excused. 

1  am  with  great  respect. 
Your  Lordship's  most  humble  and  most  obedient  servant, 

Gedney  Clarke. 


barque  itself  laden  with   guns  and   ammunition,   both   of 
which  reached   Demerara  after  a  very  short  voyage. 

These  were  followed  two  days  later  by  two  heavily 
armed  brigantines,  carrying  a  company  of  seventy-five, 
exclusive  of  the  crew,  and  comprising  altogether  about 
three  hundred  men.  This  speedy  succour  brought  tran- 
quillity back  to  Demerara  and  caused  most  of  those  who 
had  fled  down  the  river  to  return  to  their  homes  and  their 

The  Governor  of  Barbados  having  sent  word  to  the 
Commander  of  Demerara  by  the  captain  of  the  frigate  that 
in  the  event  of  my  asking  for  assistance  in  the  name  of 
Their  High  Mightinesses  it  would  immediately  be  sent  me, 
I  resolved,  after  long  deliberation  and  reflexion,  to  ask  for 
the  aid  of  two  hundred  men  and  the  necessary  equipment^ 
should  the  state  of  affairs  after  due  examination  require  it. 
I  think  that,  with  the  Lord's  blessing,  this  would  leave  little 
cause  for  fear,  and  I  think  it  better  to  incur  these  somewhat 
heavy  costs  than  to  lose  all. 

Great  is  the  state  of  despondency  here,  as  YY.  HH.  can 
well  imagine,  and  the  worst  and  most  dangerous  is  that  it 
is  being  too  openly  exhibited ;  I  am  not  left  in  peace  for  a 
moment  and  can  only  write  by  scraps  and  shreds.  Then, 
too,  I  am  so  worn  out  that  I  can  scarcely  get  along;  added 
to  this  the  impossibility  of  satisfying  people  is  enough  to 
make  one  half  mad. 

With  the  Barbados  packet-boat  I  am  informed  that  in 
reply  to   the   express  sent  thence  to  the  Governor  of  St 

^  Gedney  Clarke,  in  a  letter  dated  June  6,  ijdj  {Brit.  Mus.  Eg. 
MSS.  i'/2o)  to  his  son,  then  in  London,  writes  : — "  It  is  very  evident 
if  I  had  not  sent  over  the  five  vessels,  that  I  did  so  expeditiously,  that 
Demerary  and  Essequebo  would  have  been  lost — the  Inhabitants  of 
the  upper  part  of  Demerary  were  flying  as  fast  as  possible...." 

2  This  resolve  it  was  not  necessary  to  carry  out.    See  note,  p.  445. 


Eustatius\  His  Honour  had  resolved  to  send  to  Demerara 
as  speedily  as  possible  two  vessels  with  armed  crews,  which 
are  hourly  expected  therel 

At  the  beginning  of  these  troubles  I  had  sent  to  Upper 
Essequibo  to  warn  the  Indian  tribes,  and,  if  possible,  to  get 
them  to  take  up  arms.  They  did,  indeed,  hold  their  arms 
in  readiness,  but  went  no  farther.  It  has  therefore  been 
resolved  by  the  Court  that  Joseph  de  Meijer,  a  person  who 
is  well  acquainted  with  all  the  inland  roads,  and  has  a  per- 
fect knowledge  of  the  languages,  is  to  go  up  the  river  and 
place  himself  at  the  head  of  the  tribes;  that  he  is  closely  to 
besiege  the  upper  part  of  Berbices,  close  all  the  passes,  and 
capture,  living  or  dead,  all  who  take  that  road,  the  Post- 
holder  having  strict  orders  to  accompany  him,  and  to  afford 
him  aid  in  all  matters. 

The  aforesaid  Meijer  has  orders  to  send  expresses  from 
time  to  time  informing  us  of  all  that  he  learns,  and  to  hold 
himself  in  readiness,  in  case  it  should  be  necessary  to  attack 
the  rebels  from  the  side  of  Demerary  (of  which  he  would  be 
immediately  informed),  to  drop  down  stream  with  his  men 
in  order  to  assist  in  the  attack. 

I  have  written  this  week  to  the  Governor  of  Surinam, 
and  by  a  boat  which  I  am  dispatching  in  a  few  days'  time 
to  Berbices  I  shall  write  to  the  Governor  there  to  acquaint 
him  with  these  measures. 

The  Commander  of  Demerara^  has  written  to  inform  me 
that  he  has  taken  the  liberty  of  asking  YY.  HH.  for  his  dis- 
charge. I  cannot  help  feeling  that  he  is  right  in  doing  so 
(as  I  have  told  him)  for  it  is  quite  impossible  for  him  to  make 

1  ...den  loyalen  en  menschlievenden  {Jan)  de  M^t'nd...  (Netscher, 
0/>.  cit.  p.  218). 

2  These  two  vessels,  however,  never  came  to  Demerara,  but  were 
.detained  in  Berbice  (see  pp.  426,  427). 

3  See  p.  335. 


both  ends  meet  and  I  fear  that  under  the  present  circum- 
stances he  will  get  so  backward  that  it  will  take  him  quite 
a  time  to  get  straight.  Wherefore  I  take  the  liberty  of 
endorsing  his  request,  of  begging  YY.  HH.  graciously  to 
grant  it  and  to  send  another  competent  person  in  his 

The  number  of  my  years,  increasing  weakness  and  ail- 
ments no  longer  permit  me  to  do  and  to  act  as  I  would  like, 
and  finding  daily  that  I  am  getting  gradually  less  able 
properly  to  discharge  my  duties  and  in  a  manner  after 
my  own  heart,  having,  moreover,  by  the  Lord's  goodness 
and  unfailing  mercy  attained  this  measure  of  years  and 
been  graciously  preserved  and  protected,  it  is  time  and  high 
time.  Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs,  to  think  of  the 
great  voyage  to  Eternity  and  to  employ  the  little  time 
which  the  Lord  in  His  mercy  will  still  grant  me  in  His 

Wherefore  I  take  the  liberty  of  begging  YY.  HH.  most 
humbly  and  earnestly  to  be  pleased  graciously  to  grant  me 
my  discharge  and  dismissal  from  my  duties,  thanking 
YY.  HH.  at  the  same  time  from  the  bottom  of  my  heart  for 
so  many  and  such  various  favours  and  benefits  which 
YY.  HH.  have  in  my  twenty-five  years'  service  been 
pleased  to  bestow  upon  me  and  for  which  I  shall  as 
long  as  I  live  preserve  an  indelible  gratitude  and  a  heart 
full  of  thanks.  I  have  at  the  same  time  the  honour  to 
assure  YY.  HH.  that  although  discharged  from  Your 
Honours'  service  I  shall,  as  long  as  I  live,  remain  faith- 
ful to  the  Honble.  Co.,  and  ever  hold  myself  in  readiness 
to  do  all  that  my  strength  permits  whenever  my  services 
might  be  required  ^ 

'  The  application  for  discharge  was  repeated  in  September  of  the 
same  year  (see  pp.  434-437). 


P.R.O.  471/193 

June  20,   1763. 

Hoping  that  all  my  previous  despatches  concerning 
Berbice  and  this  Colony,  as  well  those  by  vessels  de- 
parting hence  as  those  via  Barbados  and  St  Eustatius,  will 
have  reached  YY.  HH.  long  before  the  arrival  of  this  one, 
and  that  the  necessary  measures  have  already  been  taken 
by  YY.  HH.,  there  h€ix\^  periailuin  in  mora,  I  shall  have  the 
honour  of  continuing  herein  my  report  of  events  since  my 
last  by  "  D'Essequebo  Planter." 

By  the  Lord's  unmerited  goodness  and  mercy  we  are 
still  at  peace  and  continue  to  do  all  in  our  power  to  employ 
every  possible  means  of  maintaining  that  peace. 

Fully  relying  not  only  upon  Governor  de  Wind's  letter 
to  Mr  Clarke  in  Barbados  but  also  upon  His  Honour's 
despatch  to  me  that  the  two  manned  and  armed  barques 
would  come  from  St  Eustatius  to  Demerara^  it  was  my  in- 
tention to  send  those  crews  over  land  to  the  upper  part  of 
Berbice  and  to  post  them  on  the  highest  plantation  there. 
•  •  •  •  • 

By  a  change  in  Mr  de  Wind's  measures  this  plan  fell 
through  for  His  Honour,  having  sent  the  two  barques  direct 
to  Berbice^  (where,  since  I  am  unacquainted  with  the  cir- 

^  See  p.  424. 

^  Though  Count  Bentinck's  views  communicated  in  the  following 
letter  i^Brit.  Miis.  Eg.  MSS.  1720)  to  Gedney  Clarke,  Jr.,  then  in 
London,  could  not  possibly  have  influenced  the  Colonial  Governors  so 
directly,  it  is  interesting  to  have  them  as  commentary  on  the  above, 
and  as  indicative  of  his  sympathy. 

To  Gedney  Clarke,  Junr.,  Esq. 

Hague,  June  28,   1763. 

I  am  favoured  with  your  Letter  of  the  i6th  inst.  What 
occupies  the  present  attention  is  the  sending  immediate  succour  to 
the  Berbices  and  rescuing  that  colony.     What  relates  to  the  security, 


cumstances,  I  presume  they  were  much  more  necessary) 
instead  of  to  Demerara,  and  the  captains  thereof  having 
come  to  an  agreement  concerning  the  premiums  with 
Governor  van  Hoogenheim,  we  are  obHged  to  wait  and 
see  what  the  upshot  will  be. 

"  Het  Essequebo  Welvaeren  "  having  sailed  for  Europe 
and  "Het  Hof  van  Ramsburg"  being  about  to  follow 
shortly  "Het  Loo"  will  go  and  lie  in  Demerara,  for  I 
cannot  allow  it  to  depart  before  another  vessel  from  Europe 
takes  its  place,  since  it  would  be  unjustifiable  in  these  critical 
circumstances  to  leave  that  river  without  ships,  and  one  is 

conservation  and  improvement  of  the  neighbouring  Colonys  does  not 
deserve  least  attention.  The  share  you  have  in  that  of  Demerary  and 
Isequebo  and  your  possessions  there  have  given  you  an  opportunity  of 
judging  by  your  own  observations  what  difficuhys  there  are  in  effec- 
tuating any  timely  and  proportionable  measure.  I  flatter  myself  that 
the  misfortune  happened  at  Berbices  will  open  people's  eyes  and 
convince  them  of  the  absolute  and  indispensable  necessity  of  taking 
precautions  to  prevent  the  like  happening  in  all  the  other  colonys. 
Which  I  own  that  I  dread  and  am  in  much  more  fear  about  them 
than  others  who,  by  the  interest  they  have  there,  seem  to  be.  I  shall 
be  mightily  obliged  to  you  if  you  will  be  so  good  as  to  send  me  the 
materials  which  might  serve  for  forming  a  plan,  for  the  greatest 
advantages  of  our  colonys  in  America.  I  am  affraid  that  the  whole 
establishment  of  them  is  defectuous  in  many  points.  Nobody  can 
furnish  better  materials  than  your  father,  who,  by  what  I  see,  as  well 
as  by  what  I  hear  of  him  from  others  must  be  a  man  of  superior  genius, 
talents  and  spirit,  and  whose  experience  and  knowledge  of  that  part  of 
the  globe,  as  well  as  of  what  is  the  nature  of  a  colony  make  him  more 
proper  than  any  body  to  give  the  necessary  informations.  You  may 
be  sure  that  I  will  make  the  best  advantage  of  what  ever  he  will 
be  pleased  to  send  me  and  do  my  utmost  endeavours  to  remove  the 
difficultys  which  might  obstruct  the  execution  of  what  he  might 
propose....!  beg  you  would  present  my  most  sincere  and  hearty 
compliments  to  your  father  and  assure  him  that  I  neglect  no  oppor- 
tunity of  doing  him  justice  nor  of  shewing  in  its  true  light  the  spiritted 
and  manly  part  he  has  acted  in  this  affair,  which  will  be  acknowledged 
by  those  who  have  the  benefit  of  this  important  service. 

I  am.  Sir, 

W.  Bentinck. 


not  even  enough  and  causes  dissatisfaction.  If  the  English 
vessels  were  not  there  one  ship  would  certainly  have  to  lie 
up  the  river  and  one  down  stream,  and  the  big  vessels  are 
little  suited  to  send  up  the  river.  I  was  very  pleased  to 
receive  a  letter  yesterday  from  the  Commander  of  Demerara 
informing  me  that  Mr  Sampson,  a  burgher  of  that  river,  had 
offered  his  small  Bermudan  barque,  which  is  well  armed 
and  commanded  by  his  son,  for  the  country's  service,  for  I 
could  get  no  better  or  more  suitable  vessel,  to  proceed  either 
up  and  down  the  river  or  to  Berbice.  Wherefore  I  im- 
mediately wrote  to  Mr  Spoors  to  ascertain  his  feelings  on 
the  matter;  he  having  replied  that  in  his  opinion  it  was 
absolutely  necessary  to  engage  the  barque  I,  with  equal 
despatch,  bade  the  Commander  do  so  and  to  agree  to  pay 
up  to  400  or  450  guilders  per  month. 

P.R.O.  471/215 

Sept.  27,  1763. 

If  the  sugar  planters  generally,  both  those  of  the 
Honble.  Co.  and  private  ones,  would  in  cultivating  the 
grounds  follow  the  example  of  Messrs  A.  van  der  Cruysse 
and  C.  Boter  as  now  shown  on  Varken  Island  and  also 
the  example  of  the  English  in  boiling  the  kiltum  the  yields 
would  undoubtedly  be  considerably  greater  than  they  are 
now.  For  if  we  look  coolly  at  van  der  Cruysse's  yields 
and  at  the  number  of  his  slaves  the  thing  is  conclusive  and 

Hereupon  those  unversed  in  matters  here  must  naturally 
ask,  "  Why  have  you,  being  chief  in  command,  not  had 
things  done  in  this  way?  " — a  question  which  must  certainly 
follow  my  conclusion  but  which  I  can  easily  and  briefly 
answer.     For  expecting,  upon  the  arrival  of  the  first  vessel, 


to  hand  over  the  command  to  those  whom  YY.  hh.  shall 
have  been  pleased  to  honour  therewith  I  hope  YY.  HH,  will 
graciously  permit  me  to  write  in  plain  words  and  goed  rond 
goed  zeeuws  \sic\. 

In  reply  then  to  this  question  which  I  have  put  to 
myself  I  will  say  that  when,  being  in  Europe  in  the  year 
175 1,  I  was,  by  command  of  His  Late  Serene  Highness 
of  most  laudable  memory,  handed  the  letter-book  of  this 
Colony  I  read  there  that  concerning  the  work  of  the  plan- 
tations I  was  quite  ignorant,  which  in  plain  Dutch  means 
knownng  or  understanding  nothing  about  it ;  it  was  further 
made  clear  to  me  that  these  words  had  created  an  im- 
pression, inasmuch  as  all  that  I  had  personally  done  for 
the  improvement  of  the  plantations,  such  as  their  removal 
further  down,  their  digging  over,  and  other  matters  too 
long  to  adduce,  were  put  down  to  another's  credit,  so  that 
I  might  indeed  say  with  the  poet : — 

Hos  ego  versiailos  feci,  tiilit  alter  honores. 
Sic  vos  non  nobis  nidificatis  aves,  &c.^ 

Seeing  further,  after  my  return  here,  that  my  sugges- 
tions did  not  meet  with  the  same  favour  as  before,  that 
they  were  regarded  quite  other  than  they  had  been  during 
my  former  twelve  years  of  service  and  that  the  administra- 
tion of  the  plantations  was  no  longer  in  my  hands  but, 
although  conjunctini,  in  those  of  another^,  who  consequently 
carried  off  all  the  honour,  leaving  nothing  but  toil  and 
trouble  for  me — seeing  also  that  differences  were  most 
disagreeable  to  YY.  HH.,  I  preferred  to  give  way  and  no 
longer  to  interfere  in  those  matters  except  when  my  opinion 

^  Though  Storm  was  not  a  native  of  Zealand  he  was  very  fond  of 
applying  this  expression  (which  may  be  freely  rendered  "frank  as  a 
Zeelander")  to  his  own  outspokenness — cf.  pp.  629  and  644. 

2  Cf.  p.  355. 

3  Adriaan  Spoors,  the  Secretary.     Cf.  p.  38. 


was  asked,  giving  it  then  outright  and  without  circumlocu- 
tion, both  in  the  Court  of  Policy  and  outside  it. 

Leaving  the  plantations  I  will  now  turn  to  the  affairs 
of  the  Colony,  which,  relating  to  two  distinct  rivers,  although 
to  one  Colony,  require  two  separate  articles. 

Beginning  with  Essequibo,  I  will  first  mention  the 
Posts  or  so-called  trading-places,  four  in  number,  of  the 
Honourable  Company. 

The  first  is  Maroco,  situated  between  this  river  and 
Orinoco,  under  the  direction  of  which  are  the  Rivers  of 
Pomeroon  and  Weyni,  full  of  Indians  of  the  Carib,  Arawak, 
and  Warouw  nations,  whose  help  is  always  required,  both 
by  the  Company  and  by  private  salters  and  traders,  and 
who  have  also  to  be  kept  in  a  continual  sort  of  subjection 
in  order  to  prevent  the  escape  of  runaway  slaves,  and  to 
facilitate  their  capture. 

The  road  to  the  Spaniards  leads  past  this  Post,  so  that 
no  one  can  go  that  road  without  the  knowledge  of  the 
Postholder,  who  therefore,  if  he  wishes,  can  generally  get 
to  know  what  is  going  on  in  Orinoco.  This  Post  was  of 
very  great  importance  when  trade  was  still  carried  on 
there  for  the  Honourable  Company ;  it  then  furnished 
oreane  dye^  and  boats,  and  since  the  cessation  of  the 
trade  there  is  a  great  want  of  the  latter. 

On  the  other  side  of  the  river  is  the  second,  namely, 
Maycouni,  between  Demerary  and  Berbices.  The  chief 
use  of  this  Post  just  now  is  really  to  keep  possession  of 
the  country,  for  without  it  Maycouni  would  already  have 
been  inhabited  some  time  from  another  side,  concerning 
which  matter  I  had  the  honour  to  write  fully  some  years 

Formerly   this    Post    used    to    furnish    a    considerable 

^  Another  name  for  annatto  or  arnotto.     Cf.  p.  2I 


quantity  of  oreane  dye  and  boats,  as  is  to  be  seen  in 
the  old  business  books. 

The  third  is  Post  Arinda,  up  in  Essequibo,  really 
intended  for  the  trade  in  red  slaves  and  dye  and  for  the 
further  exploration  of  the  lands  and  tribes  of  the  interior, 
as  well  as  to  prevent  the  slaves  making  off  in  that  direction. 

The  fourth,  and  last,  is  the  still  abandoned  Post  in 
Cuyuni,  abandoned  since  the  raids  of  the  Spaniards,  a  Post 
of  the  very  greatest  importance,  because  the  Spaniards,  in 
order  to  get  to  this  river,  and  the  slaves  in  order  to  escape 
to  them,  have  a  free  and  open  road,  and  also  because  the 
Spaniards  have  driven  away  the  Caribs  who  lived  there, 
and  who  could  apprehend  and  bring  back  the  runaways. 

Having  finished  with  the  Posts  I  will  now  turn  to  this 
islands  And  what  am  I  to  say  of  it,  Noble  and  Right 
Honourable  Sirs,  but  what  I  have  so  often  said  before,  with 
which  I  am  afraid  I  have  often  wearied  YY.  HH.  but  which 
I  deemed  it  my  bounden  duty  to  do  ? 

I  beg  YY.  HH.  not  to  take  it  amiss  if  I  obey  my  con- 
science and  say  once  more  in  my  last  report  that  it  is  as 
impossible  to  keep  the  Fort  and  dwellings  in  any  sort  of 
order  with  the  present  number  of  men  as  it  is  to  reach 
Heaven  with  one's  hands.  I  shall  not  dilate  further  upon 
this,  having  done  so  sufficiently  in  my  former  letters — the 
dwellings  dilapidated,  the  cannon  without  gun-carriages, 
the  batteries  out  of  repair,  the  beams  of  the  redoubt  already 
propped  up,  the  great  platform  falling  in,  in  a  word,  every- 
thing in  a  pitiable  state.  I  live  in  a  house  in  which  I 
can  scarcely  turn,  and  can  therefore  lodge  no  one;  I  am 
compelled  to  hold  the  Court  meetings  in  the  preacher's 
house  because  there  is  no  room  in  mine,  and  I  have  not  yet 
been  able  to  find  time  to  pull  down  the  old  Government 
house,  let  alone  build  a  new  one.     What  will  be  the  end  of 

^  Flag  Island,  on  which  stood  Fort  Zeelandia.     Cf.  p.  198. 


all  this  ?  Besides  the  house  I  now  inhabit  there  is  abso- 
lutely no  dwelling  for  my  successor  or  the  Commandant 
when  they  arrive,  wherefore  some  weeks  ago  I  purchased  at 
my  own  expense  for  eleven  hundred  guilders  a  house  which 
just  happened  to  come  up  for  sale,  and  which  will  still  cost 
me  just  as  much  for  repairs. 

With  regard  to  the  private  plantations  all  is,  the  Lord 
be  praised,  fairly  peaceful  and  tranquil  up  to  now  ;  the 
plantations  and  their  inhabitants  do  not  increase  consider- 
ably, it  is  true,  but  neither  do  they  decrease,  and  everything 
remains  mostly  upon  the  old  footing.  Products,  with  the 
Lord's  blessing,  go  on  pretty  favourably  and  the  coffee 
plantations  in  this  river,  although  very  lew  in  number,  are 
rapidly  advancing.  But  just  as  some  years  ago  complaints 
were  general  concerning  the  lack  of  ships  they  are  now  just 
as  numerous  with  regard  to  the  fact  that  all  arrive  together. 
The  result  is  that  it  is  impossible  to  execute  all  the  charter- 
parties  without  leaving  other  absolutely  necessary  work  at 
a  standstill,  and  in  this  way  the  plantations  must  needs  go 

With  regard  to  Demerara  YY.  HH.  are  fully  aware  how 
much  care  and  trouble  I  took  for  populating  and  furthering 
the  progress  of  that  river,  commenced  under  my  direction, 
M^hat  opposition  and  reverses  I  had  to  contend  with,  how  I 
looked  after  the  Honble.  Co.'s  interests  when  the  river  was 
opened,  how  I  watched  over  the  allotment  of  grounds,  so 
recklessly  managed  here,  and  how,  in  a  word,  I  did  all  that 
was  humanly  possible  for  the  interests  of  my  masters  and 
the  welfare  of  the  colonists,  two  aims  that  ought  never  to 
be  separated. 

It  had  pleased  the  Almighty  so  far  to  bless  those  efforts 
that  I  already  began  to  see  the  desired  results  and  to  foster 
hopes,  not  ungrounded,  that  I  might,  if  to  some  extent 
supported,  see   that   river  in  a  flourishing  state,  when  all 


those  fine  prospects  were  suddenly  destroyed  by  the 
calamity  that  befell  the  colony  of  Berbice,  concerning 
which  more  hereafter. 

The  plantations  in  Demerara  have  gone  back  very  much 
since  March,  especially  those  situated  higher  up^ ;  this 
could  not  well  be  otherwise,  on  account  of  the  constant  fear 
in  which  they  were,  not  without  reason,  for  had  it  not  been 
for  the  speedy  despatch  of  the  Creoles  and  a  few  soldiers 
from  this  river  and  the  aid,  following  so  shortly  upon  it, 
from  Barbados,  Demerara  would,  according  to  human 
reckoning,  have  been  lost  and  would  certainly  have  been 
followed  by  the  loss  of  Essequibo.  For  we  may  not  flatter 
ourselves.  Your  Honours.  In  this  so  widely  outspread  river 
it  would  have  been  impossible  to  assemble  and  consequently 
to  offer  any  resistance,  and  I  being  unable  to  procure  any 
assistance  (even  from  Surinam,  as  Berbice  was  still  able 
to  do)  we  could  not  have  held  out  in  the  long  run  against 
such  odds  and  would  have  been  obliged  to  give  in  and  be 

^  Compare,  however,  his  subsequent  remarks  in  the  same  despatch 

(p.  438). 

^  Gedney  Clarke,  in  a  letter  to  Count  Bentinck,  dated  Barbados, 
Deceinber  28,  176J,  says  : — 

"  I  am  far  from  ascribing  any  merit  to  myself;  but  it  is  certain  had 
I  not  sent  the  timely  aid,  and  in  the  manner,  I  did,  that  Demorary 
and  Isequebe  wou'd  have  been  cut  off;  and  Surinam  wou'd  in  time 
have  followed ;  and  in  course  the  States  wou'd  have  lost  that  whole 

"  What  a  pity  is  it  that  those  Rivers  have  been  thus  neglected  !  If 
Demorary  in  particular,  an  infant  Settlement,  of  a  few  Years,  had  been 
encouraged  properly  I  assure  you  Sir  that  it  wou'd,  by  this  time,  have 
been  full  of  Inhabitants  and  brought  in  a  great  Revenue  ;  But  it  has 
been  neglected,  in  a  most  shameful  manner;  and  for  my  part,  I  do  not 
expect  it  much  better  under  the  direction  of  a  Company;  but  if  they 
are  to  continue  so  I  hope  and  intreat  that  Demorary  may  be  under  a 
seperate  Government;  They  want  no  manner  of  assistance,  or  any 
thing  else,  from  Isequebe  ;  The  Inhabitants  of  that  River  have  allways 
V.  S.   II.  28 

434  STORM  VAN  's  gravesande's 

InDemerara  the  close  proximity  of  the  plantations  might 
have  enabled  the  burghers  to  assemble  and  to  offer  some 
resistance,  but  here  that  was  impossible. 

In  Berbice  matters  are  still  in  a  sad  state  and  I  fear  that 
unless  assistance  from  Europe  is  shortly  forthcoming  the 
Governor  will  have  to  give  up  his  task.  The  danger  is 
doubly  enhanced  by  the  mutiny  of  70  Surinam  soldiers  in 
the  Corentin — a  serious  event  as  unexpected  as  it  is  unin- 
telligible— though  before  it  happened  there  appeared  to  be 
some  prospect  of  salvation.  The  copies  of  the  letters  thence 
will  give  YY.  HH.  an  insight  into  affairs  there. 

The  Governor  of  Berbice  having  done  me  the  honour  of 
asking  me  to  let  him  know  as  speedily  as  possible  my  ad- 
vice and  feelings  respecting  the  line  to  be  taken  up  by  him 
in  the  present  state  of  affairs  I  despatched  a  vessel  with 
letters  thither  about  eighteen  days  ago,  and  this  not  having 
yet  returned  I  am  sorely  perplexed,  not  knowing  how  to 
account  for  its  being  so  long  delayed ^ 

Next  October  it  will  be  twenty-six  years  since  I  had  the 
honour  of  entering  the  Honble.  Co.'s  service  and  on  the 
13th  of  May  last  it  was  twenty-five  years  since  I  arrived  in 
this  Colony.  In  all  that  time  I  have,  to  the  best  of  my 
knowledge,  done  all  in  my  power,  putting  my  own  welfare 
aside,  to  promote  the  Company's  true  interests  (at  least,  as 
they  presented  themselves  to  me)  and  to  increase  its 
revenues,  not  losing  sight  of  the  private  planters'  welfare, 

looked  upon  Demorary  with  a  jealous  eye."     {Brit.  Miis.  Eg.  MSS. 

1  In  a  letter  dated  January  16,  1764  (communicated  to  us  by  the 
courtesy  of  Dr  R.  Fruin),  Governor  van  Hoogenheim  writes: — 
"  In  those  exceedingly  unfortunate. ..circumstances. ..the  consequences 
of  which  have  been  most  dire,  I  found  great  help  in  the  friendly  cor- 
respondence I  kept  up  with  good,  old  Heer  Storm  van  's  Gravesande... 
in  whose  wise  and  well-tried  advice  I  always  concurred  concerning 
matters  of  moment." 


which  I  regard  as  inseparable  from  the  former.  During 
that  period,  too,  I  have  received  many  and  various  benefits 
from  YY.  HH.,  for  which  I  have  always  tried  to  be,  and  shall 
remain,  most  grateful. 

I  have  always  treated  the  Company's  servants  and  the 
private  planters  with  every  possible  consideration  and 
amiability,  have  never  let  anyone  who  wished  to  see  me 
wait  half-an-hour,  night  or  day,  nor  received  them  in 
unfriendly  fashion  ;  never  have  I  detained  a  skipper  a 
single  day  or  let  him  wait  for  me.  Riches  I  have  never 
hunted  nor  sought  after  and  during  such  long  service  I  have 
never  troubled  YY.  HH.  for  the  least  increase  of  salary.  It 
is  true  that  YY.  HH.  did  once  please  to  give  me  an  increase 
of  300  guilders  per  year,  but  this  was  done  unasked  and  by 
Your  Honours'  especial  favour  and  generosity,  thus  in- 
creasing the  obligation  of  the  recipient.  Yet,  Noble  and 
Right  Honourable  Sirs,  I  can  honestly  assure  YY.  HH.  that 
notwithstanding  that  great  increase  my  income  is  at  pre- 
sent less  than  was  that  of  my  predecessor,  whilst  my 
expenses  are  incomparably  greater  than  were  his.  This 
may  appear  paradoxical  to  YY.  HH.  but  I  will  take  the 
liberty  of  submitting  it  in  a  brief  sketch. 

When  I  arrived  in  this  Colony  the  Company  was  accus- 
tomed to  furnish  its  servants'  households  with  all  the  most 
requisite  things,  such  as  serviettes,  table-cloths,  candle- 
sticks, plates,  dishes,  pots  and  pans,  &c.     That  has  stopped. 

When  each  fortnight  divine  service  was  held  at  the 
Fort  my  predecessor  had  from  each  plantation  pigs,  fowls, 
ducks — in  a  word,  all  that  his  table  required.  This  has 
also  been  discontinued  by  later  regulations.  In  addition 
to  the  poultry  he  got  an  ox  from  the  plantations  both  at 
every  Court  meeting  and  on  high  days  and  holidays  ;  this 
alone  amounts  to  well  over  300  guilders  annually.  The 
Posts,  which  were  still  trading  then,  brought  him  abundance 
of  fowls  ;     I  have  seen  as  many  as  eighty  brought  in  at 



once.  Hammocks,  basket-work  and  many  other  necessaries 
he  received  from  the  same  source,  and  although  of  h'ttle 
value  in  themselves  they  still  mounted  up.  The  Honble. 
Co.  suffered  no  loss  by  all  this.  A  fowl  cost  a  knife  or  two, 
a  hammock  four  ells  of  salempouri  or  cotton  and  it  was  all 
amply  repaid  by  what  was  got  in  barter  at  the  Posts  for 
the  Honble.  Co.'s  account.  Maize  for  poultry-feeding  he 
got  in  abundance,  whilst  I  was  obliged  to  buy  it  from  the 
colonists  at  the  rate  of  five  guilders  per  thousand  head. 
Many  other  small  things  I  will  omit  for  the  sake  of  brevity. 

From  the  above  YY.  HH.  will,  I  hope,  be  convinced  of 
the  truth  of  what  I  said  before.  Since  my  return  from 
Europe  I  have  been  compelled  to  put  up  with  much 
opposition,  contumely  and  contempt  and  have  seen  my 
best  intentions  either  clandestinely  or  openly  thwarted. 
I  have  borne  all  with  the  utmost  patience,  hoping  that  it 
would  all  some  day  stop  and  that  by  going  quietly  to  work 
I  would  live  it  all  down.  My  sole  consolation  in  all  this 
was  a  good  conscience,  the  knowledge  that  I  had  nothing 
of  any  import  to  reproach  myself  with,  and  the  honour  of 
having  so  often  received  Your  Honours'  gracious  approval 
of  my  conduct,  as  I  gratefully  admit  to  have  been  the  case 
only  in  Your  Honours'  last  letter.  Wherefore  too  I  held 
out  as  long  as  it  pleased  the  Almighty  to  favour  me  with 
sufficient  strength. 

But  now  approaching  my  sixtieth  year,  an  age  at  which 
it  is  customary  to  retire  from  public  affairs,  and  which, 
according  to  ancient  law  and  custom,  justifies  discharge 
therefrom,  and  feeling  my  strength  and  power  daily 
diminishing  I  thought  it  at  last  time  to  retire  and  to 
seek  some  rest. 

Wherefore  taking  the  liberty  of  assuring  YY.  HH.  of  my 
heartfelt  and  eternal  gratitude  for  such  manifold  benefits 
received,  attributing  my  vexations  in  no  wise  to  YY,  HH. 
but  to  my  enemies  and  to  those  who  envy  me  my  peace  and 


honour,  and  thinking  (though  possibly  I  may  be  mistaken) 
that  these  have  frequently  misled  YY.  HH.  by  fine  words,  I 
have  the  honour  once  more  to  assure  YY.  HH.  that  as  long 
as  I  live  or  am  in  this  country  I  shall  never  be  found 
wanting  when  my  humble  judgment  or  advice  is  asked  and 
shall  always  be  ready  to  further  the  service  and  interest  of 
the  Honble.  Co. 

I  implore  the  Most  High  to  bestow  upon  YY.  HH.,  Your 
Honours'  persons,  families  and  dear  ones  His  choicest 
blessings,  so  to  influence  Your  Honours'  deliberations  that 
the  choice  of  my  successor  may  fall  upon  one  excelling  me 
in  every  part  and  who  having  at  heart  the  Honble.  Co.'s 
interest  and  the  Colony's  welfare  may  succeed  to  perfection 
with  both'. 

Not  trusting  my  health  and  strength  I  have  written 
this  in  advance  and  three  weeks  before  the  departure  of 
the  vessel  ;  if  anything  of  importance  happen  before  she 
starts  I  shall  have  the  honour  to  let  it  follow  hereupon. 

I  have  returned  from  a  four  weeks'  stay  in  Demerara 
because  I  deemed  it  absolutely  necessary  to  be  present  at 
the  Court  meeting.  The  Rev.  Mr  Lingius  preached  twice 
there  and  came  back  with  me.  I  went  to  inspect  nearly 
all  the  lower  plantations  with  Mr  van  Grevenbroek  and 
walked  round  them. 

But,  YY.  HH.,  my  amazement  was  great  to  see  such  a 
change  and  such  progress  in  a  year's  time,  and  that  in  spite 
of  the  critical  circumstances  which  threw  the  work  back  a 
good  deal.     That  river  is  not  only  equal  to  this  but   far 

^  Instead  of  granting  Storm  his  discharge  (for  which  he  had 
already  applied  in  May  of  the  same  year  (see  p.  425))  the  Directors 
wrote  expressing  their  approval  of  his  conduct  and  sent  him  a  present 
(usually  consisting  of  a  hogshead  of  wine);  see  p.  444.  The  Director- 
General  makes  no  further  allusion  to  the  matter  until  February^  lydj 
(see  p.  482). 


excels  it,  both  in  the  regularity  with  which  the  plantations 
are  laid  out  and  cultivated  and  even  in  the  yields.  There 
are  plantations  which  will  produce  far  more  than  three 
hundred  hogsheads  of  sugar  a  year  ;  the  coffee  plantations 
are  in  such  unsurpassable  condition  that  those  who  have 
not  seen  them  would  certainly  not  believe  it. 

But  though  expectations  are,  under  the  Lord's  blessing, 
great,  general  discontent  and  murmuring  is  not  less  so, 
seeing  that  the  end  of  September  has  now  come  and  not 
the  least  assistance  has  yet  arrived  from  Europe. 

The  Chief  of  the  Acuway  tribe  up  in  Demerary  has 
come  down  with  two  negro  girls  and  three  hands  of 
negroes,  bringing  information  that  he  had  made  a  night 
attack  upon  the  plantation  "  De  Savonnette,"  in  Upper 
Berbice,  and  killed  fifty-five  negroes,  men,  women,  and 
children,  of  the  rebels ;  that  on  the  approach  of  the  neigh- 
bouring rebels  he  had  been  obliged  to  desist,  his  party 
being  only  twenty-seven  strong,  and  that  he  had  therefore 
retired  without  having  one  man  killed  or  wounded  ;  that 
on  the  journey  back  he  had  met  a  considerable  number  of 
Caribs  making  their  way  to  Berbice,  to  whom  he  had  given 
all  the  necessary  information.  He  asked  for  nine  rifles, 
powder  and  shot,  to  return  to  Berbice  immediately,  and 
join  the  Caribs  in  attacking  the  rebels.  These  were  given 
him,  together  with  some  necessary  instructions,  which  he 
promised  to  bear  in  mind. 

Three  canoes  full  of  Caribs  from  Wayni  passed  this 
river  on  their  way  to  Corentin,  bent  on  the  same  errand. 


P.R.O.   471/216 

Sept.  28,   1763. 

P.S.  After  writing  this  letter  I  hear  that  the  discontent 
is  getting  so  great  and  general,  especially  in  Demerara, 
that  I  fear  for  the  consequences.  The  aid  sent  by  "  Het 
Land  Canaan  "  is  so  small  in  proportion  to  the  immensity 
of  the  danger  and  the  blame  being  mostly  laid  to  my 
charge,  I  shall,  I  fear,  be  compelled  to  lay  my  letters  to 
vv.  HH.  before  the  Court  Meeting  next  Monday  in  order  to 
convince  it  that  I  have  done  my  duty. 

P.R.O.  471/220 

October  18,  1763. 

I  have  had  the  honour  of  sending  YY.  HH.  in  several  of 
my  letters  successive  reports  concerning  the  state  of  affairs 
in  Berbice  and  the  great  danger  this  Colony  runs  of  be- 
coming involved  in  those  grievous  matters ;  I  have  further 
begged  Mr  de  Wind,  the  Governor  of  St  Eustatius,  to 
submit  to  YY.  HH.,  by  every  opportunity  that  presents 
itself,  how  great  the  danger  is.  Mr  Clarke  informed  me 
that  he  had  done  so  by  six  consecutive  packet-boats. 
Wherefore  I  had  reason  to  flatter  myself  that  I  would  have 
been  already  long  since  reinforced  with  substantial  aid, 
which  would  at  least  have  placed  these  rivers  beyond 
danger  and  enabled  me  to  help  the  sufferers.  For  if  the 
rebels  be  attacked  in  Berbice  and  we  are  unable  to  act  here 
it  will  be  a  matter  lasting  years  and  involving  nameless 
cost  ;  if  their  retreat  in  this  direction  is  unhindered  the 
rebels  will  be  able  to  form  settlements  everywhere  in  the 
up-river  lands  and  so  continually  disturb  us,  becoming  also 


a  refuge  for  our  malcontent  slaves,  as  the  experience  of 
Surinam  testifies. 

I  learn  to  my  sorrow  from  Your  Honours'  letter  that 
YY.  HH.  imagine  the  danger  will  have  passed  over  before 
the  receipt  of  the  same.  Far  is  it  from  being  so  ;  the 
danger  is  as  great,  if  not  greater  than  it  ever  was.  The 
Governor  of  Berbice  is  at  his  wits'  end,  and  according  to 
his  last  letter  not  able  to  hold  out  for  more  than  another 

P.R.O.  471 

December  21,   1763. 

Being  compelled  to  put  off  my  reply  to  Your  Honours' 
esteemed  letter  per  "  De  Hoop  "  until  the  departure  of  "  De 
Goede  Verwachting,"  which  is  fixed  for  about  the  middle  of 
January,  and  which  vessel  will  take  50  hogsheads  of  sugar 
from  Your  Honours'  plantations,  I  will  let  this  serve  only 
to  accompany  the  copy  of  a  letter^  received  last  week  from 

^  Since  Storm  gives  the  gist  of  the  letter  its  reproduction  is  un- 
necessary, but  the  following  one  from  Gedney  Clarke,  Jr.  (who  was  in 
London  at  the  time),  and  its  interesting  enclosure,  give  a  graphic 
description  of  this  episode  in  the  revolt. 

P.R.O.  471/224 

London,  20th  March,   1764. 

To  the  Honble.  the  Directors  of  the  West  India  Company 
of  Zeeland. 

I  take  the  Liberty  to  inclose  you  an  account  of  the  Trans- 
actions at  Demerary  &  at  les  Berbices  in  December  last,  by  which  you 
will  find  that  the  Rebell  Negroes  have  been  very  roughly  handled  by 
our  People  from  Demerary  &  that  they  are  now  between  two  Fires,  so 
that  I  hope  soon  to  hear  they  are  all  destroyed. 

The  Cargoe  of  the  Ship  Carolina  Medioburgensis  being  307  in 
number  sold  together  I  am  informed  @  f.  400  round,  which  is  a  great 
Price  &  should  encourage  the  Gentlemen  of  Middelburg  to  send  two 
other  Ships  to  d'Elmina  without  the  least  delay  for  the  use  of  our 
Colony  &  to  raise  a  small  Bank  of  Credit  to  enable  People  to  purchase, 
but  you  Gentlemen  are  the  best  judges  of  these  matters  &  I  hope  will 


the  Governor  of  Berbice,  from  which  YY.  HH.  will  see  that 
His  Honour  is  actually  on  the  march  to  attack  the  rebels, 

take  every  necessary  Step  for  the  Interest  &  the  advancement  of  those 
fertile  Rivers*. 

The  cruel  Rebellion  at  Berbices  is  no  doubt  by  this  time  quelled  & 
the  Negroes  of  Demerary  have  been  all  along  kept  in  awe  by  the 
Steadiness  of  the  Inhabitants,  for  had  they  deserted  their  Habitations, 
as  those  of  Berbices  did  that  River  &  Essequebo  would  now  have 
been  in  the  Possession  of  those  merciless  Savages,  who  would  un- 
doubtedly have  massacred  all  the  White  People  that  fell  into  their 

But  thanks  to  God  !  We  are  all  safe,  and  with  your  Permission,  I 
would  recommend  a  Speedy  Way  of  securing  that  Colony  for  ever. 
It  is  no  more  than  building  a  few  Houses  on  Borssele  Island  in 
Demerary  and  a  proper  Battery  there  also  with  a  Garison  of  30  men 
&  an  officer.  Upon  that  Island  the  Comandent  should  live  &  the 
Courts  of  Judicature  held  there  and  a  small  Church  built  with  a  House 
for  the  minister  &  the  Ships  should  be  ordered  to  lay  there  when  they 
go  into  that  River  for  Sugar.  The  remainder  of  the  Land  might  after- 
wards be  sold  for  the  advantage  of  the  Company,  as  many  People 
would  chuse  to  live  there,  especially  Tradesmen  &  their  Families,  so 
that  in  a  short  time  there  would  be  a  considerable  Town  raised  there, 
well  inhabited.  This  would  keep  the  Negroes  in  proper  Respect  &  in 
case  of  Warr  would  serve  to  defend  the  Colony.  And  the  undertaking 
could  be  executed  with  ease,  if  you  Gentlemen  would  give  orders  to 
employ  your  Negroes  upon  that  service  &  lay  a  Tax  to  defray  the 
Expenses  and  at  the  same  time  raise  a  Subscription  for  that  Purpose. 

I  have  nothing  further  to  say  but  that  I  am  with  Respect, 

Your  most  obedient 

and  very  humble  servant, 

Gedney  Clarke,  Junr. 

p.R.o.  471/225 


Transactions  in  Rio  Berbices  and  Dimerary  from  good  authority 
which  happened  in  December  1763. 

Upon  the  Arrival  of  3  men  of  War  &  some  Merchant  Ships  the 
Governor  of  Berbices  notwithstanding  the  2  Battalions  sent  by  the 

*  Elmina  or  St  George  del  Mina,  long  a  fortified  seaport  on  the  Gold 
Coast,  West  Africa,  10  miles  W.  of  Cape  Coast  Castle,  was  formerly  the 
capital  of  the  Dutch  possessions  in  Guinea.  Founded  by  the  Portuguese, 
under  the  name  of  Sao  Jorge  da  Mina,  in  f^Sf,  it  was  taken  by  the  Dutch  in 
i6j7  and  ceded  by  them  to  the  British  in  /S72.  Clarke's  letter  leaves  no 
doubt  as  to  the  use  to  which  the  port  was  put. 


and  that  in  accordance  with  our  arranged  plan  he  had 
sent  sixty  men  to  Demerara  to  march  overland  and  post 

States  were  not  yet  come,  thought  himself  at  that  juncture  strong 
enough  to  attack  the  rebells  &  he  found  himself  in  some  measure 
under  y''  necessity  of  doing  so  before  any  infectious  disorders  got 
among  the  People. 

A  council  of  war  was  therefore  called  &  it  was  determined  to 
pursue  the  plan  formerly  laid  down  betwixt  him  and  Governor 
Gravesande  viz.  to  detach  a  body  of  men  to  Demerary  from  thence 
to  march  across  the  country  to  La  Savonette  Plantation  in  Berbices, 
where  the  Rebells  thought  themselves  secure,  to  make  themselves 
masters  of  that  plantation  &  by  that  means  to  get  the  negroes  between 
two  fires. 

In  consequence  of  this  Resolution  a  Detachment  of  60  men  arrived 
in  Demerary  the  beginning  of  Dec''  they  were  joined  by  Cap"  Smith 
with  his  Barbados  Volunteers  sent  by  Mr  Clarke  for  the  Protection  of 
the  Colony  &  the  Command  of  the  Expedition  was  given  to  Capt° 
Smith,  whose  bravery  had  been  often  tryed. 

This  little  army  sett  off  about  the  middle  of  Dec""  from  the  upper 
part  of  Rio  Demerary  &  after  a  very  fatigueing  march  of  5  days 
through  that  immence  forest  (trees  only  for  their  covering  al  night) 
they  got  to  y'^  bounderies  of  La  Savonette,  where  Smith  halted  &  sent 
forward  two  faithfull  Indians  to  reconnitre,  with  orders  to  be  upon 
their  guard  &  at  the  same  time  to  be  as  particular  as  possible...; 
These  fellows  went  on  &  having  mounted  on  a  tree  near  the  Plan- 
tation building  they  perceiv'd  about  20  of  the  Rebells  patrolling  before 
their  garrison  &  keeping  centry.  The  remainder  scatterd  about 
unarmed.  They  soon  return'd  &  made  their  report,  upon  which 
Cap"  Smith  formed  his  corps  into  three  divisions,  marching  himself 
in  the  center  &  ordered  them  to  give  three  huzzas,  as  soon  as  they 
got  within  gun  shot  of  the  Rebells  &  proceed  to  action.  This  was 
perform'd  with  courage  &  regularity  &  y''  Rebells  perceiving  them 
flew  to  their  arms  &  made  a  bold  resistance  for  some  time  being  150 
in  number,  but  Smith  charged  them  so  closely  that  they  took  to  their 
heels  &  endeavoured  to  gain  their  canoes  &  so  to  pass  the  River,  but  it 
was  too  late  our  people  kept  up  a  constant  fire  upon  them  killed  64  & 
took  25  prisoners  among  whom  were  their  Commander  &  a  white 
man*,  who  had  assisted  the  Rebells  all  along  &  was  a  deserter.  In 
this  action  there  was  but  one  of  our  people  wounded  &  that  was  a 
brave   young    Dutch    officer t  whose   name  is   not  mentioned.     The 

*  Jean  Renaud,  a  deserter  from  the  Corentin.  See  Hartsinck,  Beschrijving 
vail  Guiana,  torn.  i.  p.  481. 

t  Hartsinck  {op.  cit.),  though  he  gives  a  very  full  account  of  the  whole 
rebellion  and  narrates  this  very  action,  makes  no  mention  of  a  young  Dutch 
officer  with  Captain  Smith  ;  Netscher's  account  of  the  affair  is  based  on 


themselves  on  the  "  Savonnette "  plantation.  Captain 
Smith^  has  informed  me  that  he  will  join  the  latter  with 
thirty  men  of  the  English  he  has  under  him. 

The  Commander  of  Demerara  left  already  on  the 
eleventh  of  this  month  for  the  upper  part  of  that  river  in 
order  to  guide  the  troops  and  to  see  after  the  transport  of 
the  provisions,  &c. 

At  the  present  moment  I  have  my  house  full  of  Caribs^, 
who,  having  recently  carried  out  a  very  successful  expedition 
against  the  rebels,  fetched  another  large  party  of  their 
nation,  and  have  now  come  to  me  for  guns  and  ammuni- 
tion. They  are  about  to  depart  at  once  for  Berbice  in 
order  to  assist  the  whites,  in  which  they  can  be  of  the 
utmost  use,  since  they  can  look  out  for  fugitives  in  the 
woods  and  so  cut  off  all  escape.  I  hope  to  be  able  to  have 
the  honour  to  give  YY.  HH.  a  full  report  in  my  next. 

remainder  of  the  Rebells  flew  into  the  woods  &  must  have  been 
destroy'd;  soon  after  the  defeat  Capt°  Smith  employed  his  prisoners 
^^  with  his  own  men  to  cast  up  a  breastwork,  which  he  soon  rendered 
secure  against  500  at  least.  Soon  after  this  a  sloop  well  armed  as 
was  concerted  came  up  the  River  &  joined  Capt°  Smith,  so  that  the 
whole  united  Force  of  the  Rebells  cannot  now  dislodge  them.  The 
Governor  of  Les  Berbices  was  to  go  up  that  River  on  19th  Dec'"  &  if 
possible  to  be  before  Peerboom  Plantation  on  25ih  Idem  where  there 
is  a  pretty  strong  brick  house  on  a  rising  ground  to  which  the  Rebells 
have  brought  most  of  their  Ammunition,  provision,  &c.,  with  an  inten- 
tion as  it's  said  to  defend  themselves  to  the  last  extremity.  The 
Governour  will  have  with  him  300  men  besides  the  crews  of  the  men 
of  war  &  merchant  men  &  the  St  Eustatia  sloops,  so  that  in  all 
probability  these  wretches  will  soon  be  extirpated.  The  negroes  that 
were  taken  at  Savonette  declared  that  the  white  man  with  them  had 
frequently  urged  them  to  march  across  to  Demerary  &  to  attack  that 
settlement,  which  they  would  have  done  had  they  not  had  intelligence 
of  the  English  forces  being  in  that  river  &  of  the  arrival  afterwards  of 
y*^  troops  sent  by  the  Directors.... 

^  Jacob    Smith,    in    command   of  a   company   of  men   raised    in 
2  Cf.  p.  445- 


P.R.O.   472/1 

February  29,  1764. 

It  was  a  great  pleasure  to  me  that  YY.  HH.  were  good 
enough  to  approve  of  the  conduct  of  my  son-in-law  and 
myself  in  the  critical  circumstances  in  which  we  were  and 
I  have  the  honour  to  thank  YY.  HH.  very  much  for  the 
present  YY.  HH.  have  been  pleased  to  send  me.  The  honour 
of  obtaining  Your  Honours'  approval  and  of  doing  my  duty 
as  an  honest  man  is  my  highest  aim,  and  that  to  which  all 
my  efforts,  so  far  as  the  humble  abilities  bestowed  upon  me 
by  the  Most  High  allow,  are  directed.  I  hope  to  dwell 
further  upon  the  state  of  affairs  after  I  have  answered  Your 
Honours'  esteemed  letter. 

In  reply  to  Your  Honours'  enquiry  respecting  the 
English  frigate  I  have  the  honour  to  say  that  upon  the 
first  news  of  the  general  rising  in  Berbice  being  brought  by 
the  fugitive  colonists  the  Commander  sent  tidings  of  that 
grievous  occurrence  by  my  order  to  Mr  Pinfold \  Governor 
of  Barbados,  and  to  Mr  Clarke,  through  a  gentleman  (Mr 
J,  Wiltshire",  now  owning  the  plantation  "  De  Diamant" 
in  Demerara),  who  chanced  to  be  in  Demerara  when  these 
events  took  place  in  order  to  purchase  the  plantation  of 
the  late  George  Gascoigne  and  who  under  the  circumstances 
immediately  left.  This  was  followed  by  the  arrival  of  the 
aforesaid  frigate  and  the  further  succour  sent  by  Mr  Clarke, 
which,  after  God,  was  the  salvation  of  Demerara^ 

^  Cf.  p.  420.  ^  This  must  have  been  R,  Wiltshire  of  p.  421. 

^  It  is  strange  to  find,  after  this  most  handsome  (and  not  the 
first — see  pp.  421-423  and  433)  acknowledgment  of  Clarke's  services 
by  Storm,  that  Count  Bentinck  writes  as  follows  to  Gedney  Clarke,  Jr. 
(then  in  London)  on  May  ^5,  1764  {Brit.  Mus.  Eg.  MSS.  1720)  : — 
"One  thing  which  is  surprising  is  that  none  of  the  Letters,  from 
our  colonys,  mention  a  word  of  all  your  father  has  done,  nor  the 
obligations  they  are  under  towards  him.     This  Silence  must  proceed 


The  Captain  of  the  aforesaid  frigate  on  his  arrival  told 
the  Commander  that  if  he  asked  the  Governor  of  Barbados 
or  Admiral  Rodney  for  assistance  in  the  name  of  Their 
High  Mightinesses  he  had  no  doubt  it  would  immediately 
be  granted.  If  I  remember  rightly,  copies  of  those  letters 
are  in  the  Commander's  Diary  which  he  had  the  honour  to 
send  YY.  HH,  from  time  to  time.  Direct  assistance  I  never 
asked  for\  although  I  was  on  the  point  of  doing  so  once, 
as  I  had  the  honour  of  informing  YY.  HH. 

The  treatment  of  slaves  in  this  Colony  is  certainly  more 
gentle  and  mild  than  in  any  other.  The  Court  has  regulated 
this  as  far  as  possible  and  I,  for  my  part,  have  done  as 
much  as  lies  in  my  power  to  see  they  are  not  ill-treated 
and  that  they  get  what,  according  to  law  or  ancient  custom, 
is  their  due.  But  to  my  sorrow  I  find  that  all  this  is  of 
little  avail  with  that  sort  of  folk  and  that  this  occasion  has 
shown  that  those  who  were  thought  to  be  the  most  faithful 
and  upon  whom  we  should  have  most  relied  in  case  of 
need  are  not  a  jot  better  than  the  rest  and,  in  spite  of  all 
benefits,  thankless  traitors.  But  a  good  conscience  is  the 
best  jewel  and  it  is  a  great  satisfaction  to  have  nothing 
with  which  to  reproach  oneself 

The  Indians  whom  I  had  encouraged,  and  who  had 
already  undertaken  two  successful  expeditions  to  Berbice-, 
being  encouraged  by  this,  came  to  my  house  on  the  19th 
December,  to  the  number  of  fully  100,  inquiring  into  the 
state    of    the    Colony^.     I    informed    them,    through    the 

from  ignorance  (which  is  impossible)  or  from  some  other  principle, 
which  I  had  much  rather  not  suspect,  much  less  believe." — One 
wonders  indeed  where  the  siippressio  vc?-i  took  place — in  Middelburg.'' 

^  This  was  strictly  correct  (cf.  pp.  421-423). 

2  Cf.  p.  443- 

^  The  Governor  of  Berbice  writes  as  follows  on  Feb.  2j  :— 

"I  am  delighted  with  the  zeal  and  care  which  Your  Excellency 
continually  manifests  in  urging  the  Indians  to  march  towards  our 


medium  of  Mr  van  der  Heyde,  who  understands  their 
language  thoroughly,  both  of  the  Governor's  journey  up 
the  river  and  of  the  overland  march  of  the  detachment,  at 
which  they  were  very  pleased,  and,  having  been  given  a 
quantity  of  guns,  powder,  shot,  and  flints,  they  departed 
with  a  promise  to  set  out  for  Berbice,  and  to  keep  a  look- 
out for  the  fugitives  in  the  forests  and  other  places  there. 

The  new  Governor  of  Orinoco  has  sent  a  trustworthy 
man  here,  bringing  an  assurance  from  his  part  that  it  is 
his  intention  to  allow  trade  to  be  carried  on  with  this  river 
(but  with  absolutely  no  other).  I  had  written  to  His 
Honour  by  an  earlier  messenger,  but  that  letter  had  not 
yet  reached  the  Governor  when  this  man  departed.  I  am 
writing  to  him  again  this  week  about  six  runaway  slaves 
belonging  to  Mr  Malgraef,  who  had  fled  in  that  direction, 
and  also  to  warn  him  concerning-  the  rebels  of  Berbice. 

P.R.O.   472/32 

April  9,  1764. 

I  have  the  honour  to  send  herewith  the  letters  last 
received  from  Berbice,  from  which  YY.  HH.  will  see  that 
affairs,  God  be  praised,  are  beginning  once  more  to  take  a 
tolerably  satisfactory  turn  there,  to  which  end  our  Caribs, 
both  from  these  rivers  and  even  from  Barima,  have  loyally 

frontiers.  This  is  really  the  means  by  which  the  country  may  be 
kept  in  order.  If  they  all  put  forth  their  best  efiforts  I  doubt  not 
that  matters  will  end  well,  and  when  Demerary  is  protected  by  a 
war-ship  I  trust  that  Your  Excellency  will  find  no  difficulty  in  sending 
the  brave  Caribs  of  Barima  out  upon  our  rebels." 


done  their  best  and  are  yet  doing  it,  constantly  roving 
about  between  the  two  Colonies,  and  having,  through  the 
Lord's  blessing,  been  so  successful  in  all  their  expeditions 
as  to  have  lost  none  of  their  own  people  ;  this  makes  them 
bold  and  enterprising  beyond  habit  and  expectation,  yea, 
even  reckless,  and  these  occurrences  cause  a  great  embitter- 
ment  between  the  blacks  and  them,  which,  if  well  and 
reasonably  stimulated,  cannot  fail  to  be  of  much  use  and 
service  in  the  future  to  the  Colonies. 

I  have  just  been  disturbed  by  a  body  of  Caribs  collected 
by  Your  Honours*  creole  Veth  (who,  had  I  employed  him 
in  the  beginning,  would  have  been  of  immense  service 
beyond  all  expectations).  About  six  weeks  ago  I  sent 
him  up  the  river,  and  now  he  comes  back  with  such  a  band 
that  I  must  declare  that  I  have  never  seen  so  many  Indians 
together  before.  My  house  is  so  full  that  no  one  can  get 
through,  and  this,  too,  is  the  smallest  portion,  the  other  lot 
having  gone  overland  to  Demerary  to  wait  for  these,  who 
have  asked  me  for  only  twelve  rifles,  powder,  and  shot 
for  the  Chiefs,  which  I  have  given  them  ;  they  are  leaving 
for  Berbice  to-day  with  letters  from  me,  in  order  that  they 
may  be  employed  there  as  may  be  found  necessary. 

This  body  of  Indians  is  wholly  from  the  River 
Mazaruni.  I  had  never  supposed  or  been  able  to  suppose 
that  such  a  number  of  Caribs  lived  in  that  river  alone.  It 
is  quite  true  that  at  the  beginning  of  the  last  war  but  one 
I  once  had  their  number  taken  grosso  modo,  and  it  then 
amounted  to  iioo  men  capable  of  bearing  arms;  but  this 
was  the  whole  jurisdiction  of  the  Company,  from  Abary  to 
Barima.  But  now  I  find  that  I  did  not  have  the  fourth 
part,  or  else  they  must  have  increased  extraordinarily. 


//  will  be  of  interest  to  reproduce  here,  in  its  chro?  10 logical 
place,  a  letter^  addressed  by  Storm  to  Gedney  Clarke,  Jr., 
then  on  a  visit  to  Europe,  one  of  the  very  few  private 
communications  that  we  have  from  the  pen  of  the 
Director-  Genei'al. 

Rio  Demerary,  23  Avril  1764^ 

Ce  matin  23  Avril  j'ai  recu  votre  tres  agreable  Lettre 

du  13  Fevrier,  qui  m'a  fait  infiniment  du  plaisir.     Premiere- 

ment  parce  qu'il  m'est  toujours  agreable  d'avoir  I'honneur 

de  recevoir  de  vos  nouvelles  ;  en  second  lieu  parceque  c'est 

la  premiere  nouvelle   que   nous   recevons   de  I'arrivee  du 

Capitaine    Stofifel    Different,   que   je    souhaitois    beaucoup 

d'apprendre ;    parceque  par  cette   occasion   j'ai   ecrit  une 

Lettre  extremement  longue  et  circonstantiee  a  Messieurs 

les  Directeurs  sur  I'etat  de  notre  colonie. 

Quoique    accable    d'affaires    ne    faisant    que    d'arriver 

depuis  3  ou  4  jours  a  Demerary,  ou  nous  avons  presente- 

ment  un  vaisseau  de  guerre  de  I'Etat,  nomrn^  le  Zephir, 

Capitaine  van  Oyen,  et  que  le  sac  de  lettres  du  Vaisseau 

Negrier  de  Mons^  de  Bruyn  se  ferme  apres  demain  ;  je  n'ai 

cependant   pu   laisser  echapper  cette   occasion   sans  vous 

marquer  la  reception  de  votre  lettre  et  vous  faire   mille 

remerciments  pour  les  livres  que  vous  avez  eu  la  bonte  de 

m'envoyer.     Je  suis  curieux  de  voir  ce  que  Mr  de  Bellin 

dit  de  nos  quartiers,  dont  je  n'ai  pas  grande  opinion  ;  car 

ne    faisant    que    I'ouvrir    en    le    recevant,   je    vis    d'abord 

quelques  fautes  assez  grandes  sur   le  sujet  de  notre  cote. 

1  This  document,  together  with  others  from  which  extracts  are 
given  on  pp.  421-423, 426,427, 433,  444  and  445,  forms  a  series  relating 
to  the  Berbice  revolt  in  a  collection  known  as  the  Bentitick  Papers 
{British  Museum,  Egerton  MSS.).  A  reprint  (somewhat  lacking  in 
precision)  of  a  portion  of  the  series  was  published  in  vol.  ii.  (New 
Series)  of  Tiinehri,  18S8,  through  the  instrumentality  of  Mr  N.  Darnell 

2  This  is  a  faithful  reproduction  of  the  copy,  which  is  not  in  Storm's 


J'ai  le  plaisir  de  voiis  marquer  que  la  Rebellion  des 
Berbices  est  finie.  Dieu  merci  on  commence  a  se  remettre 
chacun  sur  son  plantage.  On  a  deja  fait  une  terrible 
execution.  32  Rebelles  pendus,  18  roues  vifs  apres  avoir 
ate  tenailles,  avec  des  Tenailles  rougies  au  feu,  et  8  bruits 
vifs.  Cela  me  semble  un  peu  trop  cruel.  II  y  a  encore 
une  cinquantaine  des  plus  coupables  dans  les  fers.  Nos 
Caraibes  ont  ete  dun  Service  considerable  dans  cette 
affaire,  et  ne  sauroit  etre  assez  loues  de  leur  fidelity  et 
Bravoure  dans  cette  occasion.  J'y  ai  encore  actuellement 
un  corps  de  95  hommes  de  cette  nation,  qui  sont  occupes  a 
fureter  les  Bois  et  les  Savannes  pour  prendre  et  assomer  le 
reste  des  fuyarts. 

Je  n'ai  jamais  cru  que  Berbices  eut  une  si  grande 
quantite  d'esclaves.  lis  ont  passe  le  nombre  de  sept  mille  ; 
et  notre  Essequebo  et  Demerary  ensemble  n'en  peuvent 
tout  au  plus  avoir  cinq  mille.  N'est  ce  pas  une  honte  pour 
une  Colonic  si  etendue  et  si  fertile?  Quoiqu'on  nous  fasse 
accroire,  il  n'y  a  guerre  d'apparance  que  cela  change  avant 
la  Majorite  du  Prince  d'Orange^  Cependant  on  me  marque 
que  cette  annee  meme  la  Navigation  va  etre  rendue  libre^. 
Nous  verons  ce  qui  en  sera.  Cela  a  dure  si  longtems  et  on 
a  tant  promis  que  je  commence  a  douter  de  tout. 

Les  Negres  de  ce  Vaisseau^  ont  ete  vendus  a  un  prix 
exorbitant;  £400  et  f.  450  etait  I'ordinaire  et  plusieurs 
meme  ont  ete  et  passe  meme  les  f.  600  par  tete.  Un  peu 
auparavant  un  vaisseau  de  la  Compagnie  de  commerce  de 
Middelbourg  fut  oblige  de  s'en  aller  avec  ses  esclaves  sans 
en  vendre  aucun  ;  parceque  Mons""  Spoors  ne  vouloit  pas 
les  prendre  a  son  risque,  et  que  le  capitaine  ne  vouloit 
point  vendre  autrement. 

Le  croiriez  vous,  Monsieur?  et  cependant  il  n'y  a  rien 

1  See  p.  548,  Note  3.  ^  See  pp.  143-145. 

^  Meaning,  those  that  came  by  the  vessel  taking  this  letter. 
V.  S.    II.  29 


de  plus  vrai  ;  ce  Vaisseau  de  Mr  de  Bruyn  auroit  ete  oblige 
et  etoit  pret  pour  la  meme  raison  de  sen  aller  avec  ses 
esclaves  a  Curacao,  si  je  ne  m'y  etois  oppose  de  tout  mon 
pouvoir  en  faisant  d'abord  assembler  le  conseil,  et  leur 
remontrant  que  si  ce  vaisseau  partoit  sans  vendre  nous 
n'aurions  aparament  de  dix  annees  un  autre  et  que  par 
consequent  la  colonic  seroit  ruinee.  Je  fis  tant  par  mes 
discours  et  persuasions  qu'on  resolut  que  la  colonic  en 
general  prendroit  la  moitie  a  ses  risques,  et  I'autre  moitie  a 
celle  de  Mons*"  Spoors  ;  et  ainsi  la  vente  s'est  faite. 

Voila  ce  que  s'est  que  Messrs  les  directeurs  ont  permi  a 
Mons""  Spoors  comme  Vendue  Maitre,  de  prendre  les 
Vendues  a  ses  risques  ou  non,  comme  il  lui  plairoit ;  et 
voila  la  veritable  raison  pourquoi  nous  avons  ete  tant 
d'annees  sans  esclaves  ;  car  les  marchands  ne  veulent  pas 
risquer  leur  capital  si  legerement,  et  ils  ont  raison. 

II  n'y  a  pas  un  seul  vendu  maitre  dans  toute  notre 
Republique  et  son  ressort,  qui  aye  ce  Privilege,  et  je  ne 
comprends  pas  pour  quelle  raison  on  I'a  accorde.  Puis- 
qu'un  vendu  maitre  court  point  ou  fort  peu  de  risque ; 
puisqu'il  a  selon  nos  loix  le  privilege  de  preference  et 
d'execution  directe  sur  ceux  qui  manquent  au  payement  au 
terns  fixe. 

Mais  je  vous  entretiens  trop  longtems  sur  ces  Bagatelles. 
J'ay  ete  oblige  d'ouvrir  enfin  mon  coeur  et  d'ecrire  a 
Messieurs  les  Directeurs  naturellement  et  sans  compli- 
ments ;  et  comme  j'avois  insiste  sur  ma  demission,  j'ai 
envoye  par  Stoffel  Different  mon  rapport  sur  I'Etat  des 
affaires  ou  j'ai  parle  assez  fortement ;  et  voila  pourquoi  j'ai 
appris  son  arrive  avec  plaisir. 

Et  je  suis  d'autant  plus  content  d'en  avoir  agi  de  cette 
maniere  qu'on  mecrit  de  la  Haye  que  LL.  HH.  PP.^  avoient 

1  Leurs  Hautes  Puissances  =  Their  High  Mightinesses  the  States- 


demandes  toutes  mes  Lettres  ecrites  aux  Directeurs  depuis 
le  commencement  de  rebellion  des  Berbices  ;  dont  j'ai  deja 
vu  I'effet ;  puisqu'il  a  plu  a  L.  H.  P.  dans  un  Art.  de 
I'instruction  du  commandant  en  chef  des  Troupes  de  I'Etat 
a  Berbices  d'ordonner  d'agir  en  tout  de  concert  avec  moi. 

Ainsi  je  me  flatte  que  ces  Lettres  auront  un  tres  bon 

L'expedition  du  Brave  Smith^  a  reussi  au  dessus  de 
I'attente,  non  seulement  par  la  destruction  d'une  bonne 
partie  de  Rebelles,  mais  d'autant  plus  que  sans  le  savoir, 
elle  a  selon  toutes  les  apparances  sauve  Demerary.  Car 
son  detachement  a  justement  tombe  sur  le  corps  dune 
Troupe  de  Rebelles  qui  etoient  assembles  dans  cet  endroit 
pour  marcher  vers  et  attaquer  Demerary  ayant  deux 
grandes  canailles  de  Blancs  (deserteurs  I'un  de  Berbices 
I'autre  de  Suriname)  a  leur  tete.  Aussi  au  retour  de  cette 
Expedition  notre  colonie  lui  a  fait  un  present  de  mille 

J'ai  oublie  de  vous  marquer  qu'on  a  contracte  avec  le 
Capitaine  Bouwers  pour  une  nouvelle  armaison  d'Esclaves, 
pour  le  plutot  qu'il  lui  sera  possible,  ainsi  je  crois  que  nous 
n'en  manquerons  plus  tant.  Pressez  je  vous  prie  Mons^  de 
Bruyn^  pour  hater  son  depart  vers  la  cote  de  Guinee. 

J'ecrirai  la  semaine  prochaine  a  Persik  pour  des  Mules 
pour  votre  plantage.  Je  suis  surpris  qu'on  n'en  a  pu  avoir  ; 
il  n'y  a  qu'environ  3  semaines  qu'il  en  a  recu  26,  et  qu'il  en 
est  encore  arrive  par  d'autres.  Je  crains  bien  qu'il  ne 
soyent  deja  vendus.  S'ils  ne  le  sont  pas  vous  pouvez  etre 
assure  que  vous  en  aurez  ;  et  s'ils  le  sont,  j'aurai  soin  que 
vous  aurez  des  premiers  qui  viendront. 

J'ordonnerai  au  maitres  des  postes  de  faire  faire  d'abord 
le  menage  Indiens  que  vous   me  faites  I'honneur  de   me 

^  See  Note  on  pp.  442  and  443.  ^  See  p.  458. 

29 — 2 


demander,  et  des  qu'il  sera  pret  je  I'enverai  a  Monsieur  de 
Bruyn,  pour  vous  le  faire  parvenir, 

J'espere  par  une  autre  occasion  d'avoir   I'honneur  de 
vous    ecrire    plus    amplement,    etant    a    present    accable 
d'affaires.     Le  Commandeur^  est  fort  malade. 
J'ai  I'honneur  d'etre 

L.  Storm  van  's  Gravesande. 

p.R.o.  472/44 

Demerara,  May  12,   1764. 

Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs, 

It  has  pleased  Almighty  God,  in  accordance  with 
His  eternal  and  immutable  decree,  to  call  my  dear  son-in- 
law,  Laurens  Lodewijk  van  Berch  Eyck^  in  life  Commander 
of  this  river,  from  this  temporal  to  His  Eternal  Kingdom  on 
the  third  of  this  month  at  the  age  of  full  thirty-three  years, 
to  the  great  grief  of  his  sorrowing  widow  and  three  young 
children,  and  mine,  whose  support  and  right  hand  he 
always  was^     His  illness  was  naught  else  than  exhaustion 

1  L.  L.  van  Bercheyck,  Commander  of  Demerara.  Cf.  next 

2  See  p.  335. 

3  Eight  months  later  Bercheyck's  widow  had  to  remind  the 
Directors  of  her  existence  by  the  following  letter  : — 

P.R.o.    472/94 

January  28,   1765. 

Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs, 

I  trust  YY.  HH.  will  kindly  excuse  the  liberty  I  take  in 
writing,  for  I  deem  it  a  widow's  privilege  to  pour  her  heart  out  to  the 
fathers  of  her  dead  husband  and  consequently  hers,  as  I  make  bold  to 
call  Your  Honours. 

Truly,  YY.  HH.,  it  pains  me  to  my  soul  to  see  that  my  dear  husband 
appears  to  be  quite  forgotten,  after  having  served  YY.  HH.  so  faithfully 
and  zealously,  even  to  the  prejudice  of  my  three  young  children  and 
myself,  as  I  can  prove  to  yy.  hh.,  and  that  only  in  hopes  of  being 



and  complete  loss  of  strength,  and  the  eighteen  days  that 
it  lasted  was  one  gradual  decline  until  his  life  went  out 
like  a  candle.  I  can  truly  say  that  he  is  a  great  loss  to 
this  river,  for  we  shall  not  easily  get  another  who  will  be  so 
heart  and  soul  in  the  work  and  so  indefatigable  night  and 
day  in  its  performance,  even  greatly  to  his  own  prejudice, 
as  I  perceive  now  that  I  am  upon  his  plantation.  May  I 
entreat  YV.  HH.  to  take  into  consideration,  when  choosing 
a  successor  to  the  deceased,  the  circumstances  of  this  river, 
for  its  growth,  success  or  total  ruin  will  greatly  depend 
upon  Your  Honours'  choice. 

rewarded  after  those  troublous  times.  Humanly  speaking,  the  com- 
mandership  was  alone  the  cause  of  his.  death.  To  be  commander, 
commandant,  secretary,  assistant  and  warehouse-master,  in  a  river 
much  more  populous  than  Essequibo — was  it,  YY.  HH.,  possible  for  a 
human  being  to  undertake  all  this  alone  without  sinking  under  the 
burden,  and  that  for  twenty  guilders  per  month?  I  can  testify  upon 
my  honour  that  since  the  critical  events  in  Berbice  and  as  long  as 
I  was  with  my  husband  he  did  not  pass  an  hour  unoccupied,  much  less 
enjoy  a  night's  rest.  Nay,  did  I  not  myself  (especially  when  vessels 
were  about  to  sail)  have  to  act  as  clerk  for  him  in  copying  (letters, 
manifests,  &c.)  in  order  to  help  him  get  finished,  and  do  as  much  as 
was  in  my  power  ?  And  I  have  moreover  suffered  loss  on  the  planta- 
tion, which  has  gone  back  very  much  through  the  slaves  being 
constantly  sent  hither  and  thither,  for  it  frequently  happened  that 
not  more  than  one  negro  was  left  upon  it.  When  the  new  manager 
arrived  upon  the  plantation  he  assured  me  that  I  had  suffered  more 
than  four  thousand  guilders'  loss  ;  the  coffee  shrubs  were  so  neglected 
that  he  had  to  cut  down  quite  half  of  them.  In  addition  to  this  my 
husband  was  to  have  measured  Wacquenam  and  Varken  Islands  if  he 
had  not  been  so  constantly  detained  in  Demerara. 

Further  I  have  the  honour  to  commend  my  children  and  myself  to 
Your  Honours'  protection  and  to  be 

Your  Honours'  humble  and  obedient  servant, 

Maria  Catharina  Storm  van  's  Gravesande, 

Widow  van  Berch  Eyck. 

One  year  after  writing  the  above  the  widow  thanks  the  Directors 
for  six  hundred  guilders  (fifty  pounds);  the   document  is  appended 


For  I,  Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs,  cannot  flatter 
myself  that  I  shall  be  able  to  do  much  more  for  it ;  my 
years,  my  poor  health,  sorrow,  vexations  and  constant 
opposition  in  addition  to  the  burden  which  is  now  about  to 
fall  entirely  upon  me,  without  the  least  help,  make  me 
weary  of  my  office,  of  the  country,  yea,  even  of  life  itself. 

I  beg  that  it  may  not  be  taken  amiss  if  I  write  no 
further.  It  is  only  with  great  trouble  that  I  have  got  so 
far,  wherefore  I  am  obliged  to  conclude  this  with  assurances 
that  I  shall  always  be  with  deep  respect  and  esteem, 

Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs, 

Your  Honours'  most  humble  and  obedient  servant, 

L.  Storm  van  's  Gravesande. 

in  its  entirety  as  a  proof  of  its  existence,  but  the  italicized  words  are 
italicized  in  the  translation  only.     More  pointed  comment  is  needless. 

P.R.O.   472/195 

Rio  Essequibo,  January  3,  1766. 

Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs, 

In  accordance  with  Your  Honours'  gracious  permission 
I  have  taken  the  liberty  of  drawing  upon  YY.  HH.  for  the  six  hundred 
guilders  (which  YY.  HH.  were  kind  enough  to  present  me  for  the 
faithful  services  of  7ny  late  deaily  beloved  husband)  to  the  order  of  my 
father-in-law,  Major  van  Berch  Eyck,  who  will  for  that  amount  have 
some  pieces  of  silver  made  as  a  lasting  memorial  of  Your  Honours' 
kindness  and  approval  of  my  husband's  conduct  in  Your  Honours' 

Assuring  YY.  HH.  once  more  of  my  heartfelt  gratitude  and  com- 
mending myself  to  Your  Honours'  protection  I  have  the  honour  to 
be  with  deep  respect,  Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs, 

Your  Honours'  humble  and  obedient  servant, 

Maria  Catharina  Storm  van  's  Gravesande, 

Widow  van  Berch  Eyck. 


P.R.O.   472/46 

Demerara,  May  24,  1764. 

That  the  interests  of  the  colonies  must  be  subordinate 
to  those  of  the  mother  country  is  so  self  evident  a  principle 
that  I  do  not  think  it  is  possible  for  anyone  to  doubt  it^ 
If  both  can  be  brought  into  agreement  everything  must  go 
on  prosperously  and  that  is  the  case  in  this  matter. 

The  larger  the  quantity  of  produce  is,  the  better  it  is  for 
the  shipping  interests  and  for  those  of  the  planter  too.  The 
produce  must  unconditionally  be  sent  to  the  mother  coun- 
try and  to  no  foreign  places  ;  this  should  be  a  hard  and  fast 
rule,  as  immutable  as  the  laws  of  the  Medes  and  Persians. 
But  as  there  is  no  rule,  however  general,  without  an  excep- 
tion, this  applies  here,  too,  to  the  syrup  and  kiltum. 

It  were  desirable  that  a  market  for  these  articles  could 
be  found  in  the  mother  country,  and  that  we  could  avoid 
sending  them  to  North  America,  but  the  subject  has 
already  been  so  much  discussed  and  it  has  been  so  clearly 
shown  to  be  impracticable  as  matters  still  stand,  that  it  is 
not  yet  to  be  thought  of. 

It  gives  me  great  satisfaction  that  YY.  HH.  have 
graciously  granted  me  full  permission  to  speak  my  mind 
openly  concerning  the  interests  of  the  Honble.  Co.  and  the 
Colony.  I  am  fully  acquainted  with  the  respect  I  owe 
YY.  HH. ;  it  is  not  for  me  to  act  in  any  sense  contrary 
thereto  and  I  hope  I  shall  always  bear  it  in  mind.  But, 
Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs,  if  sometimes  my  zeal 
for  Your  Honours'  service  has  caused  some  hard  expres- 
sions to  fall  from  my  pen  I  humbly  ask  for  pardon, 
assuring  YY.  HH.  that  such  was  never  done  with  disre- 
spectful  feelings  or  intentions  but  out  of  true   zeal   and 

^  The  accepted  "  Colonial  Policy."     Storm  develops  this  theme  a 
little  later.     Cf.  p.  480. 


without  premeditation  in  the  stress  of  business,  it  having 
ever  been  my  wont,  as  long  as  I  have  the  honour  of  serving 
YY.  HH.,  to  '^xoz&^A  goed  roiid  goed  zeeuivs'^  and  without  cir- 
cumlocution, and  up  to  the  present  I  have  had  the  good 
fortune  never  to  have  incurred  the  resentment  of  my  lords 
and  masters  thereby. 

It  was  also  very  gratifying  to  me  that  YV.  HH.  were 
pleased  with  my  report  respecting  the  Posts  ;  these  are  or 
can  be  of  very  great  use  and  advantage  to  the  Honble.  Co. 
as  they  were  of  old  when  the  annatto  dye  was  of  some  im- 
portance. If  the  Almighty  grants  me  health  I  hope  to 
have  the  honour  of  writing  circumstantially  to  YY.  HH.  con- 
cerning that  matter,  the  time  being  now  much  too  short, 
the  vessel  about  to  sail,  and  my  hands  so  full  of  Demerara 
affairs,  especially  since  the  illness  and  death  of  my  dear 
son-in-law,  that  I  have  not  a  moment's  rest  and  I  even  fear, 
however  much  I  hurry,  that  I  shall  not  be  able  to  finish  my 
reply  to  Your  Honours'  esteemed  letters. 

Lieutenant-Captain  Bakker  has  just  arrived  with  a  letter 
from  Mr  Spoors.  It  is  lamentable,  YY.  HH.,  to  have  so  much 
put  upon  one  ;  I  ought  indeed  to  have  two  bodies  and  yet 
it  is  impossible  for  me  to  be  here  and  in  Essequibo  at  the 
same  time.  I  cannot  understand  why  the  Councillors  there 
are  unwilling  to  transact  business  of  any  importance  under 
Mr  Spoors'  presidency  except  to  annoy  me.  I  have  the 
honour  to  send  YY,  HH.  my  indictment  of  the  Adjutant 
Adami  upon  a  complaint  lodged  by  Mr  van  Oyen  concerning 
fresh  outrages  committed  by  him  ;  the  Court  refuses  to  pass 
judgment  and  demands  that  I  must  come  and  preside  in 
person.  Is  this  not  enough  to  make  one  lose  all  patience? 
Now  I  must,  whether  I  will  or  not,  go  to  Essequibo  and 
then  return  here,  for  my  presence  here  is  urgently  required 

^  See  p.  429. 


and  my  weak  body  can  really  no  longer  endure  such 
fatigue.  What  am  I  to  do  ?  I  must  exercise  patience, 
nolens  volens. 

P.R.O.   472/55 

June  21,   1764. 

Upon  my  return  home  [from  Demerara]  I  found,  to  my 
great  sorrow,  that  Mr  Spoors  has  almost  lost  his  sight  and 
that  he  can  see  very  little.  As  his  eyes  themselves  show  no 
traces  of  anything  being  wrong  I  am  afraid  that  it  will  be 
difficult  and  perhaps  impossible  to  cure  him.  This  grievous 
occurrence,  in  addition  to  the  loss  of  my  son-in-law  and  the 
inexperience  of  the  Assistant  Milborn  (although  a  very 
good,  industrious  and  zealous  youth)  brings  such  a  whirl 
of  matters  upon  me  that  I  see  no  getting  through  them 
and  scarcely  know  where  to  begin  or  where  to  end. 
Everything  falls  upon  my  shoulders  now,  but  I  hope 
with  the  Lord's  blessing  to  do  as  much  as  possible,  if 
not  in  one  week,  then  in  two  or  three.  The  Assistant 
Loof  (now  Commander  ad  interim)  has  also  so  much  to  do 
in  Demerara  that  he  could  use  two  or  three  bodies,  and  he 
cannot  possibly  be  spared  there. 

P.R.O.   472/61 

August,   1764. 

My  two  last  to  YY.  HH.  were  by  "  D'Essequebo  Planter," 
Captain  Deneke.  Whilst  writing  the  last  of  them  I  had  a 
visit  from  Lieutenant-Colonel  Douglas^  who  having  been 
here  and  in  Demerara  fully  three  weeks,  returned  to  Berbice 
on   the    13th.     He   confirmed    the  reports  that  everything 

^  See  p.  391. 


was  now  quiet  at  the  latter  place  and  that  the  rebellion  was 
quite  crushed  ;  but  according  to  the  unanimous  reports  of 
the  Indians  a  few  rebels  are  still  holding  out  very  far  up  the 
Berbice  river,  where  the  Caribs  have  promised  to  go  in 
search  of  them,  and  while  I  am  writing  my  house  is  actually 
full  of  that  nation.  It  looks  now-a-days  as  if  it  rained 
Indians  and  although  they  give  me  much  trouble  they  have 
to  be  treated  with  consideration  and  kindness. 

Some  time  ago  there  was  sent  me  from  Barbados  a  small 
pamphlet,  being  a  short  treatise  concerning  plantership^, 
an  excellent  little  work  of  its  kind  and  fully  worthy  the 
attention  of  all  planters.  Thinking  that  it  might  be  of 
great  service  to  our  colonies  I  translated  it  into  our  mother 
tongue  during  odd  moments  of  leisure. 

But  there  being  a  great  difference  alone  in  planting  the 
cane  and  working  the  land  in  the  English  Antilles  and  here 
I  appended  a  few  necessary  remarks  and  also  wrote  briefly 
concerning  other  products,  adding  in  elucidation  a  plan  of 
a  newly  laid  out  plantation. 

I  am  sending  it  by  this  ship  with  a  request  to  my  corre- 
spondent^ to  have  it  printed  if  the  cost  be  not  too  high.  I 
have  also  taken  the  liberty  of  dedicating  it  to  YY.  HH.  as  my 
lords  and  masters  and  the  fathers  of  this  Colony  ;  this  I  hope 
YY.  HH.  will  not  take  amiss.  It  was  my  intention  to  send 
with  it  a  much  more  extensive  work*  concerning  this  Colony, 
but  some  necessary  facts  relating  to  the  population,  dates, 
limits,  etc.,  being  wanting,  and  my  endless  duties  pressing 
upon  me,  especially  now  that  I  am  quite  alone  and  without 
the  least  assistance,  I  am  compelled  to  keep  this  back  for 

'  See  p.  460. 

^  Every  planter  had  his  correspondent  or  business  agent  in  the 
home  country.  Storm's  was  one  Pieter  de  Bruijn,  in  Middelburg 
(cf.  pp.  413,  481  and  482). 

^  See  p.  460. 


the  present.  The  copies  of  my  letters  sent  to  YY.  HH.  by 
Capt.  Deneken  I  had  to  have  written  by  my  eldest  daughter, 
the  widow  of  the  Commander  of  Demerara,  for  there  was 
no  getting  through  my  work,  and  the  more  so  now  by  reason 
of  the  lamentable  misfortune  of  Mr  Spoors,  whose  eyes,  as 
I  write,  are  still  in  the  same  sad  state. 

And  truly,  Your  Honours,  it  is  difficult  to  understand 
with  what  difficulties  I  am  on  all  sides  beset.  Old  and 
infirm  myself,  Mr  Spoors  half  blind,  Loof  in  Demerara 
(where  I  do  not  think  he  will  stay  very  long,  his  wife 
disliking  that  river  so  greatly  that  she  will  listen  to  no 
reason),  Milborn  (a  good  young  man  he  seems  up  to  now 
but)  inexperienced  and  slow,  the  Commander  of  Demerara, 
my  greatest  help,  gone,  I  leave  it  to  YY.  HH.  to  imagine 
how  I  am  placed. 

If  I  can  write  twenty  lines  of  this  despatch  without 
being  obliged  to  leave  it  I  may  consider  myself  lucky. 

P.S. — I  have  this  week  given  orders  to  remove  the  Post 
Arinda  four  days'  journey  higher,  at  the  mouth  of  the  River 
Ripenuwini  [Rupununi],  so  that  the  Post  will  now  be  about 
lOO  hours  from  Fort  Zeelandia.  I  have  also  given  orders 
for  going  up  the  Essequibo,  which  has  not  yet  been  done, 
in  order  to  visit  the  numerous  and  powerful  tribe  called 
Tarouma^  and,  if  possible,  to  discover  the  source  of  the 

^  This  exploration  of  the  Essequibo  was  never  undertaken  under 
Storm's  regime,  for  Jansse's  expedition  of  ijdg  (see  pp.  616-620)  was 
more  to  the  west,  and  we  actually  get  no  further  news  of  the  Taroumas 
until  Robert  Schomburgk  {J.R.G.S.  vol.  x.  pp.  168,  169,  172  ;  vol.  xv. 
p.  42)  visits  their  settlements  in  i8j2,  he  being,  as  both  he  and  his 
brother  Richard  assure  us  {Rdseti  in  Britisch  Guiana,  ii.  p.  388),  the 
first  European  to  do  so. 

im  Thurn  {Among  the  Indians  of  Guiana,  p.  163)  suggests  that  the 
tribe  reached  its  present  position  from  the  south,  by  way  of  the  Rio 


In  the  preceding  despatcJi  Storm  mentions  "  a  short  treatise 
concerning  plaiitership  "  sent  over  by  the  same  ship  and 
"  a  much  7nore  exteiisive  work  concerning  this  Colony " 
whicJi  he  holds  back  owing  to  '^endless  duties  pressing" 
upo}i  him'^.  Yet,  in  spite  of  all  this,  he  was  able  already 
in  A  ugust  to  fulfil  the  hope  expressed  in  his  letter  of  May 
^-/,  of  ''writing  circumstantially"  concerning  the  Posts, 
for  ivith  the  despatch  sent  that  month  he  encloses  the 
important  treatise  that  follows. 

P.R.O.  472/63 

A  Brief  Treatise  concerning  the  Honourable 
Company's  Trading-placesI 

The  Honourable  West  India  Company  has  within  the 
jurisdiction  of  this  Colony  four  different  Posts  or  trading- 
places — viz.,  one  in  the  Creeks  of  Maheyka  and  Macaurni 
(generally  called  Maykouny^),  one  above  Essequibo,  one  in 
Cuyuni,  and  one  in  the  Creeks  Wacquepo  and  Moruka. 

I.  That  in  Maheyka  and  Maykouny  lies  about  eight 
hours  up  the  Creek,  which  is  situated  between  Berbice  and 
Demerary,  about  seven  hours  eastward  above  Demerary. 

This  district  is  mostly  inhabited  by  the  Garouna  tribe, 
called  by  us  Warouws*,  who  nearly  all  have  their  houses 
standing  on  piles  in  the  morasses.  They  support  them- 
selves entirely  by  hiring  themselves  out  for  work  to  the 
whites,   being  good  workmen  (but  very  dishonest),  or  by 

^  In  spite  of  a  diligent  search  instituted  at  Middelburg,  The  Hague 
and  Amsterdam,  these  two  treatises  have  not  been  discovered.  The 
second  may  possibly  have  reached  Hartsinck,  the  historian  of  Dutch 
Guiana,  through  Storm's  friend.  Professor  AUamand,  for  in  the  Preface 
to  the  Besc/irijvitig  van  Guiana  {1770)  Hartsinck  says,  "  Nor  can 
I  refram  from  expressing  my  gratitude  to  a  learned  friend... for 
detailed  information  concerning  the  discoveries  made  in  the  Colony 
of  Essequibo  and  the  adjoining  rivers  by  order  of  Governor  Storm 
van  's  Gravesande." 

^  See  Note  on  p.  192.  ^  Mahaicony. 

*  See  p.  343. 


making  boats.  This,  and  the  salting  of  fish  in  the  dry 
season,  together  with  keeping  possession  between  the  two 
Colonies,  is  the  entire  use  of  this  Post,  where  there  are  only 
two  men  to  keep  an  eye  upon  the  runaway  slaves  either 
from  this  or  other  Colonies, 

At  the  time  that  the  trade  in  annatto  dye  was  still  of 
some  importance,  this  Post  furnished  a  considerable  quantity, 
because  the  men  supported  themselves  by  making  boats 
and  the  women  occupied  themselves  with  the  cultivation 
and  preparation  of  the  dye,  for  which  they  could  get  what 
was  necessary  ;  but,  when  this  trade  fell  away,  they  left  it 
off  entirely,  and  neglected  or  pulled  up  most  of  the  shrubs. 
The  boats  are,  therefore,  most  important  and  necessary  for 
the  Colony,  which  cannot  dispense  with  them. 

If  there  were  no  Post  here,  the  Indians  would  soon  be 
driven  away  by  the  tyranny  and  improper  treatment  of  the 

There  is  also  a  great  deal  of  timber,  called  "jitima"  (a 
kind  of  mahogany),  much  of  which  is  made  into  planks  for 
use,  and  which  can  be  transported  in  rafts. 

2.  The  Post  above  Essequibo,  called  Arinda,  of  entirely 
different  importance,  lies  about  seventy  hours  (at  a  guess, 
because  it  has  never  been  exactly  measured)  above  Fort 
Zeelandia,  up  the  River  Essequibo,  and,  as  it  is  thought,  at 
about  four  degrees  and  a  few  minutes'  latitude  north. 

To  get  to  that  Post,  several  falls,  some  of  them  very 
large,  have  to  be  passed  ;  they  are  not  really  very  dangerous 
for  those  who  have  in  their  boats  Indians  who  know  the 
way,  and  accidents  are  seldom  or  never  heard  of,  the  few 
which  happen  being  due  to  men's  own  faults,  drunkenness 
or  the  like. 

The  trade  carried  on  there  has  hitherto  consisted  in  red 
slaves  and  in  Acuway  and  Ataray^  dyes,  which,  although 

^  Although  Storm  makes  only  this  single  reference  to  the  Atorai 
tribe  there  is  little  doubt  that  already  in  his  time  it  was  in  close  touch 


very  pretty  to  look  at,  have,  up  to  the  present,  not  been 
of  any  use. 

Although  the  trade  in  red  slaves  might  be  made  very 
profitable,  it  contributes  but  little  to  the  importance  of  this 
Post,  because,  in  addition  to  the  latter  being  of  great  service 
in  keeping  up  the  communication  and  friendship  with  the 
inland  tribes,  by  means  of  which  great  discoveries  might  be 
made,  it  should  also  be  stated  that  not  very  far  above  the 
Post  two  other  rivers  (called  Sibarouna  and  Rupununi,  the 
first  of  which  is  not  yet  very  well  known)  fall  into  the  River 

But  the  second  having  a  very  extensive  course,  there  is 
a  place  a  few  days'  journey  above  the  Post  where,  by 
having  the  boat  dragged  for  about  three  hours  across  a  low 
and  marshy  land,  we  come  into  the  Creek  Meejou\  also 
called  Maho,  which  flows  into  the  Rio  Branco,  and  the 
latter  into  the  Rio  Negro,  which,  falling  into  the  Amazon, 
can  make  communication  with  that  great  river  easyl 

Up  in  Rupununi  there  are  found  whole  woods  of  cocoa, 
some  of  which  has  been  brought  down  on  various  occasions, 

with  the  Colony,  for  Humboldt  {^Op.  cit.  ii.  p.  684)  reports  that  in  ///j 
it  was  found  dwelling  between  the  Rupununi,  the  Mahu  and  the 
Pacaraima  chain,  whilst  we  have  it  in  the  Dutch  records  that  in 
lyyS  an  Atorai  chief  named  Taumaii  received  a  certificate  of  friend- 
ship at  Essequibo  from  Storm's  successor,  G.  H.  Trotz  {Braz.  Art. 
Brit.  Ann.  i.  p.   135). 

Richard  Schomburgk  states  that  his  brother  found  Atorais  in  large 
numbers  during  his  journey  to  the  source  of  the  Essequibo  in  iSjy 
{Op.  cit.  ii.  p.  388)  but  six  years  later  their  villages  had  disappeared 
(Robert  Schomburgk's  Reports — J.R.G.S.  xv.  pp.  26  and  '})'^  ;  McTurk, 
however,  found  some  at  the  head  of  the  Rupununi  in  iSyo  {Biaz.  Arb. 
Brit.  Ann.  ii.  pt.  3,  p.  3),  Barrington  Brown  reports  some  self-styled 
chiefs  living  on  that  river  in  iSyy  {Canoe  and  Catnp  Life.,  pp.  313,  314) 
and  McTurk  again  finds  some  south  of  it  in  igoi  {B7'az.  Arb.  Brit. 
Ann.  ii.  pt.  3,  p.  2). 

'  This,  in  Dutch,  has  the  sound  of  Mayow.  The  river  is  visited 
by  an  emissary  of  Storm's  in  lydg  (see  p.  617). 

2  Cf.  with  a  letter  written  to  the  Commandant  of  Guayana,  y«;z^  ^, 
1758  {Ven.  Arb.  Brit.  A  pp.  ii.  p.  147). 


and  found  to  be  as  good  as  any  other,  and  of  which  the 
monkeys  and  other  animals  now  get  the  benefit. 

Also,  whole  woods  of  wild  cinnamon  trees,  which  are  as 
yet  turned  to  little  account,  being,  by  reason  of  their  mixed 
smell  of  cinnamon  and  cloves  called  Canella  groffiata  ;  but 
this  is  due  to  the  fact  that  no  bark  is  brought  down,  except 
of  very  large  and  old  trees,  it  being  not  yet  long  since  a 
trial  was  made  of  cultivating  the  trees  in  Brazil,  and  the 
second  bark  of  young  trees,  three  or  four  years  old,  taken 
and  found  as  good  as  that  of  Ceylon,  mention  of  which 
is  made  in  the  proceedings  of  scientific  Societies,  and  is 
confirmed  by  those  who  occasionally  come  here  from 

In  the  same  river,  the  great  and  famous,  and,  hitherto, 
so  little  known,  crystal  mine  is  of  little  importance  in  itself; 
but  the  unanimous  testimony  of  writers  concerning  the 
precious  minerals  and  all  the  corroborative  reports  of  the 
Spaniards  from  far  up  the  Orinoco  prove  that  this  crystal 
mine  is  the  mother  of  the  emerald,  which,  being  found 
there,  and  there  only,  can  also  be  turned  to  profitable 

The  Essequibo  itself,  though  remaining  equally  wide 
and  large,  is  unknown  a  few  days  above  the  Post  (which 
is  a  remarkable  fact),  no  one  having  gone  in  this  direction, 
which,  I  believe,  to  be  due  to  the  fact  that  the  itinerant 
traders  (ignorant  folk,  and  mostly  like  the  Indians  them- 
selves) resemble  sheep  and  follow  each  other,  without 
troubling  themselves  about  discoveries  or  advantages  which 
are  still  uncertain. 

In  accordance  with  the  course  of  this  river,  which  runs 
from  south  to  east  and  south-south-east,  it  is  thought,  with 
some  reason,  that  its  source  cannot  be  far  from  the  Amazon, 
and  that  it  perhaps  even  communicates  with  that  river. 

On  a  great  savannah  next  to  the  river  is  the  likewise 
famous,  and   so    little    known,  pyramid,   the   existence    of 


which  is  certain,  all  the  Indians,  without  exception,  con- 
firming the  same,  though  they  are  unable  to  give  more 
than  a  rough  description  by  reason  of  their  being,  through 
a  deep-rooted  superstition,  afraid  to  approach  it,  saying  it 
is  the  dwelling  of  the  "  Jaavaho  "  (the  Devil  is  so  called  by 
them),  and  the  itinerant  traders,  as  superstitious  as  they, 
have  as  little  courage  to  do  so,  whereby  one  can  judge  what 
kind  of  people  they  are. 

Up  in  the  river,  on  the  banks  of  the  same,  but  a  good 
way  up,  there  dwells  the  numerous  tribe  of  the  Manoas, 
here  called  Magnouws,  much  feared  by  the  other  tribes, 
and  which,  in  the  time  of  the  late  Commander  de  Heere, 
was  so  injudiciously  and  childishly  driven  away,  badly 
treated,  and  for  ever  estranged  from  us,  that  the  efforts 
made  to  enter  into  communication  with  it  have  hitherto 
proved  fruitless — a  political  dodge  of  the  Carib  nation  of 
which  it  would  be  thought  incapable.  The  Portuguese  in 
Brazil  are  indebted  to  this  tribe  for  the  discovery  of  the 
gold  and  diamonds.  I  have  heard  and  read  a  good  deal  of 
this,  but  have  had  it  corroborated  by  Mr  del  Torres  de 
Bandeyra,  the  second  person  in  BraziP,  when  he  came  to 
lodge  with  me  a  few  years  ago  on  fleeing  from  Brazil  on 
account  of  some  dispute  with  the  Bishop  of  Pernambuco, 
and  who  departed,  via  Barbados  and  London,  for  Lisbon, 
and  thence  proceeded,  according  to  what  he  wrote  me,  back 
to  Brazil  in  his  former  capacity,  the  Bishop  being  called 

It  is  now  easy  to  understand  of  what  importance  this 
Post  may  become  if  it  be  entrusted  to  intelligent  and 
diligent  folks  ;  but  that  is  the  defect,  such  being  unpro- 
curable here.  It  is  as  though  there  were  a  curse  upon  it  ; 
people  who  here  appear  to  be  diligent,  zealous,  and  in- 
dustrious are  not  a  year  there  before  they  are  like  Indians. 

1  Cf.  pp.  414  and  614. 


I  say  appear,  for  those  who  are  really  so  by  nature,  and 
have  a  reasonable  judgment,  are  not  spoiled  so  quickly, 
especially  as  there  is  so  fine  a  chance  there  for  making  a 
fortune.  It  is  known  that  gold  dust  was  brought  thence 
in  former  days,  and  de  la  Chau,  in  his  journey  through 
Demerary  to  Essequibo  two  years  ago',  found  a  few  grains 
of  it.  Our  itinerant  trader,  Jan  Stok,  has  been  so  far  up 
the  river  that  he  has  seen  the  Missions  of  the  Portuguese, 
but  did  not  dare  to  approach  them  through  a  childish  fear 
so  common  amongst  the  Indian  traders. 

It  is  indisputable  that  many  discoveries  of  great  im- 
portance might  be  made  in  that  direction  if  things  were 
well  and  properly  managed.  The  costs  necessary  for  the 
same  would  not  be  so  great  as  might  be  supposed  at  a  first 
glance.  A  good  deal  could  be  done  with  looo  rix-dollars 
if  only  we  had  capable  folks. 

The  unsuccessful  journey  of  Nicolaas  Horstman^,  sent 
up  that  river  in  the  year  1740,  would  have  been  of  great 
advantage  if  he  had  not  been  a  scoundrel,  and  had  followed 
his  instructions  instead  of  running  away  with  his  merchan- 
dise to  the  Portuguese,  in  going  whither  he  took  the  road 
of  Rupununi,  and  of  whom  Mr  de  la  Condamine  speaks^  in 
his  journey  of  the  Amazon,  which  journey  he  also  uses  as 
a  proof  of  the  non-existence  of  the  Lake  of  Parima,  Strange 
as  it  may  seem,  it  is  known  but  little,  or  not  at  all,  that 
the  great  river  of  Massaruni,  lying  between  the  Essequibo 
and  the  Cuyuni,  runs  due  south-west  into  the  interior  of 
these  lands  ;  that  it  is  by  no  means  so  dangerous  in  falls  as 
the  two  others,  there  being  only  one  place  where  it  runs 
under  a  very  large  rock  about  a  few  miles  long,  at  a  guess, 
navigated  and  found  to  be  without  danger  by  the  colonist 

1  See  pp,  80,  413,  593  and  594. 
^  For  this  episode,  see  pp.  61-63  ^.nd  167-174. 
^  See  pp.  62,  167  and  539. 
v.  s.    II.  30 


C.  Finet.  The  colonist  E.  Pijpersberg  is  the  only  man,  to 
my  knowledge,  who  has  been  any  great  distance  up  the 
river,  in  pursuit  of  thirteen  of  his  runaway  slaves,  whom  he 
got  back,  too,  from  a  tribe  which  had  never  seen  a  white 
man,  and  which  refused  him  admittance  to  its  land,  he 
having  got  his  slaves  back  through  the  medium  of  a  free 
Indian  known  to  that  tribe,  and  by  means  of  payment  in 
merchandise.  The  aforesaid  Pijpersberg  has  assured  me 
that  on  the  left-hand  side  in  going  up  the  river  he  saw  a 
very  large  pyramid',  which  he  would  have  liked  to  examine, 
but  dared  not  leave  his  captive  slaves. 

3.  The  third  Post  was  on  the  River  of  Cuyuni-,  which 
river,  like  that  of  Massaruni,  mostly  stretches  in  a  straight 
south-westerly  direction,  after  having  first  run  for  some 
miles  in  a  westerly  one ;  according  to  the  unanimous 
testimony  of  the  Indians,  these  rivers,  Massaruni  and 
Cuyuni,  have  their  source  in  a  large  lake  or  inland  sea, 
as  the  Indians  call  it,  which  lake  is  inclosed  by  high 
mountains,  inhabited  by  vast  numbers  of  Indians,  who, 
through  fear  of  the  Spaniards,  allow  no  strangers  to  come 
into  their  country,  it  being  related  that  already  two  detach- 
ments of  Spaniards  sent  into  those  parts  to  make  discoveries 
have  been  beaten  and  massacred.  Whether  this  lake  is  the 
lake  of  Parima^  or  that  of  Cassipa  is  not  yet  known. 

Now,  this  Post  was,  as  is  known,  attacked  in  the  year  [  *] 
in  a  treacherous  manner,  contrary  to  the  law  of  nations,  and 
contrary  to  all  Treaties,  by  the  Spaniards  of  Guayana,  with 
a  detachment  of  100  men,  the  Postholder  and  his  assistant 
being  taken  prisoners  to  Guayana,  and  shortly  after  to 
Cumana,  the  buildings  at  the  Post  being  destroyed  and 
burnt.  The  reasons  that  they  had  for  such  unlawful  pro- 
ceedings must  be  best  known  to  themselves,  because  they 

'  For  references  to  this  and  other  "pyramids"  see  Index,  p.  689. 
2  For  references  to  the  history  of  this  Post  see  Index,  p.  677. 
^  What  Lake  Parima  really  was  may  be  seen  on  pp.  182,  183,  186. 
*  There  is  a  gap  in  the  original.     It  was  in  17^8  (see  p.  356). 



can  have  not  the  very  least  shadow  of  a  claim  to  possession, 
or  it  must  have  been  the  chimerical  pretensions  of  the 
priests  in  these  parts  that  the  whole  of  America  belongs 
to  His  Catholic  Majesty,  and  that  all  other  nations  hold 
possession  vn^xQXy  precario,  and  by  permission. 

So  that  they  must  have  had  entirely  different  reasons, 
and  which  must  be  of  great  consideration  to  authorize  such 
an  excess — which  reasons  can  very  well  be  guessed,  but  not 
being  as  yet  certain  about  them,  I  will  pass  over  them  in 
silence.  The  same  reasons  which  made  the  Post  of  Arinda 
above  Essequibo  of  importance  and  utility  also  exists  here. 
In  addition  to  this,  there  is  also  the  fact  that  [the  bend  of] 
this  river  is  a  tract  of  land  along  which  the  Spaniards 
spread  themselves  from  year  to  year,  and  gradually  come 
closer  by  means  of  their  Missions,  the  small  parties  sent 
out  by  them  coming  close  to  the  place  where  the  Honour- 
able Company's  indigo  plantation  stood,  and  being  certain 
to  try  and  establish  themselves  if  they  are  not  stopped  in 
time.  Guayana,  or  Orinoco,  has  now  become  a  Government, 
and  the  new  Governor  has  brought  orders,  and  is  actually 
at  work,  to  abandon  and  to  break  down  the  town  or  village^ 
in  Orinoco,  and  to  bring  it  a  few  days'  journey  higher  up 
the  river,  by  doing  which  and  on  account  of  the  ramifica- 
tions of  the  two  rivers,  he  is  brought  much  nearer  the  River 
Cuyuni.  This  immense  work  and  the  heavy  expense  are 
not  undertaken  without  some  important  and  certain  aim. 

That  the  River  Cuyuni  is  full  of  mines  is  pretty  certain 
both  from  the  unanimous  testimony  of  the  Indians,  and 
from  the  fact  that  the  waters  of  this  river,  which  have  been 
stagnant  amongst  the  mountains,  are  found  to  be  undrink- 
able,  and  even,  to  some  extent,  poisonous,  at  the  end  of  the 
dry  season  and  when  the  rains  begin.  They  are  then 
exceedingly  unwholesome,  and  full  of  verdigris. 

^  S.  Thom^  was  in  1^64  (when  Storm  wrote)  removed  to  its  present 
site,  called  Angostura,  and  afterwards  Ciudad  Bolivar. 



The  copper-mine  in  the  Blue  Mountain  is  well  known, 
but  besides  this  it  is  seen  that  the  Indians  have  silver 
collars,  which  they  make  themselves,  and  which,  according 
to  their  words,  they  get  from  the  mountains.  Many  stones 
are  found  there  full  of  arsenical  matter  and  every  appearance 
of  rich  metal.  In  the  year  1758  a  rich  silver-mine  would 
have  been  discovered  had  it  not  been  for  the  treasonable 
conduct  of  a  Company's  half-free  Creole,  who  was  con- 
sequently made  a  slave,  and  who  is  now  actually  at  work 
at  Fort  Zeelandia. 

We  must  have  no  expectations  of  getting  information 
concerning  any  mines  from  the  Indians.  The  common 
people  themselves  know  nothing  of  them,  and  it  is  only  the 
Chiefs  and  the  Elders,  who  carefully  keep  the  same  secret, 
and  make  the  other  Indians  believe  that  the  Jawaho  or 
Devil  lives  in  those  places,  by  which  they  are  frightened 
from  approaching  those  places. 

This  is  caused  by  the  harsh  treatment  of  the  Spaniards, 
the  first  discoverers,  who,  by  making  them  work  in  the 
mines,  have  sent  many  thousands  of  these  people  to  the 
other  world.  Our  itinerant  traders,  as  superstitious  as  the 
Indians  themselves,  are  also  very  careful  not  to  come 
near  those  places. 

This  Post  is  also  very  necessary  to  stop  the  slaves 
running  away  to  the  Spaniards,  this  being  the  nearest  way. 

4.  There  now  remains  only  the  Post  situated  on  the 
sea-coast  between  Essequibo  and  Orinoco,  in  the  Creeks 
Wacquepo  and  Moruka,  not  far  below  the  River  Pomeroon, 
which  creeks  have  an  inland  communication  by  water^  with 
Pomeroon,  as  also  with  the  River  Waini,  which  has  one  with 
the  River  Barima,  which  are  all  navigable  in  the  rainy  season, 
and  thus  of  very  great  use  in  furthering  commerce  both  with 
the  Indians  and  with  the  Spaniards,  all  who  do  not  sail  in 

^  Cf.  Notes  on  pp.  322  and  663. 


very  large  ships  having  to  pass  the  Post  on  their  journey 
to  or  from  Orinoco.  The  trade  of  that  Post  formerly  con- 
sisted mostly  in  boats  and  annatto  dye,  of  which  last  it  used 
to  yield  a  very  large  quantity,  though  now  it  sends  none  at  all. 

The  boats  which  come  from  there  are  by  far  the  best  and 
most  durable,  being  manufactured  by  the  Warouws,  who 
inhabit  the  islands  in  the  mouth  of  the  Orinoco. 

The  most  important  use  of  this  Post  consists  in — 

i.      Keeping  possession  of  that  district. 

ii.  Stopping  and  catching  the  slaves  who  try  to  run 
away  from  this  Colony  to  Orinoco,  and  who  mostly  pass 
this  way. 

iii.  Providing  the  Indians  who  are  required  both  by  the 
Honourable  Company's  plantations  as  well  as  by  private 
colonists  to  go  salting,  most  of  those  who  live  under  this 
Post  being  good  sailors  and  used  to  navigation. 

iv.    Providing  the  necessary  boats. 

The  holder  of  this  Post  could  make  a  large  fortune  if  he 
was  a  man  to  look  after  his  own  interests,  because,  in  addi- 
tion to  the  trade  with  the  Indians  in  hammocks,  boats, 
salt-fish,  slaves,  and  other  Indian  merchandise,  which  is  not 
without  good  profit,  all  the  Spaniards  who  come  here  with 
mules,  cattle,  tobacco,  hides,  tallow,  dried  meat,  &c.,  pass 
the  Post,  and  stop  there  for  a  few  days  to  refresh  themselves 
and  rest  their  animals.  If  he  kept  a  stock  of  the  things 
that  the  Spaniards  required,  the  latter  would  be  very  pleased 
to  buy  them  there,  and  would  not  come  further.  This  fact 
it  is  easy  to  grasp. 

Some  years  ago  one  de  Scharde  (who  had  been  a  ship- 
broker  in  Amsterdam),  an  honest  and  sensible  man,  had 
been  in  command  there  only  about  two  years  when  he  died\ 

'  Jan  de  Scharde  figures  on  the  Muster-Roll  for  i'/48  as  the  post- 
holder  at  Wacquepo  {Ven.  Art.  Brit.  App.  vii.  p.  161):  Aegidius 
de  Scharde  in  the  Registers  (see  p.  400)  as  the  owner  of  "  Hampton 


Having  brought  nothing  when  he  came,  he  left  behind  him 
a  widow,  who  first  laid  out  a  plantation  with  a  good 
number  of  slaves  in  Demerara,  and  bequeathed  it  free  of 
debt  to  her  son. 

In  order  immediately  to  derive  more  real  benefit,  and  to 
have  reason  to  expect  great  advantages  in  the  future  from 
the  different  Posts,  and  especially  from  the  three  last 
mentioned  there  should  {salvo  meliori) : — 

Firstly,  be  appointed  as  commanders  specially  diligent 
and  industrious  folk  who  have  good  sound  judgment,  are 
of  good  behaviour,  and  are  by  no  means  drunkards.  Such 
are  not  to  be  got  here,  and  through  the  bad  behaviour  of 
the  Postholders  that  office  has  fallen  into  such  contempt 
that  when  the  afore-mentioned  de  Scharde  was  Postholder 
and  I  gave  him  a  seat  at  my  table  as  being  a  respectable 
man  and  of  good  conduct,  several  Councillors  said  they 
would  not  come  and  dine  with  me  again.  However 
ridiculous  such  empty  pride  was,  especially  as  the  same 
gentlemen  placed  their  foremen,  salters,  and  workmen  right 
next  to  me  at  table  when  I  called  at  their  houses,  it  yet 
shows  to  what  extreme  degree  of  contempt  those  Postholders 
have  fallen. 

If  I  had  been  able  to  get  more  like  de  Scharde  or  had 
been  able  to  keep  him  longer  that  would  soon  have  been 
altered,  but  until  now  it  has  always  gone  amiss,  just  as  this 
self-same  month  I  have  given  the  Postholder  of  Arinda  a 
rifle  to  carry  and  made  him  a  soldier  at  the  Fort  on  account 
of  his  bad  conduct. 

Secondly,  they  must  not  be  permitted  to  carry  on  any 
private  trade  except  in  trifles,  animals,  birds,  basket-work, 
salt-fish,  and  such  things,  in  order  to  encourage  them  and 
bring  them  some  profit.  All  the  rest  that  is  of  any  im- 
portance should  be  purchased  for  the  Honourable  Company 
and  sold  (or  used,  according  to  the  requirements  of  the  case) 
for  account  of  the  same. 


But  (and  this  is  perhaps  the  most  important)  if  they 
make  any  discoveries  of  importance  a  certain  premium 
should  be  awarded  them  in  order  to  encourage  them,  and 
the  necessary  expenses  which  they  incur  in  going  into  the 
interior  of  the  country,  &c.,  should  be  allowed  in  their 
accounts.  And  they  should  be  awarded  a  certain  proportion, 
as,  for  instance,  4  or  5  per  cent.,  on  what  they  purchase  for 
the  Honourable  Company,  and  credited  with  the  same  in 
their  accounts  or  paid  out  of  the  proceeds  of  what  they 

For  without  reasonable  advantages  and  the  prospect  of 
fortune,  no  one  who  is  accustomed  to  a  proper  mode  of  life 
would  care  to  become  a  hermit  and  go  and  live  in  places 
isolated  from  all  companionship  of  whites,  amidst  woods 
and  mountains,  which  in  itself  requires  some  resolution  on 
the  part  of  honest  folks,  for  with  regard  to  other  sorts,  such 
as  our  itinerant  traders  and  their  like,  they  care  little  where 
in  the  world  they  are  and  have  really  (though  there  is  no 
rule  without  an  exception)  only  the  shape  or  figure  of  human 
beings — vix  nomine  digni. 

In  addition  to  what  has  been  briefly  stated  here  con- 
cerning the  Posts  or  trading  places,  there  must  also  be 
considered  the  vast  extent  of  the  districts  situated  between 
those  four  Posts,  without  reckoning  those  which  are  beyond 
the  same,  and  belonging  to  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Honour- 
able Company. 

Concerning  which  districts  it  should  especially  be  taken 
into  consideration  that  they  surpass  those  already  cultivated 
in  fertility  to  such  a  degree  as  to  be  perfectly  incredible 
to  those  who  are  unacquainted  with  the  experiments  and 
investigations  made. 

Above  the  first  fall  in  Essequibo  a  Jew  named  Moses 
Isaac   de   Vries\   who   has    now   been    dead    some   years, 

^  See  pp.  197,  207  and  227  for  further  particulars  concerning  him. 


commenced  a  sugar  plantation,  and  the  cane  which  was 
grown  there  called  forth  the  admiration  and  astonishment 
of  all  the  inhabitants. 

The  Rivers  Massaruni,  Cuyuni,  Pomeroon,  Wacquepo, 
Moruka,  and  Waini,  &c.,  surpass  this  one  so  greatly  in  the 
matter  of  fertile  lands  that  not  the  slightest  comparison 
can  be  instituted. 

It  must  not  be  imagined  that  the  land  above  the  falls 
would  be  uninhabitable  on  account  of  the  difficulty  of 
transporting  the  produce  down  stream.  In  no  wise.  The 
aforementioned  Jew  demonstrated  how  easy  it  was,  and 
results  proved  it.  How  many  thousands  of  families  would 
not  in  this  way  be  located,  make  an  easy  living,  and  be 
saved  from  want  (from  which  so  many  unfortunate  ones  at 
home  suffer). 

What  advantages  our  commonwealth  would  reap  from 
this  is  too  clear  and  convincing  to  need  expatiating  upon. 

The  costs  of  such  an  enterprise  would  not  be  so  ex- 
orbitantly high  as  one  would  imagine  at  the  first  glance. 
So  little  is  required  in  this  country  for  the  necessaries  of 
life  that  it  must  have  been  seen  and  experienced  to  be 
understood.  Here  the  proverb — Natura  paiicis  coiitotta — - 
is  true  to  its  fullest  extent.  It  was  in  the  year  1750  that 
I  had  the  honour,  in  a  private  audience  of  His  Serene 
Highness  of  most  laudable  memoryS  to  give  utterance  to 
this  paradox — that  it  was  a  misfortune  for  this  country  that 
one  could  get  one's  living  too  easily,  of  which  real  truth 
that  great  Prince,  upon  fuller  explanation,  was  perfectly 

If  we  ever  desired  to  enter  upon  so  profitable  a  matter 
and  follow  the  example  of  the  English  and  French,  the 
Posts  of  which  I  have  spoken  would  be  absolutely  necessary 
and  indispensable,  and  (be  it  said)  if  this  matter  is  not 

^  William  IV,  Prince  of  Orange  (cf.  p.  yj). 


taken  in  hand,  our  neighbours  will  quietly  approach  and 
surround  us,  and  finally,  without  exercising  any  violence, 
drive  us  from  the  country.  This  is  already  beginning  to  be 
observed,  and  what  can  we  expect  from  the  numerous 
arrivals  of  settlers  in  Cayenne,  and  the  removal  of  Spanish 
people  and  plantations  in  Guayana  so  much  nearer  to  our 
boundaries  ?  The  latter  go  to  work  openly,  like  a  proud 
nation,  and  they  can,  therefore,  be  better  opposed,  an  open 
enemy  never  being  so  dangerous  as  a  secret  one. 

But  the  former  will  go  to  work  in  an  entirely  different 
way.  They  will,  I  think,  at  first  be  careful  not  to  pass  the 
River  Marewyne  on  the  sea-coast  (their  boundary-line  with 
Surinam),  but  it  is  to  be  expected  that  they  will  do  so 
inland  and  behind  our  Colonies,  and  then  quietly  reach  the 
banks  of  the  Essequibo,  and  thus  approach  us  (e.g.,  the 
Ohio  in  North  America)  or  the  Portuguese  on  the  Amazon. 

A  few  years  ago  I  saw  a  passport  issued  by  a  Governor 
of  Cayenne,  which  was  headed,  "Governor  of  the  French 
Colonies  from  the  Amazon  to  the  Orinoco."  Ex  wigue 

To  try  and  avoid  or  prevent  this  by  garrisons,  forts  or 
such  like  would  be  an  impossible  matter,  and  there  would 
be  nothing  with  which  to  make  good  the  costs. 

The  only  means  of  preventing  it,  of  keeping  the 
Colonies,  and  of  rendering  them  eminently  profitable  and 
advantageous  to  the  Republic  is  their  population  and 
proper  encouragement  for  the  inhabitants. 

But  this  serving  only  as  a  brief  treatise  upon  the  Posts, 
I  shall  make  an  end  here,  having  dealt  with  that  matter  as 
briefly  as  possible. 


P.R.O.   472/72 

December  28,  1764. 

After  speaking  of  the  diffic2ilty  he  has  in  procuring  ejiongh 
stone  or  bricks  for  the  erection  of  a  neiv  mill  Stortn  goes 
on  to  say: 

The  hewn  stones  of  Fort  KijkoveraP  (for  the  bricks  have 
already  all  been  brought  down  and  used  on  Your  Honours' 
plantations)  would  go  a  very  long  way,  but,  YY.  HH.,  to  pull 
them  down  and  bring  them  away  would  require  very  much 
time  and  labour;  it  is  an  old  Portuguese  construction-, 
built  extra  solid  and  strong-. 

^  This  fort,  situated  on  an  island  at  the  confluence  of  the  Esse- 
quibo  and  Cuyuni,  does  not  appear  to  have  been  in  use  and  was 
certainly  not  of  much  use  on  Storm's  arrival  in  the  Colony  in  1738', 
in  1744  the  Commander  expressed  his  intention  of  repairing  it,  its 
upkeep  being  regarded  as  "of  the  utmost  necessity"  (see  p.  209),  but 
four  years  later  it  was  resolved  to  raze  it,  probably  owing  to  the 
difficulty  of  obtaining  labour  (see  p.  235),  and  in  //Jo  it  was  reported 
as  abandoned  but  "not  yet  razed"  (see  p.  254).  In  iyS5  Storm  had 
the  Fort  cleaned  and  announced  his  intention  of  placing  some  guns 
there  as  a  precaution  against  the  Akawois  (see  p.  341)  but  it  is  not 
clear  whether  this  was  actually  done.  In  any  case,  it  appears  to  have 
been  utterly  in  ruins  at  the  date  of  the  above  despatch. 

^  This  strange  statement — startling,  indeed,  from  an  historical 
point  of  view— has,  through  the  instrumentality  of  Hartsinck  and 
Dalton,  been  handed  down  to  posterity.  There  is  little  doubt  that 
Hartsinck  either  copied  it  direct  from  the  above  despatch  or  got  it 
indirectly  from  Storm  (cf.  p.  460),  for  in  his  reference  to  Fort 
Kijkoveral  as  a  Portuguese  construction  {Beschrijvhig  van  Guiana, 
tom.  i.  p.  207)  he  also  mentions  the  use  of  its  stones  for  the  very  mill 
referred  to  above  ;  there  is  still  less  doubt  that  the  statement  was 
an  erroneous  one  (or  that  Portuguese  was,  perhaps,  simply  a  slip  for 
Spanish),  for,  in  spite  of  long  and  deep  research,  no  trace  of  Portu- 
guese occupation  of  the  Essequibo  can  be  found.  Netscher  {Ge- 
schiedefiis  van  Essequebo,  pp.  338,  339)  has  a  very  exhaustive  note  on 
the  subject.     See  also  Ven.  Arb.  Brit.  App.  vii.  pp.  239-242. 


I  am  greatly  obliged  to  YY.  HH.  for  kindly  considering 
by  what  means  I  could  be  somewhat  relieved  from  the 
manifold  duties  pressing  upon   me. 

Those  duties,  YY.  HH.,  increase  from  day  to  day,  whilst 
my  strength  grows  less.  I  have  been  able  to  get  along  for 
more  than  twenty  years  by  working  in  my  office  from  eight 
to  twelve  every  forenoon  only,  not  always  continuously, 
and  never  in  the  afternoons  except  for  incoming  and  out- 
going home  letters.  But  now  things  are  quite  different, 
especially  since  the  recent  critical  events,  and  these,  too, 
supplemented  by  Mr  Spoors'  misfortune.  For  the  past 
month  or  two  I  have  had  in  my  service  a  youth  named 
Jan  Brouwer  to  assist  me  in  copying,  but  with  him  it  is  as 
with  the  Assistant  Milborn — both  write  fairly  well  but  ex- 
traordinarily slow.  What  I  write  in  one  morning  they 
cannot  copy  in  a  week  and  that  is  so  irksome  to  me  that  I 
mostly  prefer  to  do  it  myself 

I  have  received  a  report  from  the  few  colonists  who  still 
reside  in  the  upper  reaches  of  the  rivers  that  a  few  weeks 
ago  they  had  seen  a  white  man  with  a  few  Indians  proceed- 
ing down  the  falls  of  the  River  Cuyuni  and  proceeding  up 
the  River  Massaruni.  I  reproached  them  very  much  for 
not  apprehending  and  sending  the  man  to  the  Fort,  and 
expressly  charged  them  that  if  they  caught  sight  of  others 
they  should  immediately  apprehend  them  and  send  them  to 
me,  which  they  promised  to  do. 

There  is  something  behind  this,  YY.  HH. ;  these  are 
spies  who  come  and  get  all  the  information  they  can,  and 
I  fear  that  some  trouble  or  other  is  brewing  on  the  side  of 

Whatever  trouble  I  have  taken,  and  whatever  promises 
1  have  made,  I  have  not  been  able  to  get  any  Indians  up  to 
the  present  to  aid  me  in  re-establishing  the  Post  in  Cuyuni, 
and  without  their  help  it  cannot  be  done,  because  with 


slaves  it  is  not  only  too  costly  but  also  too  dangerous,  so 
that  I  am  in  great  difficulties  with  this  work,  and  the  re- 
establishment  of  that  Post  is,  in  my  opinion,  of  the  greatest 

The  sudden  and  rapid  increase  made  in  the  colonization 
of  Cayenne  affords  me  not  only  much  food  for  reflection, 
but  three  or  four  weeks  ago  I  received  a  letter  from  the 
Governor  of  Surinam  in  which  he  expresses  himself  very 
fully  upon  that  subject,  and  in  which  he,  like  me,  sees  fatal 
results  for  our  Colonies  on  the  mainland. 

I  have  the  honour  to  send  YY.  HH.  herewith  the  con- 
ditions laid  down  by  the  Court  of  France  for  that  coloniza- 
tion (possibly  YY.  HH.  have  already  seen  these,  but  we 
have  this  copy  from  the  ship  that  was  wrecked  near  the 
Corentin).  That  Court  is  not  accustomed  to  lay  out  such 
unheard-of  sums  as  have  been  expended  in  this  matter  with- 
out having  some  great  and  important  aim. 

I  have,  as  I  had  the  honour  to  report  in  the  postscript 
of  my  last,  given  orders  for  the  removal  of  Post  Arinda,  and 
it  is  my  intention,  as  soon  as  it  is  at  all  possible,  to  establish 
it  much  higher  still,  or  to  establish  another  Post  higher  up 
(but  since  this  last  cannot  be  done  without  special  orders 
from  YY.  HH.,  I  am  obliged  to  await  these  first)  in  order 
that  I  may,  at  least,  receive  detailed  reports  of  all  the 
movements  made  by  our  neighbours  in  the  interior,  for  the 
course  of  our  River  Essequibo  runs  so  far  southwards  that 
I  most  certainly  think  it  must,  partly  at  least,  run  behind 
Cayenne,  although  very  far  inland.  What  gives  occasion 
for  more  reflection  is  the  fact  that  the  French  Commissioners 
who  have  been  to  Surinam  and  Berbice  concerning  the 
ship  that  was  wrecked  are  doing  their  utmost  to  convince 
the  people  that  the  project  is  impracticable  and  must  be 
dropped.  I,  for  my  part,  have  lived  too  long  in  these  coun- 
tries to  allow  myself  to  be  blinded  in  that  way. 

The  Governor  (Crommelin)  tells  me  also  that  the  French 


acted  with  no  very  good  faith  with  the  rebels  of  the  East 
Indian  ship  "  Nyenburg,"  since  several,  and  not  the  least  of 
them,  are  still  in  Cayenne,  and  who  knows,  says  His 
Excellency,  whether  it  was  not  on  account  of  the  officers 
whom  he  sent  there,  or  some  of  whom  he  may  have  received. 
I  am  told  that  he  has  written  fully  concerning  these  matters 
to  the  Surinam  Company. 

Thus,  what  with  the  French  on  the  east  and  the 
Spaniards  on  the  west,  we  are  really  like  a  little  boat 
between  two  men-of-war. 

I  shall  not  attempt  to  give  my  masters  advice  in  a 
matter  which  it  is  in  no  one's  power  to  prevent  or  to  circum- 
vent. My  only  aim  in  this  is  respectfully  to  submit  to 
YY.  HH.  what  is  our  humble  opinion  concerning  this  in  all 
our  Colonies  situated  on  the  mainland,  and  our  well- 
grounded  fears  concerning  the  consequences. 

I,  for  my  part,  see  no  remedy  for  this  matter  except  by 
populating  the  Colony  and  establishing  good  Posts  in  the 
interior,  from  which  a  sharp  and  careful  look-out  can  be 
kept  upon  all  movements. 

Because,  as  I  have  already  had  the  honour  of  informing 
YY.  HH.,  if  anything  be  undertaken  it  will  be  done  inland, 
and  not  on  the  sea-coast ;  of  this  I  am  perfectly  certain, 
and  I  do  not  think  that  two  years  will  elapse  before  we  see 
something  of  the  kind. 

In  this  emergency  I  have  again  had  a  talk  with  van  der 
Heyde  about  Cuyuni.  He  has  told  me  that  the  Indians 
were  won  over  to  be  helpful,  but  that  they  wished  in  that 
case  to  be  assured  also  of  protection  against  the  Spaniards. 

He  is  of  opinion  that  it  would  be  needful  that,  at  the 
place  where  the  Post  is  to  stand,  a  good  bread-ground  be 
first  cleared  and  planted,  so  that  neither  the  Postholder  nor 
the  Indians  should  suffer  want  (since  food  such  as  fish  and 
game  is  there  in  great  abundance),  and  that  it  would  be  well 


to  place  there  some  of  the  old  slaves,  who  not  only  do  no 
more  work,  but  are  a  heavy  burden  on  the  plantations,  yet 
still  competent  to  tend  the  bread-grounds  and  to  keep  them 
in  order,  and  to  plant  again  ;  when,  if  bread  were  abundant, 
a  great  multitude  of  Indians  would  always  be  at  and  about 
the  Post. 

P.R.O.  472/87 

February  3,  1765. 

Friendly  relations  with  the  Indians  are  certainly  of  the 
greatest  necessity  to  the  Colony  ;  the  dangerous  circum- 
stances in  which  we  found  ourselves,  and  the  loyalty  shown 
and  assistance  rendered  at  that  time  by  the  Caribs  and  Acu- 
ways,  have  given  convincing  proofs  of  what  advantage  their 
friendship,  and  how  injurious  their  enmity,  might  be  to  the 
Colonies.  Notwithstanding  this,  many  of  our  colonists  do 
not  hesitate  to  ill-treat  and  oppress  these  people  in  every  way. 
YY.  HH.  would  not  believe  how  I  am  troubled  by  the  com- 
plaints of  these  people  ;  within  a  fortnight  I  have  had  more 
than  ten  of  them  who  came  to  tell  me  their  grievances,  and 
only  this  morning  I  had  three. 

An  Indian  can  never  tell  the  truth,  and  that  makes 
matters  very  difficult ;  a  whole  party  of  them  has  to  appear 
before  the  Court  on  the  22nd  inst. 

I  know  of  no  other  remedy  for  this  than  that  the 
Sovereign  shall  strictly  forbid  anyone  to  detain,  under 
any  pretext  whatsoever,  any  free  Indians,  male  or  female, 
upon  his  plantation  against  their  will,  or  to  hinder  them 
from  departing  whithersoever  they  please,  upon  their 
desiring  so  to  do. 


Old  Mr  Clarke  is  dead\  I  am  expecting  his  son  and 
heir  (who  has  the  honour  of  being  known  to  YY.  HH.)  in 
Demerara  next  month,  in  accordance  with  what  he  wrote 
me  by  this  vessel^.  Upon  his  arrival  I  will  endeavour  to 
come  to  an  arrangement  with  him^ 

Upon  that  matter  YY.  HH.  are  pleased  to  say  that  YY.  HH, 
cannot  recognize  any  foreign  assistance  without  the  authority 
or  approval  of  the  Sovereign.  Unfortunate  indeed  for  these 
remote  lying  regions !  If  in  unexpected  emergencies  we 
have  to  wait  for  help  from  Europe  the  colony  would  be  lost 
long  before  preparations  could  be  made,  and  if  Berbice  had 
received  help  so  speedily  from  Barbados  as  did  Demerara, 
matters  would  probably  not  have  gone  so  far  and  those 

1  See  pp.  39-43. 

^  Gedney  Clarke,  Jr.,  was  then  returning  from  Europe  (cf.  Note  on 
p.  440).  The  following  extract  from  a  letter  addressed  by  him  later  in 
the  same  year  to  Count  Bentinck  may  be  of  interest  here  corroborating, 
too,  as  it  does,  his  father's  opmion  of  the  West  India  Company's 

Barbados,   17th  Sept.,   1765. 

...I  shall  do  all  that  lays  in  my  power  for  the  wellfare  of  Demerary  ; 
since  my  heart  is  full  as  warm  nay  as  warm  as  ever  in  its  service. 

Indeed  the  progress  this  infant  Settlement  is  making  (notwith- 
standing how  much  it  has  been  neglected)  is  surprising.  But  the 
Inhabitants  want  assistence  of  every  kind  from  Fatherland  ;  and  they 
are  with  the  greatest  impatience  waiting  the  next  year,  when  the 
Prince  will  be  of  age.  It  is  then  that  we  are  to  hope  for  relief;  and 
to  pray  that  Demerary  may  become  a  free  post  [port!'],  as  St  Eustatius 
is  now.  If  Zealand  had  not  usurped  an  exclusive  [right?]  to  the  trade 
of  that  colony  it  is  evident  that  it  wou'd  long  e'er  this  have  been  in  a 
flourishing  State  ;  since  Amsterdam  would  have  pushed  matters  with 
more  becoming  spirit  than  Middelbourg  has  heretofore  done  :  for 
Your  Excellency  will  hardly  think  that  since  I  had  the  honour  of 
paying  you  my  respects  four  years  ago  nothing  seems  to  have  been 
done  for  its  Service  but  to  send  a  few  soldiers  to  the  Colony.  But 
indeed  we  have  been  so  long  in  vain  expectations  that  we  no  more 
relay  on  procuring  assistance  from  Middelbourg.  We  must  therefore 
wait  with  patience  the  fortunate  period  before  mentioned  ;  when  we 
hope  the  Company  will  be  roused  from  its  appearant  Lethargy  by  the 
hands  of  power  justice  and  humanity....    {^Brit.  Miis.  Eg.  MSS.  1720.) 

^  Concerning  his  claim  for  aid  against  rebels.  Cf.  pp.  43  (Note  2), 
44  (Note  6),  483  and  599. 


enormous  costs  already  and  yet  to  be  incurred  for  re- 
storing order  would  possibly  to  a  great  extent  have  been 
spared.  But  as  I  have  no  knowledge  of  matters  of  that  sort 
I  will  break  off,  but  it  is  natural  that  he  who  falls  into  the 
water  clutches,  to  save  himself,  at  the  first  thing  that 
presents  itself 

Truly  and  honestly  be  it  said,  YY.  HH.,  in  order  to  have 
West  Indian  understanding  one  must  have  been  in  the 
West  Indies.  This  I  had  the  honour  of  saying  to  His  late 
Serene  Highness  of  laudable  memory,  and  it  is  literally 
true  ;  if  we  but  had  the  honour  of  seeing  one  or  two 
members  of  Your  Honours'  body  here  for  a  year  things 
would  soon  change  their  appearance. 

This  Colony  is  no  longer  what  it  was  when  I  arrived  in 
the  country  nearly  27  years  ago ;  the  difference  is  as  great 
as  between  Middelburg  and  Arnemuyden\  It  is  still 
growing  daily  and  what  would  it  be  if  it  had  received 
proper  encouragement? 

It  is  certain  and  irrefutable  that  colonies  should  tend  to 
the  welfare  and  profit  of  the  province  from  which  they  de- 
pend and,  since  they  originate  therefrom,  should  regard  it 
as  their  mother  and  nurse.  But,  Noble  and  Right  Honour- 
able Sirs,  if  there  be  a  duty,  and  an  unshirkable  duty,  on 
the  part  of  children  towards  their  parents,  there  is  also  a 
duty  incumbent  upon  parents  towards  their  children — they 
are  compelled,  whilst  the  latter  are  young,  to  feed  and 
cherish  them,  and  when  grown  up  to  seek  and  to  further 
their  welfare. 

The  colonists  are  under  obligation  to  do  all  in  their 
power  to  contribute  towards  the  welfare  of  their  province. 
But  they  must  not  be  oppressed  and  ground  under  foot. 

1  These  Zealand  towns  are  only  two  miles  apart.  In  ijjg  the 
population  of  the  former  was  25,000  (Blink,  Nederland  en  sijne 
Bewoners ;  i8g2) ;  that  of  the  latter  has  for  the  past  two  centuries 
been  about  a  tenth  of  its  more  powerful  sister. 


This  in  no  way  reflects  upon  Your  Honours'  paternal  care 
and  rule,  for  which  they  have  naught  but  praise,  being  con- 
vinced that  YY.  HH.  would  sweep  away  all  causes  of  com- 
plaint, if  able  to  do  so.  But  do  the  private  merchants, 
correspondents,  shipowners,  etc.,  act  in  a  similar  way  ?  Far 
from  it,  and  experience  shows  sufficiently  that  they  regard 
the  colonists  absolutely  as  their  servants  who  have  only  to 
work  for  them — but  I  will  leave  this  hateful  subject.  I 
have  but  recently  seen  such  harsh,  even  unjust  dealings 
concerning  the  mortgages  for  the  "Carolina  Medioburgensis" 
that  it  is  impossible  to  be  borne.  In  addition  to  this  there 
are  so  many  matters  respecting  which  YY.  HH.  should  be 
informed  that  if  I  would  do  it  in  writing  a  ream  of  paper 
would  not  suffice,  and  however  brief  I  try  to  be  I  fear  that 
I  weary  YY.  HH.  with  my  long  letters. 

I  also  feel  compelled  to  say  that  it  is  perfectly  impossible 
for  me  to  exist  at  present  upon  my  income  and  I  must  get 
further  into  arrears  every  year  ;  I  am  now  already  indebted 
to  my  correspondent^  for  over  three  thousand  guilders.  Yet 
at  home  I  live  like  the  meanest  burgher ;  my  children  and 
I,  far  from  indulging  in  splendid  dress,  are  clothed  far  be- 
neath our  station.  It  was  occasionally  possible  to  purchase, 
although  I  did  so  reluctantly,  some  household  provisions 
with  the  syrup ;  this  is  over  now,  and  even  a  barrel  of  butter, 
a  cheese  or  anything  like  that  must  be  paid  for  in  money  or 
by  bill. 

Not  a  day  passes  but  what  I  have  strangers  to  entertain — 
at  Court  meetings,  ordinary  and  extraordinary,  and  after 
church  every  Sunday  I  have  at  least  twenty  people  at  my 
table^.  I  get  nothing  from  the  plantations  but  the  quarterly 
sugar  and  kiltum  for  the  Indians  and  slaves,  not  even  any 

^  Pieter  de  Bruijn,  of  Middelburg.     See  p.  458. 
2  The  Directors'  reply  to  this  was  an  increase  of  300  guilders  per 
year  in  Storm's  allowance  for  table-money  (see  p.  495). 

V.  S.    II.  31 


maize  for  my  poultry — everything  must  be  bought  and  paid 
for.  The  late  Commander  had  such  great  expenses  and 
suffered  such  loss  on  his  plantation  that  if  it  had  gone  on  for 
a  few  years  longer  he  would  have  been  totally  ruined.  It  is 
true  that  YY,  HH.  were  kind  enough  to  write  that  he  would  be 
compensated,  but  now  he  is  dead  and  his  widow,  left  with 
three  children  of  tender  years,  has  to  bear  the  loss\  Is  not  all 
this  hard.  Your  Honours  ?  I  have  now  my  youngest  and 
only  son  in  Europe  in  order  that  in  accordance  with  my 
bounden  duty  I  may  give  him  an  education  in  keeping  with 
his  birth  and  one  that  he  cannot  get  here  ;  for  this  I  cannot 
reckon  less  than  six  hundred  guilders  a  year.  To  burden 
year  after  year  the  plantation  "  Soestdijk-,"  the  only  pro- 
perty that  we  have  as  it  were  (half  belonging  to  the  widow 
and  her  children  and  half  to  my  other  children),  would  be 
sinful  before  God  and  man. 

Is  it  then  not  better  to  sell  my  house  and  land  here,  pay 
my  debt  to  Mr  de  Bruyn*,  and  live  quietly  upon  the  planta- 
tion and  so  make  shift  with  the  little  that  I  have  for  the  short 
period  of  life  that  is  still  left  me  ?  These  and  many  others 
were  the  matters  concerning  which  I  hoped  to  have  the 
honour  of  speaking  with  YY.  HH.  when  accompanying  my 
son  and  grandson.  YY.  HH.  have  been  pleased  not  to  grant 
my  discharge*  for  which  I  so  greatly  longed.  YY.  HH.  are 
also  pleased  to  disapprove  of  my  coming  over.  What  is 
there  then  for  me  to  do  ?  Obey  and  do  my  duty  I  must, 
and  with  the  Lord's  help  shall,  to  the  end  of  my  days,  but  I 
am  really  almost  at  my  wits'  end. 

1  See  p.  335.  2  See  p_  ^67. 

^  His  agent  or  "correspondent"  ;  cf.  pp.  413,  458  and  481. 
*  Applied  for  with  great  insistence  both  in  Alay  and  Septe7)iber, 
1^63  (see  pp.  425  and  436). 


P.R.O.   472/89 

February   11,   1765. 

I  was  startled  on  Saturday  to  see  the  account  of  what 
Mr  Clarke  has  laid  out'.  What  a  sum  !  I  have  ordered 
McClean  to  have  it  copied  and  translated  in  order  that  it 
may  be  examined  by  the  Court  and  a  copy  sent  to  YY.  HH. 
by  "  Het  Loo,"  if  possible.  The  sum  reaches  a  total  of 
41,060  gldrs.  15  stivers 2. 

P.R.O.  472/97 

March   15,  1765. 

When  I  had  the  honour  of  writing  my  last  despatch  by 
"  De  Sarah*"  I  was  compelled  to  do  so  by  another's  hand 
and  to  content  myself  with  dictating  and  signing  the  same, 
since  it  had  pleased  the  Almighty  to  visit  me  with  a  severe 
illness ;  for  some  days  I  was  beset  with  great  pains  in  my 
head  and  loins,  and  these  at  last  became  so  intense  that  I 
was  unable  to  attend  the  extraordinary  Court  meeting  of 
the  12th  of  February.  On  the  14th  my  temperature  rose 
four  times  to  such  a  height  that  the  surgeons  and  I  thought 
there  was  but  little  hope  of  my  recovery. 

'  For  the  aid  rendered  at  the  time  of  the  Berbice  slave  rising 
(see  pp.  42-44  and  599). 

^  ^3421.  IS.  3^.  in  English  currency  ;  Hartsinck  {Beschnjving 
van  Guiana.,  torn.  i.  p.  275)  quotes  the  amount  of  Clarke's  claim  as 
eight  thousand  pounds  sterling  (and  this  has  been  copied  by  later 
historians)  but,  as  usual,  does  not  mention  the  source  of  his  informa- 
tion. Possibly  he  meant  Flemish  pounds,  which  would  have  been 
equal  to  just  half  the  amount  he  quotes.  (Cf.  p.  599,  and  see  especially 
— note  on  p.  43 — what  Rodway  says  on  the  matter.) 

^  DdXed  Jafiuary  12,  lydj.  From  that  despatch  little  of  interest  is 
to  be  gleaned  except  the  fact  that  Mr  N.  Rousselet  de  la  Jarie  had 
been  appointed  Secretary  ad  interim  and  Salesmaster  during  Mr 
Spoors'  absence  in  Europe. 



P.R.O.   472/101 

May   II,  1765. 

I  have  not  received  any  report  concerning  the  removal 
of  Post  Arinda.  I  had  instructed  the  Postholder  to  come 
down  at  the  beginning  of  this  year,  but  as  he  has  been 
earnestly  charged  to  keep  a  sharp  look-out  upon  all  that 
goes  on  beyond  his  Post  and  in  the  interior,  he  has  possibly 
been  detained.  Since  my  letter  by  "  De  Sarah,"  I  have 
received  no  further  information  from  Cayenne. 

P.R.O.   472/104 

May  27,   1765. 

I  hear  nothing  of  the  Postholder  of  Arinda  ;  if  anything 
had  happened  to  him  I  should  certainly  have  heard  some- 
thing of  it  through  the  Indians,  and  therefore  I  do  not 
know  to  what  to  attribute  his  long  silence.  I  presume  that 
he  has  gone  among  the  natives  right  up  in  the  interior  in 
order  to  obtain  accurate  information  of  how  matters  stand. 
1  am  longing  for  his  coming,  and  have  sent  orders  to  the 
Post  to  send  me  information.  Our  traders  who  were 
wont  to  go  up  stream  to  traffic  with  the  Indians  do  not 
seem  to  trust  that  business,  for  not  one  of  them  comes  and 
asks  for  a  pass  now. 

The  discovery  I  have  this  year  made  of  a  tree  called 
Ouaroiichi  by  the  Caribs  and  arbre  a  siiif  in  Cayenne^  may 

^  "  ]Jouarouchi,  ou  arbre  k  suif  de  la  Guyana,  a  une  graine  jaune,  de 
la  forme  d  une  muscade  et  de  la  grosseur  d'une  noisette,  couverte  d'une 
petite  pellicule  qui  renfenne  une  amande.  On  gratte,  on  lave  et  on 
pile  cette  amande,  et  on  en  fait  une  pate  qu'on  brasse  fortement  dans 
une  chaudiere,  jusqu'k  ce  qu'elle  se  couvre  d'humiditd  et  d'une  sorte  de 
fum^e;  on  la  soumet  alors  a  la  presse ;  il  en  decoule  un  sue  qui  se  fige 
et  forme  le  suif  v^g^tal ;  on  le  fait  bouillir  de  nouveau  le  lendemain, 


result  in  great  profit  to  the  Colony,  for  it  grows  in  great 
quantities  in  the  low  lands  and  its  fruit  yields  a  yellow 
wax  very  fit  for  making  candles,  which  are  as  good  as  wax 
ones.  The  fruit  being  now  in  season  I  have  had  an  experi- 
ment made  of  it  by  the  manager  van  der  Heyde,  who, 
quite  conversant  with  the  Carib  language,  was  the  first  to 
discover  the  tree.  The  experiment,  though  a  small  one, 
turned  out  very  well,  and  as  soon  as  he  has  time  he  will 
make  one  on  a  larger  scale. 

These  experiments  may  possibly  have  further  results, 
for  upon  close  examination  of  that  tree,  its  fruit,  leaves  and 
flowers  I  fancied  I  recognized  in  it  an  East  Indian  plant  of 
great  value,  but  I  am  not  yet  certain  about  it ;  when  in 
Demerara  I  hope  to  make  closer  investigations. 

P.R.O.  472/131 

August   13,   1765. 

Having  left  Essequibo  on  the  ist  June,  I  arrived  at 
Demerary  on  the  3rd.  I  thought  that  I  should  again  be 
prevented  from  undertaking  this  journey,  as  I  had  already 
been  prevented  on  four  consecutive  occasions,  because  a 
few  days  before  my  departure  I  had  received  tidings  from 
Upper  Massaruni  that  the  Carib  nation  was  at  war  with 
that  of  the  Acuways,  and  that  the  latter  had  massacred 

on  le  passe  dans  un  linge,  et  enfin  on  le  jette  dans  un  moule.  C'est 
en  mars  qu'on  recueille  la  graine,  et  on  la  laisse  ressuer  deux  ou  trois 
jours.  Le  sue  laiteux  qui  ddcoule  de  cet  arbre  par  des  incisions, 
mdlang^  avec  de  Thuile  et  du  sue  de  citron,  passe  pour  un  excellent 
remede  centre  les  vers  auxquels  les  enfants  sont  sujets."  Larousse, 
Grand  Dictionnaire,  18J4. 

'■'•  Stilliiigia  sebifera^  the  tallow-tree,  is  a  native  of  China  and  the 
adjacent  islands,  but  it  has  been  introduced  into  and  partly  naturalised 
in  India  and  the  warm  parts  of  America. ...The  tree  yields  a  hard 
wood,  used  by  the  Chinese  for  printing  blocks,  and  its  leaves  are 
employed  for  dyeing  black."     Treas.  of  Botany^  1866. 


all  the  women  and  children  in  a  Carib  village  on  the 

Not  without  some  reason  did  I  fear  that  we  should 
again  be  mixed  up  in  this  as  we  were  a  few  years  ago, 
especially  through  the  indiscretion  of  some  itinerant  traders 
and  avaricious  settlers,  who,  without  taking  any  heed  of  the 
consequences,  allow  themselves  to  be  drawn  into  these 
quarrels  upon  the  slightest  inducement  of  profit,  supporting 
one  or  other  of  the  parties  either  with  arms  or  with  advice, 
which  being  discovered  by  the  other  side  always  leads  to 
fatal  results,  and  might  be  of  great  danger  to  the  Colony 

But  in  the  meanwhile  the  Assistant  of  Arinda  having 
arrived  with  a  written  Report  from  the  Postholder,  in  which 
he  informs  me  of  this  matter,  I,  finding  that  it  was  not  so 
bad  as  had  been  thought,  although  at  bottom  perfectly  true, 
set  out  upon  my  journey,  leaving  Commandant  Bakker 
written  instructions  to  send  me  immediate  reports  of  any 
events  of  importance,  and  in  case  he  should  be  compelled 
by  the  danger  of  the  settlers  up  the  river  to  send  any 
soldiers  there,  to  give  the  commanding  subaltern  strict 
orders  to  act  simply  on  the  defensive,  and  not  to  interfere 
directly  or  indirectly  in  the  quarrels  of  the  Indians,  nor  yet 
to  allow  himself  to  be  induced  on  any  account  to  undertake 
any  attack.  I  also  impressed  upon  the  planters  the  desira- 
bility of  remaining  perfectly  neutral  in  this  war. 

The  Report  from  the  Postholder  of  Arinda  states  that 
all  is  still  well  as  far  as  the  Post  is  concerned  ;  that  he  had 
intended  to  proceed  up  the  River  Rupununi,  but  had  found 
the  Macoussis  and  VVapissanes,  the  two  tribes  living  there, 
at  war,  which  had  stopped  him  half-way,  but  that  he, 
having  summoned  an  Owl  of  each  tribe,  had  told  them 
that  he  had  received  orders  from  me  to  proceed  up  the 
river,  and  that  he  should  come  as  soon  as  his  assistant 
had  returned  from   below,  whereupon  they  had  answered 


him  that  he  might  do  so  without  any  fear;  that  he  had  not 
yet  removed  the  Post,  having  found  out  that  the  site  first 
selected  at  the  corner  of  the  Rupununi  was  covered  with 
four  feet  of  water  in  the  rainy  season,  but  that  he  had 
found  a  very  good  site  half-an-hour  higher  up. 

The  Post  being  at  present  surrounded  by  swarms  of 
Caribs  who  had  taken  up  a  position  there,  and  were  only 
waiting  for  the  abandonment  of  the  Post  to  fall  upon  the 
Acuways,  against  whom  they  felt  very  bitter,  he  had  not 
considered  it  advisable  to  remove  yet,  since,  by  his  doing 
so,  progress  up  the  river  would  be  made  unsafe,  nay, 
impossible.  Wherefore  he  had  done  all  that  he  possibly 
could  to  pacify  the  two  tribes,  and  had  fairly  succeeded  ; 
but  those  tribes  not  being  very  trustworthy,  he  asks 
whether  it  would  not  be  best  to  leave  two  men  at  the 
old  Post  whilst  he  went  up  the  river  with  one  as  soon  as  he 
was  sufficiently  certain  that  the  natives  would  keep  the 
peace  or  go  and  fight  it  out  further  inland,  where  they 
would  in  all  probability  find  their  match,  and  thus  become 
somewhat  more  tractable. 

This  suggestion  corresponding  pretty  well  with  my  own 
ideas,  I  shall  authorize  him  to  put  it  into  execution  pro- 

Nothing  has  yet  been  heard  of  any  strangers  in  the 
interior,  and  he  has  made  such  arrangements  with  the 
Indians  that  whoever  might  turn  up  would  be  immediately 
seized  and  sent  to  the  fort.  Prmcipiis  obsta,  sero  mediciiia 

He  had  sent  one  of  his  assistants  to  the  famous 
Pyramid'.  This  man  gave  me  a  verbal  account  of  the 
same,  and  brought  me  a  drawing  which  was  so  confused 
that  I  could  have  made  absolutely  nothing  of  it  unless  T 
had  had  his  verbal  explanation.     I  shall  attempt  to  bring  it 

^  Ovid,  Rem.  Amor.  91.  ^  See  pp.  TJ  and  78. 


into  some  order  on  paper,  and  will  then  have  the  honour 
to  forward  the  same. 

I  was  obliged  to  send  the  Postholder  of  Moruka  away 
from  here  very  quickly,  because  the  Indians  of  Pomeroon 
came  to  the  fort  to  report  that  some  canoes  filled  with 
Spaniards  were  in  the  Pomeroon,  and  because  a  letter 
came  from  his  assistant  informing  us  that  some  murdered 
Indians  had  been  found  in  the  Itaboes^  I  charged  him  to 
go  and  inquire  into  these  matters  as  speedily  as  possible, 
and,  if  necessary,  immediately  to  send  to  Mr  Bakker,  who 
would  then  send  him  assistance.  The  creole  belonging 
to  YY.  HH.  sent  up  the  river  to  spy  out  has  also  returned. 
This  bold  fellow  has  been  as  far  as  the  Spanish  Mission ^ 
pretending  to  be  a  runaway.  He  stayed  there  for  a  few 
days,  and  brought  some  pictures  of  saints  back  with  him  in 
order  to  prove  that  he  had  really  been  there. 

He  reports  that  there  are  swarms  of  Akuways  at  that 
Mission,  situated  about  four  hours  from  Cuyuni  on  the 
west,  and  that  the  missionaries  are  the  cause  of  the  war 

'  See  p.  322. 

2  It  is  probable  that  when  Storm  in  this  despatch  speaks  of 
"Mission"  in  the  singular  he  is  simply  using  a  general  term  and 
not  thinking  of  any  particular  mission  ;  and  there  can  be  little  doubt 
that  in  speaking  of  a  mission  four  hours  to  the  west  of  Cuyuni  he  is 
treating  the  Cuyuni  as  identical  with  the  Uruan  and  Yuruari.  The 
Spanish  records  show  conclusively  that  at  this  period  there  were  no 
missions  nearer  the  Cuyuni  than  Avechica  which  was  on  the  Supama, 
a  tributary  of  the  Yuruari ;  and,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  disappeared  some 
time  between  1762  and  iy66.  According  to  detailed  Spanish  reports 
the  missions  were  something  like  ten  or  twelve  days'  journey  from  the 
Cuyuni  proper. 

No  doubt  from  time  to  time  further  missions  were  projected  and 
there  may  have  been  some  truth  in  the  talk  of  a  mission  beyond  the 
Cuyuni,  but  in  reality  the  Spaniards  never  got  there.  It  was  not  till 
j-ZSj  that  they  got  as  far  as  Cura  and  Tumeremo,  which  were 
close  to  the  present  Venezuelan  mines,  and  represent  the  furthest 
point  to  the  east  that  the  Spanish  missions  ever  reached. 

See  also  note  on  p.  90. 


between  the  Caribs  and  that  tribe,  the  natives  being  incited 
and  provided  with  arms  by  them. 

He  also  says  that  preparations  are  being  made  to 
establish  a  new  Mission  between  Cuyuni  and  Massaruni, 
that  is,  in  the  middle  of  our  land. 

Should  this  happen  we  shall  be  compelled  to  oppose 
them  with  violence,  because  the  consequences  of  that  could 
only  be  harmful  and  would  finally  result  in  the  ruin  of  the 
Colony.  This  is  certain,  that  so  long  as  no  satisfaction  is 
given  by  the  Court  of  Spain  concerning  the  occurrence  of 
the  Post  in  Cuyuni,  the  Spaniards  will  gradually  become 
more  insolent,  and  will  encroach  upon  our  ground  from 
year  to  year. 

I  shall  meanwhile  keep  a  watchful  eye  upon  all  their 
operations,  and  again  send  out  the  same  creole  as  soon  as 
the  dry  season  sets  in. 

I  have  also  forgotten  to  mention  that  Your  Honours' 
Creole  who  has  been  up  in  Cuyuni  at  the  Spanish  Mission 
found  there  Your  Honours'  Creole,  named  Ariaen,  who 
was  carried  off  a  prisoner  along  with  the  Postholder  and 
assistant  at  the  raiding  of  the  Post  by  the  Spaniards\  He 
is  at  present  head  smith  at  the  Mission.  Is  it  not  hard. 
Sirs,  that  one  must  look  on  patiently  at  such  piracies  and 
endure  them  ? 

There  being  very  much  to  do  here  in  Essequibo,  I  left 
Demerara  on  the  i8th  of  July  at  five  o'clock  in  the  morning 
and  reached  the  Fort  here  in  the  afternoon.  What  chaos 
and  confusion  !  Sometimes  I  get  Mr  Rousselet"  in  my 
house  three  or  four  times  a  day,  he  being  able  to  get  on 
with  scarcely  anything,  and  I  am  therefore  obliged  in- 
cessantly to  instruct  him.     He  has  been  asked  for  copies 

^  See  p.  359.  2  See  Note  3  on  p.  483. 


of  various  letters,  petitions,  etc.,  and  as  these  are  nowhere 
to  be  found,  he  has  often  to  go  on  searching  from  morning 
till  night. 

If  the  Lord  spare  me  for  some  time  yet  I  will  help  him 
as  much  as  I  can  but  I  am  getting  old,  day  by  day  weaker 
and  less  fitted  for  such  continuous  work  and  worry.  In 
addition  to  this  my  memory  is  getting  bad  and  I  am 
obliged  to  make  a  note  of  everything  that  takes  place, 
a  thing  I  never  had  to  do  before. 

P.R.O.  472/141 

October  9,  1765. 

I  am  getting  quite  despondent  and  cannot  possibly 
hold  out  much  longer.  In  my  long  years  of  service  I 
have  never  yet  been  in  such  pressing  difficulties.  The 
Company's  warehouse,  as  I  already  had  the  honour  to 
report  per  Capt.  Robberts,  having  now  been  perfectly 
empty  for  some  months  I  have  had  to  buy  piecemeal  of  the 
English  trading  from  Barbados  in  order  to  feed  the  soldiers 
and  employees.  I  have  also  distributed  the  last  ration  of 
some  flour  which  I  had  been  lucky  enough  to  obtain  from 
Peter  Halley  ;  I  am  now  without  bread  for  my  household 
and  when  the  four  weeks  are  over  shall  have  none  for  the 
employees  and  am  therefore  at  my  wits'  end.  I  have 
already  written  twice  to  Barbados  for  provisions,  but  get  no 
reply.  We  lack  everything,  without  exception.  There 
being  no  oil  or  candles  the  garrison  and  the  workmen  have 
to  go  to  bed  with  the  chickens  ;  the  plantations  cannot 
work  because  there  being  no  coals  in  the  smithies  not  a 
chopper  can  be  steeled,  and  all  is  at  a  standstill.  In  a 
word,  I  cannot  express  to  YY.  HH.  the  difficulty  I  am  in. 
In  addition  to  this,  the  provisions  which  we  are  expecting 


will  be  Stale  and  of  last  year  and  most  probably  in  no  good 

If  every  two  months  (wind  and  weather  permitting)  a 
vessel  were  to  sail  from  Zeeland  everything  would  go  on 
properly  and  regularly  and  the  ship  would  easily  get  its 
cargo;  a  few  small  intermediate  ones  could  also  be  freighted, 
but  all  at  once  is  an  impossibility. 

P.R.O.   472/146 

December  13,   1765. 

The  accident  to  "Het  Hof  van  Ramsburg"  and  the  long 
voyage  home  of  "Het  Loo"  bring  us  into  exceedingly  great 
difficulty.  Expecting  no  vessel  here  now  before  the  end  of 
the  year  at  the  earliest  I  am  at  my  wits'  end  and  know  not 
what  to  do  respecting  the  absolute  want  of  everything  in 
which  we  are  and  have  already  been  so  long.  Had  not  a 
few  barques  arrived  from  St  Eustatius  and  Barbados  now 
and  then  I  should  have  been  obliged  to  discharge  the 
soldiers  for  lack  of  rations,  and  the  grumbling  and  daily 
complaints  of  the  managers  and  other  employees  make  me 
so  despondent  that  I  heartily  wish  I  were  out  of  the  Colony 
and  in  Europe. 

In  addition  to  this,  with  so  many  various  and  trouble- 
some duties,  with  such  unmanageable  and  impertinent 
colonists  (not  the  least  of  these  being  the  Lutheran  parson), 
with  changes  in  the  Court,  all  the  old  and  more  influential 
members  of  which  have  died  or  resigned,  as  did  Mr  Persik 
at  the  last  meeting,  YY.  HH.  can  easily  understand  what  a 
burden  there  is  at  present  upon  my  shoulders.  As  Coun- 
cillor Changuion  says  in  a  letter  from  Demerara  which  I 
received  but  yesterday :  "  I  cannot  conceive  how  you  can 
hold  out  at  your  advanced  age." 


YY.  HH.  may  believe  me  that  I  have  not  a  moment's 
rest,  and  as  yet  there  is  no  Commander  for  Demerara. 
What  am  I  to  do  ?  I  must  s,uccumb  in  the  end.  However, 
I  will  say  no  more  about  it,  but  pass  on  to  other  matters. 
In  Your  Honours'  most  esteemed  letter  to  the  Court  I  see 
that  among  other  things  YY.  HH.  are  pleased  to  remark 
that  there  appears  to  be  a  certain  amount  of  truth  in  the 
complaints  of  Abel  Boyer's  wife,  since  in  my  letters  1  have 
maintained  complete  silence  respecting  the  matter.  I  beg 
YY.  HH.  not  to  take  it  amiss  if  I  make  so  bold  as  to  ask 
whether  it  is  possible  for  me  to  report  in  my  letters  every 
event  that  takes  place  and  in  particular  those  which  come 
under  the  especial  deliberation  of  the  Court.  How  terribly 
voluminous  my  letters  would  have  to  be  in  that  case !  I 
have  always  tried  as  far  as  lay  in  my  power  to  inform 
YY.  HH.  of  everything  that  occurred  touching  the  Honour- 
able Company's  interests  and  the  welfare  of  the  Colony.  It 
is  possible  that,  overwhelmed  by  a  multitude  of  affairs  and 
having  not  the  least  assistance  I  may  occasionally  have 
forgotten  some  matters,  but  1  am  sure  they  can  have  been 
of  no  very  great  importance,  and  I  have  always  been  more 
afraid  of  boring  YY.  HH.  by  the  tediousness  of  my  letters 
than  of  being  requested  to  furnish  reports  of  such  matters 
as  the  above-mentioned. 

The  Colony  is  no  longer  what  it  was  and  is  still  increas- 
ing daily.  Respect  for  the  Court  is  not  great  and  that  body 
will  have  even  greater  trouble  to  maintain  its  authority  if 
every  one  be  free  to  complain  of  its  judgments.  I  imagine 
that  I  have  the  honour,  after  so  long  a  service,  to  be  known 
to  YY.  HH.  and  that  YY.  HH.  are  well  convinced  that  I  have 
always  chosen  the  milder  course,  have  ever  endeavoured  to 
rule  more  by  courtesy,  kind  words  and  persuasion  than  by 
authority,  and  that  I  have  never  been  influenced  by  self- 
interest  or  cupidity.     To  satisfy  everyone  is  an  impossibility 


for  any  man,  but  I  dare  openly  attest  that  I  have  endeavoured 
to  do  so  as  far  as  I  was  able  and  have  wittingly  suffered  no 
wrong  to  be  done ;  had  the  Court  passed  any  judgment 
that  I  thought  unjust  I  would  have  postponed  its  execution 
until  I  had  had  the  honour  of  reporting  the  matter  to 
YY.  HH.  and  received  Your  Honours'  commands. 

The  latest  tidings  from  Berbice  are  not  at  all  favourable. 
I  have  not  received  any  letters  from  the  Governor  for  some 
time,  he  having  been  dangerously  ill,  and  when  the  last 
barque  sailed  thence  he  was  not  yet  able  to  write.  The 
skipper  of  that  barque  says  and  Captain-Commandant 
Posen  writes  that  the  place  is  again  full  of  sick  and  that 
five  or  six  of  the  soldiers  are  buried  each  day.  The  re- 
maining rebels  are  being  pursued  without  respite. 

The  colonists  appear  to  be  but  little  satisfied  with  the 
new  Governor^ ;  I  have  heard  a  good  many  complaints.  In 
my  last  to  His  Honour  I  wrote  that  when  a  good  musician 
wished  to  play  the  violin  he  tuned  his  strings  in  perfect 
harmony,  but  that  if  they  were  overstrung  they  must  in- 
evitably break — a  bon  entendeiir  donie  parole. 

I  feel  ashamed,  Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs,  that 
when  any  ships  or  foreign  vessels  enter  I  am  unable  to  hoist 
a  flag  at  the  Fort,  there  being  now  none  at  all,  a  fact  that 

^  Johannes  Heijliger  Jobs.  Filius  (as  his  signature  always  ran)  was 
appointed  September  d,  1^64,  and  after  a  very  uneventful  tenure  of 
office,  received  his  discharge  Novetnber  2j,  1767.  Netscher  {Op.  cit. 
p.  410)  suggests  that  he  subsequently  settled  in  Demerara  ;  he  was 
however  really  an  old  planter  of  that  Colony,  for  in  the  first  Register 
compiled  by  Storm  for  the  year  1762  we  already  find  Johannes 
Heijliger  Jobs.  Filius  figuring  as  the  owner  of  "  Ameliswaerd"  in 
Uemerara  ;  that  for  1767  shows  him  still  to  be  in  possession  of  the 
same  property,  but  what  is  interesting  and  even  amusing,  as  having 
also  acquired  but  that  year  (evidently  upon  his  return)  another 
plantation  which  he  dubbed — doubtless  as  a  compliment  to  Berbice — 
"  U OndiDikbaarheid'"  (Ingratitude). 


gives  place  to  much  derision..,.!  for  myself  have  gone  about 
already  for  some  years  without  flag  or  pennant ;  although 
no  councillor  will  go  without  both  of  these  and  no  respect- 
able colonist  without  a  flag,  I  have  not  allowed  that  to  affect 
me,  but  for  the  Fort  to  be  without  one  is  really  a  shame. 
I  have  sent  everywhere  to  see  whether  I  could  procure  a 
flag,  but  in  vain\ 

P.R.O.  472/152 

December  27,  1765. 

Having  just  concluded  my  despatch  to  YY.  HH.  to  be 
sent  by  this  vessel,  I  received  tidings  by  a  second  express 
from  the  upper  part  of  this  river  that  several  Indians  of  the 
Spanish  Missions  which  are  up  in  Cuyuni  had  sailed  down 
that  river,  and  had  proceeded  up  the  Massaruni  under  the 
leadership  of  an  Indian  [sic]  officer,  whereby  the  people 
living  up  there  have  been  in  a  state  of  great  uneasiness,  and 
not  without  reason. 

Thereupon  I  immediately  sent  off  an  order  to  H.  Lussis, 
the  manager  of  "Old  Duynenburg,"  to  summon  the  Honour- 
able Company's  Creole,  Tampoko^  who  is  up  there,  and  to 
charge  him  to  get  a  few  Caribs  to  go  up  the  Massaruni 
with  him  to  apprehend  that  Spanish  officer,  and  to  bring  him 
to  me. 

Also  to  inquire  most  carefully  whether  a  commencement 
had  been  made  with  the  projected  Mission  between  Cuyuni 
and  Massaruni,  of  which  I  had  the  honour  to  write  by  the 
vessel  "De  Spoor";  this  is  the  same  Creole  of  whom  I  had 
spoken  in  my  despatch  by  "De  Spoor"  as  being  a  bold 
and  fearless  fellow,  in  whom  I  think  I  can  trust. 

1  Cf.  p.  62. 

2  Storm  almost  invariably   spells  Tampoco's   name  in  this    way, 
possibly  oblivious  of  its  manifestly  Spanish  origin. 


And  I  have  ordered  Commandant  Bakker  to  hold  him- 
self in  readiness  to  start  up  the  river  with  a  detachment  at 
a  moment's  notice  in  case  it  should  be  found  necessary. 

My  manifold  duties  just  now  absolutely  prevent  me  from 
replying  by  "  't  Land  Canaan "  to  Your  Honours'  much 
esteemed  letter  and  I  fear  it  may  even  be  difficult  to  do  so 
by  "  De  Carolina  Medioburgensis,"  which  sails  about  the 
middle  of  January,  Between  now  and  then  there  are  the 
extraordinary  Court  meetings  this  month  and  the  ordinary 
ones  in  the  beginning  of  the  next,  the  compilation  of  the 
Register^  making-up  the  books  (in  which  I  have  to  assist), 
completing  the  bills  of  exchange,  drawing  up  and  despatch- 
ing the  accounts  of  the  Company's  and  Colony's  dues  and 
many  other  things,  all  of  which  give  me  so  much  to  do  that 
I  scarcely  know  where  to  begin.  I  will  therefore  only 
answer  certain  clauses,  so  far  as  time  permits. 

I  begin  by  tendering  YY.  HH.  my  heartfelt  thanks  for  the 
gracious  increase  of  my  table-money-,  the  consignment  of  a 
hogshead  of  red  wine  and  especially  for  the  approval  of  my 
conduct  up  to  the  present. 

^  See  p.  400. 

2  This  increase  was  one  of  300  guilders  (see  Netscher,  Op.  cit. 
p.  137)  and  was  made  by  the  Zeeland  Chamber  in  reply  to  the  bitter 
complaints  submitted  by  Storm  in  February  of  that  year  (see  pp.  481 
et  seq.)  concerninghis  inability  to  make  ends  meet.  Storm  alludes  to  it, 
evidently  by  a  lapsus  calami,  in  his  next  despatch  (see  p.  499)  as  an 
increase  of  "salary,"  though  it  is  quite  possible  that  he  regarded  both 
items  under  the  same  heading. 


P.R.O,   472/169 

January   18,   1766. 

Since  my  last  short  but  severe  illness^  I  feel,  the  Lord 
be  praised,  very  well,  considering  my  age,  and  thank  the 
Almighty  for  his  goodness  herein,  since  it  were  else  perfectly 
impossible  for  me  to  get  through  my  manifold  duties  in  the 
confused  state  in  which  matters  now  are. 

The  white  man  who  had  come  down  the  River  Cuyuni 
and  sailed  up  the  River  Massaruni,  as  I  reported  in  my  last 
despatch^  has  got  away  and  has  not  been  seen  since,  but 
having  received  news  in  time  of  the  coming  of  the  Spanish 
Indians  and  their  Captain,  as  they  call  him  (we  say  an  Owl), 
Your  Honours'  Creole  Tampoko,  having  very  carefully 
observed  my  orders,  went  after  them  immediately  with  a 
party  of  Indians,  overtook  and  brought  them  here  to  me, 
and  being  again  immediately  sent  out  to  go  and  find  one  of 
them,  a  very  suspicious  character,  who,  I  had  been  informed, 
had  gone  overland  to  Pomeroon  to  buy  boats,  he  came  back 
to  me  very  quickly  with  him. 

Having  closely  interrogated  the  former,  I  found  that  they 
had  come  at  the  request  of  a  Carib  Owl  of  Massaruni,  who, 
having  an  old  grudge  against  the  Acuway  tribe,  had  urged 
the  others  of  his  nation  living  under  this  jurisdiction  to  help 
him  to  fight  the  Acuways,  which  they  had,  however,  refused 
to  do,  reminding  him  of  my  oft-repeated  commands.  He 
had  then  called  these  Spanish  Indians  to  his  assistance,  but 
the  Acuways,  warned  by  the  other  Caribs,  were  on  their 
guard,  and  ready  to  receive  them  well. 

I  ordered  the  Spanish  Indians  to  return  to  their  homes 
immediately,  and  not  to  come  here  again,  otherwise  I  would 
have  them  received  in  a  disagreeable  manner,  whereupon, 
being  greatly  terrified,  they  departed  with  the  utmost  haste. 

»  See  p.  483.  2  See  p.  494. 


I  have  sent  word  to  the  Owl  of  Massaruni  that  in  case 
he  did  such  a  thing  again  I  would  send  him  to  North 
America  in  an  English  ship.  He  has  promised  me  to  obey 
this  order.  I  have  treated  him  in  a  much  more  lenient 
manner  than  I  should  otherwise  have  done,  because  he  is 
one  of  those  who  behaved  so  well  at  the  time  of  the  troubles 
in  Berbice. 

During  the  examination  of  the  Spanish  Indians,  I  found 
that  the  guns,  powder,  and  shot  which  Messrs  van  der 
Heyde  and  Bakker  had  found  in  their  boats  up  the  river 
had  been  sold  to  them  by  the  colonist,  Bastiaen  Christiaense, 
for  hammocks  and  greyhounds. 

They  said  that  he  had  not  actually  incited  them  to 
murder  the  Acuways,  but  that  they  could  do  what  they 
pleased,  because  it  was  a  savage  tribe  for  whom  we  did 
not  care.  This  is  bad  behaviour,  YV.  HH.,  for  it  is  still  fresh 
in  our  memories  what  danger  the  Colony  was  in,  and  what 
trouble  I  had  to  keep  on  terms  of  peace  with  that  tribe  ;  but 
I  am  convinced  that  this  man  will  declare  it  all  to  be  a  pack 
of  lies  when  I  speak  to  him  about  it,  which  I  intend  to  do 
at  an  early  opportunity. 

This  was  not  the  case  with  the  other  Indian  brousfht 
down  by  Tampoko  ;  this  man  was  found  to  be  a  spy  from 
the  Spanish  Missions,  going  continually  to  and  fro  to  report 
what  he  saw.  I  have  placed  him  in  Tampoko's  keeping,  and 
ordered  him  not  to  move  out  of  sight  of  the  latter,  and  the 
Indians  round  about  us  have  promised  to  crack  his  skull  if 
they  find  him  alone. 

According  to  the  reports  of  the  Spanish  Indians,  it  is 
only  too  true  that  there  is  a  desire  to  establish  new  Missions 
in  Cuyuni  and  above  Cuyuni,  but  now  that  a  beginning  is 
to  be  made  with  re-establishing  the  Post  as  soon  as  possible, 
I  hope  that  an  end  will  be  put  to  all  these  encroachments. 
I  have  already  engaged  a  Postholder  who  is  well  acquainted 
with  Indian  languages,  and  as  soon  as  some  of  the  buildings 

v.  s.   II.  32 


are  ready  I  will  give  him  a  commando  of  one  under-officer 
and  six  men  to  begin  with  until  it  is  well  established ;  but 
I  have  some  trouble  in  finding  six  Protestant  soldiers,  it 
being  of  importance  that  no  Roman  Catholic,  and  especially 
no  French,  be  sent  there,  because  they  are  not  to  be  trusted 
at  all,  and  more  than  half  of  the  garrison  consists  of 

My  desire  to  come  to  Europe  and  to  have  the  honour  of 
presenting  my  respects  to  YY.  HH.  in  person  is  very  great, 
but  I  quite  understand  that  it  would  be  inexcusable  on  my 
part  to  undertake  the  journey  now  ;  matters  in  the  Colony 
being  at  present  in  such  confusion  in  many  ways,  and  it 
being  as  impossible  for  Mr  Rousselet  to  get  on  without  my 
assistance  as  it  is  to  reach  Heaven  with  one's  hands,  I  will 
readily  confess  that  in  spite  of  all  my  endeavours  I  cannot 
see  any  hope  or  possibility  of  getting  the  office  affairs  into 

What  a  burden  it  is,  YY.  HH.,  that  I  have  now  to  do 
everything  myself  or  have  it  done  in  my  presence.  So  long, 
however,  as  the  Lord  preserves  me  in  health  I  will  console 
myself  with  the  thought  that  I  am  doing  my  duty  and  that 
I  fear  no  labour  so  long  as  I  perform  it  to  the  satisfaction 
of  my  greatly  esteemed  lords  and  masters. 

Heaven  grant  that  the  time  may  soon  come  when  YY.  HH. 
will  be  able  to  further  the  progress  of  this  Colony  ;  for  that 
time  I  long,  and  have  already  longed  for  so  many  years, 
with  heart  and  soul.  The  matter  has  gone  on  a  good  deal 
longer  than  I  ever  thought  it  would,  and  it  is  not  too  soon 
that  an  end  was  made  of  iV.     When  a  settlement  shall  at 

1  In  this  somewhat  guarded  utterance  Storm  refers  to  the  dispute 
that  had  dragged  on  for  long  years  between  the  Zeeland  and  Amster- 
dam Chambers  (see  pp.  143-145).  He  himself  had  always  carefully 
abstained  from  contributing  aught  to  the  discussion  and  scarcely  ever 
alluded  to  it. 


length  have  been  made  I  hope  to  have  the  honour  to  submit 
to  YY.  HH.  my  humble  considerations  concerning  the  mer- 
chants, correspondents  and  ship-owners,  my  time  being  so 
taken  up  at  present  that  I  have  but  five  days  in  which  to 
write  and  copy  this  letter,  compile  the  Register,  balance  the 
books,  sign  the  bills,  send  out  the  colonists'  accounts,  draft 
the  Court  of  Policy's  despatch^  and  attend  to  much  else,  to 
say  nothing  of  the  usual  daily  work,  of  the  two  intervening 
Court  meetings  and  of  the  tiring  New  Year's  Day.  Where- 
fore I  trust  that  YY.  HH.,  caking  all  this  into  consideration, 
will  kindly  excuse  the  haste  with  which  this  is  written  and 
the  brevity  of  some  of  the  paragraphs,  also  if  anything  has 
unintentionally  been  omitted,  for  I  am  not  left  in  peace  for 
half-an-hour  together. 

I  have  once  more  the  honour  to  repeat  my  thanks  for 
the  gracious  increase  in  my  salary^  and  the  consignment  of 
a  hogshead  of  red  wine.  "  De  Phoenix "  not  having  yet 
arrived  I  have  not  yet  received  the  latter,  and  I  fear,  not 
without  reason,  we  shall  never  see  that  vessel.  We  are 
looking  out  for  "De  Laurens  en  Maria"  very  anxiously. 

The  time  for  the  ripening  of  the  fruit  of  the  oiiaronchi 
tree  is  in  the  ensuing  month  of  February,  when  I  hope  to 
have  the  honour  to  send  YY.  HH.  a  few  specimens^  I  am 
getting  more  and  more  convinced  that  it  is  the  genuine 
nutmeg-tree,  but  in  its  wild  state  and  with  small  fruit,  just 
as  I  have  always  regarded  our  Akawoi  or  wild  cinnamon 
as  being  the  true  cinnamon  that  grows  in  Ceylon  ;  this  the 
Portuguese,  after  examination  and  experiment,  have  also 
found  to  be  the  case.     I  have  already  planted  several  young 

1  The  Court  of  Policy  always  sent  home  a  despatch  of  its  own 
signed  by  the  Director  and  all  the  Councillors.  These  despatches 
were  entirely  lacking  in  the  interest  attaching  to  those  written  by 
Storm  in  his  own  name. 

^  See  p.  495.  3  See  pp.  484,  485. 



trees  but  not  one  has  thriven  and  I  can  find  no  one  capable 
enough  to  go  into  the  woods  up  in  Rupununi  to  get  some 
good  specimens. 

I  beg  YY.  HH.  to  be  good  enough  carefully  to  examine 
the  soldiers  that  are  sent  us  in  future.  Pray  do  not  let  us 
have  any  more  French,  and  as  few  Roman  Catholics  as 
possible.  The  Commandant  cannot  find  six  Protestants 
for  the  Posts  in  Cuyuni,  and  we  dare  not  trust  Catholics 
to  go  there.     What  is  to  be  done  ? 

P.R.O.  472/212 

April  6,   1766. 

I  was  very  pleased  to  hear  that  yy.  HH.  approved  of  the 
instructions  and  orders  given  to  Commandant  Bakker  con- 
cerning the  measures  to  be  taken  during  my  absence  with 
regard  to  the  war  between  the  Carib  and  Akawoi  nations. 
The  same  were  accurately  followed,  and  so  much  was  done 
both  by  persuasion  and  by  threats  that,  although  there  is  a 
great  feeling  of  bitterness  on  both  sides,  nothing  of  import- 
ance has  actually  taken  place  between  them,  the  fighting 
having  been  restricted  to  a  few  skirmishes  that  occurred 
under  cover  of  night.  I  have  as  yet  no  report  how  matters 
stand  at  Arinda,  the  Postholder,  who  has  at  last  undertaken 
the  journey  to  the  interior  according  to  my  reiterated 
instructions,  having  sent  me  word  to  say  that  he  hoped  to 
come  down  in  March,  but  though  we  know  when  we  go  out' 
we  know  not  when  we  shall  return. 

As  to  the  p)Tamid,  I  have  the  honour  to  inform  VY.  HH. 
that  already  in  the  first  years  of  my  stay  in  this  country 
I  heard  many  stories  told  by  old  inhabitants  how  up  in  the 
Rupununi  there  was  a  very  high  pyramid  built  of  stone,  of 
which   people  talked   even   in   the  neighbouring  districts ; 


I  have  received  several  letters  asking  for  information  upon 
this  subject,  though  I  have  never  been  and  still  am  not 
able  to  give  a  satisfactory  answer  thereto,  for,  notwith- 
standing all  the  pains  I  have  taken,  and  the  promises  I 
have  made,  I  have  not  succeeded  in  finding  any  one  who 
would  go  to  examine  it  because  of  inveterate  superstition, 
the  Indians  all  being  unanimously  of  belief  that  it  is 
the  dwelling-place  of  the  Jawaho,  the  name  they  give  to 
the  Devil.  In  the  year  1740  a  mulatto,  Pieter  Tollenaer 
(the  same  one  who  brought  back  Your  Honours'  Creoles  who 
had  run  away  on  account  of  the  ill-treatment  of  the  miner 
Hildebrand),  at  my  request,  undertook  to  make  a  voyage 
thither  in  company  with  two  of  these  Creoles  and  upon 
their  return  I  was  assured  of  the  reality  of  that  affair,  for 
he  brought  with  him  a  rough  drawing  thereof,  and  also  of 
various  images  which  he  had  seen  near  it  cut  in  the  stone. 

The  circumstance  that  this  mulatto  died  shortly  after 
his  return  gave  further  support  to  the  superstition,  and 
whatever  trouble  I  have  taken,  I  have  not  since  that  time 
been  able  to  obtain  information  thereof,  except  only  the 
report  of  the  Councillor  E.  Pypersberg,  who  has  recently 
died,  that,  as  he  was  coming  down  Massaruni,  up  which  he 
had  gone  in  pursuit  of  his  runaway  slaves  so  far  that  he  had 
come  to  tribes  who  had  never  seen  white  people,  he  had 
distinctly  seen,  also  on  his  right  hand,  in  about  the  same 
direction,  yet  another  very  high  pyramid,  which  he  had 
been  very  curious  to  examine  from  near  by,  but,  as  he  had 
only  Indians  with  him  besides  his  runaway  and  captured 
slaves,  he  had  not  dared  to  leave  his  boat. 

The  thing  now  having  at  last  been  undertaken  by  the 
assistant  Bakker,  who  has  also  brought  with  him  a  very 
rude  and  imperfect  sketch  of  both  of  them,  the  one  being 
in  sight  from  the  other,  I  have  considered  it  my  duty  to 
give  YY.  HH.  as  well  as  possible  some  information  about 
them.     By  the  same  opportunity  I  have  sent  a  copy  to  my 


good  friend  Professor  Allamand\  at  Leyden,  requesting  to 
have  his  opinion  upon  it,  to  which  I  have  not  yet  received 
an  answer. 

The  fame  of  the  same  consists  in  naught  else  than  the 
continual  talk  of  the  Indians  about  it  and  the  curiosity 
which  must  necessarily  arise  to  find  out  who  were  the 
builders  of  it,  which  is  indeed  well  worthy  of  investigation. 
In  the  Old  World  there  are,  so  far  as  I  am  aware,  no  other 
builders  of  pyramids  known  than  the  ancient  Egyptians, 
and  it  is  by  no  means  probable  that  they  sent  any  colony 
to  this  New  Worlds 

It  is  also  a  certain  and  infallible  rule  here  that  in  all 
places  where  the  Indians  say  that  the  Jawaho  lives  there  is 

1  See  pp.  370,  371. 

^  The  Company's  reply  to  the  above  was  dated  September  <?,  1766, 
and  ran  : — 

"  Beginning,  then,  with  the  [letter]  of  the  6th  April,  written  in 
Demerara,  we  have  seen  from  it  with  pleasure  the  provisional  in- 
formation given  us  by  you  concerning  those  uncommonly  high 
pyramids  which,  according  to  the  statement  of  various  persons,  are 
said  to  exist  up  in  Rupununi,  built  of  stone,  and  even  ornamented 
with  sundry  figures  carved  in  stone. 

"  We  should  be  glad  if  in  the  Colony  some  one  could  be  found  with 
the  leisure,  inclination,  and  ability  to  make  a  careful  investigation 
thereof,  not  because  we  attach  any  belief  to  the  stories  which  you 
inform  us  people  are  wont  to  relate  about  them,  namely,  that  near 
them  or  under  them  gold  or  silver  mines  exist,  though  this  is  not 
therefore  impossible,  but  particularly  because  thereby  one  might 
possibly  get  an  opportunity  for  discoveries  which  might  be  of  much 
importance  to  the  whole  learned  world,  and  especially  to  all  lovers  of 
ancient  history  and  to  geographers,  the  more  so  since  up  to  this  time 
it  is  outside  all  probability,  not  to  use  stronger  expressions,  that  the 
ancient  Egyptians  should  have  had  a  Colony  in  those  parts,  while, 
nevertheless,  those  ancient  nations,  along  with  the  Chinese,  are  the 
only  ones  who  are  on  record  as  builders  of  such  colossal  pyramids. 

"  If,  therefore,  you  can  find  some  one  in  whom  the  three  aforesaid 
requirements  are  united,  it  will  afford  us  especial  pleasure  that  you,  as 
early  as  possible,  employ  him  thereto.  We  likewise  would  not  be 
averse  to  your  trying  to  get  a  good,  skilled,  and  honest  interpreter  for 
the  Indian  languages,  as  we  think  we  have  more  than  once  told  you." 

Cf.  Note  3  on  p.  533. 


something  out  of  the  common,  either  gold  or  silver  mines 
or  something  else,  it  being  the  policy  of  the  old  Chiefs  to 
frighten  off  the  younger  ones  from  those  places  in  order 
that  the  latter  may  not  be  explored,  the  acts  of  cruelty 
wrought  by  the  Spaniards  in  those  matters  being  still  fresh 
in  their  memory. 

This  assistant  being  still  alive  and  well  there  is  hope 
that  the  superstition  will  lose  ground,  and  that  we  shall 
therefore  be  able  to  obtain  some  better  and  more  reliable 
information,  for  upon  that  sort  of  people  there  is  so  little 
reliance  to  be  placed  that  really  if  the  Indians  or  Creoles 
who  went  with  them  [sic]  did  not  agree  in  their  accounts 
I  should  give  the  matter  scant  attention.  This  is  at  the 
same  time  an  event  (although  one  of  the  most  trifling) 
which  demonstrates  the  great  necessity  of  a  good,  com- 
petent and  honest  interpreter  for  the  Indian  languages. 

I  shall  write  to  the  Governor  of  Orinoco  concerning  the 
state  of  affairs  in  Barima,  which  would  become  an  absolute 
den  of  thieves,  a  rag-tag-and-bobtail  party  of  our  colonists 
staying  there  under  pretence  of  salting,  trading  with  the 
Indians,  and  felling  timber,  &c.  They  live  there  like 
savages,  burning  each  other's  huts  and  putting  each  other 
in  chains,  and  I  fear  that  bloodshed  and  murder  will  come 
of  it^ 

The  west  side  of  Barima  being  certainly  Spanish 
territory  (and  that  is  where  they  are),  I  can  use  no  violent 
measures  to  destroy  this  nest,  not  wishing  to  give  any 
grounds  for  complaint ;  wherefore  I  think  of  proposing  to 
the  Governor  (who  is  daily  being  more  highly  praised  for 
his  friendliness  to  all  foreigners)  to  carry  this  out  hand-in- 
hand,  or  to  permit  me  to  do  so,  or  as  and  in  what  manner 
he  shall  consider  best. 

^  For  the  fulfilment  of  this  prediction  see  p.  504. 


P.R.O.   472/222 

May  30,  1766. 

Having  had  the  honour  to  inform  YY.  IIH.  in  one  of  my 
former  letters'  of  the  barbarous  mode  of  Hfe  of  some  of  our 
colonists  in  Barima,  and  hearing  that  this  was  getting 
gradually  worse,  I  charged  the  Postholder  of  Moruka,  when 
he  came  to  see  me  whilst  I  was  in  Demerary,  to  proceed 
thither  in  order  to  prevent  all  further  mischief,  and,  in  case 
matters  were  really  so  bad,  to  order  the  evil-doers  to  come 
to  the  Fort. 

On  his  arrival  there  he  found  poor  Thomas  Adams 
bound  fast  to  a  tree  with  a  chain,  and  nearly  dead,  having 
been  thus  kept  for  over  three  months  by  Jan  Adolph  van 
Rose....  After  all  had  been  carefully  enquired  into,  the  Court 
condemned  van  Rose  to  be  publicly  exposed  under  the 
gallows  for  one  hour  with  the  rope  about  his  neck,  and  to 
be  banished  for  ever,  and  to  pay  costs,  &c.,  a  sentence 
much  too  lenient  for  such  a  villain,  who  had  behaved  very 
badly  the  whole  of  the  time  he  was  in  the  Colony,  and  who 
is  said  to  have  been  banished  from  Surinam. 

The  Court  made  a  further  order  forbidding  any  one  to 
stop  in  Barima,  and  charged  the  Postholder  of  Moruka  to 
see  that  this  was  carried  out,  because  in  time  this  would 
become  a  den  of  thieves,  and  expose  us  to  the  danger  of 
getting  mixed  up  in  a  quarrel  with  our  neighbours  the 

1  See  p.  503. 

^  The  reply  of  the  Zeeland  Directors,  dated  September  ^j,  1766^ 
ran  : — 

"We  agree  with  you  in  finding  the  inhuman  treatment  of  Thomas 
Adams  by  Jan  Adolph  van  Roose  exceedingly  criminal,  and  the 
judgment  pronounced  in  this  case  by  the  Court  of  Justice  really 
too  lenient  in  proportion  to  the  crime.  It  even  seems  to  us  that 
you  yourself  cannot  be  accused  of  over-severity  in  the  sentence  you 


I  hope  the  Postholder  of  Arinda  may  come  down 
before  the  closing  of  this  letter,  I  having  had  no  tidings 
from  above  for  some  time. 

The  Burgher-Captain  J.  Knott  has  informed  the 
Commander  and  myself  that  he  had  received  information 
that  the  Acuways,  having  heard  that  the  Caribs,  who  had 
robbed  them  of  everything  in  Upper  Demerary  last  year, 
were  getting  ready  to  attack  them  in  still  greater  numbers, 
had  assembled,  several  hundreds  strong,  at  the  place  of  the 
Owl  Maritane  (very  well  known  to  me),  being  right  up 
between  the  Rivers  Demerary  and  Essequibo,  to  wait  for 
the  Caribs,  so  that  we  are  expecting  a  bloody  battle  every 
day.  This  might  have  important  results,  especially  if  the 
Caribs  were  beaten  (which  is  very  probable).  The  captain, 
who  lives  a  good  way  up,  has  asked  how  he  is  to  act  in  this 

I  have  charged  the  Commander,  who  was  present  at 
the  meetings  here,  to  proceed  to  Upper  Demerary  in  order 
to  be  on  the  spot  in  case  of  unforeseen  events,  and  to  take 
especial  care  that   strict  neutrality   is   maintained   by  the 

demanded  against  him.  But  in  one  of  your  preceding  letters  you  told 
us  that  the  place  about  the  Barima,  where  some  scum  and  offscourings 
of  folk  were  staying  together  and  leading  a  scandalous  life,  was  Spanish 
territory,  and  that  you  intended  to  have  Mr  Rousselet,  who  was  going 
on  a  mission  to  Orinoco  submit  some  propositions  to  the  Spanish 
Governor  for  the  extirpation  of  that  gang.  And  now  you  inform  us  of 
your  having  sent  thither  the  Postholder  of  Moruka  with  positive  orders, 
Tpro\>^h\y  propria  authoritate  without  any  concurrence  of  the  aforesaid 
Governor,  inasmuch  as  Mr  Rousselet  had  not  yet  departed  thither  on 
his  mission,  and  we  cannot  quite  make  this  tally  with  the  other.  If 
that  place  is  really  Spanish  territory,  then  you  have  acted  very  im- 
prudently and  irregularly  ;  and,  on  the  contrary,  if  that  place  forms 
part  of  the  Colony,  and  you  had  previously  been  in  error  as  to  the 
territory,  then  you  have  done  very  well,  and  we  must  fully  approve  of 
your  course,  as  also  of  the  Court's  Resolution  that  henceforth  no  one 
shall  be  at  liberty  to  stay  on  the  Barima.  But  if  the  Court  has  no 
jurisdiction  in  that  place,  we  see  little  lesult  from  that  Resolution: 
extra  tcrritorium  suum  jus  dicetiti  etiitn  imptme  non  parctur.^'' 

For  Storm's  answer  to  the  above,  dated  March  20^  1767,  see  p.  528. 


citizens.  I  have  further  charged  him  not  to  interfere, 
directly  or  indirectly,  in  the  matter,  nor  to  help  either  of 
the  nations  in  the  slightest  manner,  and  to  make  an  effort, 
if  there  be  still  time,  to  reconcile  the  two  parties  and 
prevent  bloodshed,  through  the  mediation  of  the  Arawaks, 
who  are  friends  of  both  sides.  I  have  myself  succeeded  in 
doing  this  several  times  already,  both  by  persuasion  and 

Having  received  several  letters  from  Europe  asking  me 
for  lignum  quassice^  as  a  specific  against  fever,  colics,  etc., 
excelling  quinine,  I  took  the  greatest  trouble  to  discover  it 
here,  but  as  it  is  not  known  by  that  name  I  should  never 
have  found  it  had  I  not  when  recently  in  Demerara  been 
told  about  it  by  Abel  Boyer,  who  had  come  across  it  in 
Surinam.  Here  it  is  called  carawadani  by  the  Indians, 
who  are  well  acquainted  with  its  virtues  but  keep  them 
secret.  Thereupon  I  gave  orders  for  a  quantity  to  be 
gathered  and  dried  and  have  the  honour  to  send  YY.  HH.  a 
case  filled  with  the  wood  and  root.  I  have  also  enclosed 
a  little  of  the  seed,  for  the  plant  is  well  worth  cultivating, 
apart  from  its  medicinal  value,  being  a  pretty  shrub  with 
wonderfully  shaped  leaves  and  very  fine  bunches  of  scarlet 
flowers.  I  am  also  sending  some  of  the  seed  to  Professor 
Allamandl  for  the  Hortus  Medicus  at  Leiden. 

'  Not  to  be  confounded  with  the  cassia  lignea  mentioned  by  Storm 
(on  p.  264).  "  Linnaeus  applied  the  name  oi  quassia  to  a  tree  of  Suri- 
nam in  honour  of  a  negro,  Ouassi  or  Coissi,  who  employed  its  bark  as 
a  remedy  for  fever,  and  enjoyed  such  a  reputation  among  the  natives 
as  to  be  almost  worshipped  by  some,  and  suspected  of  magic  by  others. 
The  tree  now  forms  a  genus  of  Simariibacea;."  Treas.  of  Botany^  1866. 
We  give  this  for  what  it  is  worth. 

Richard  Schomburgk,  though  he  describes  the  various  kinds  of 
quassia  {Reisenin  Britisch  Guiana,  tom  iii.  pp.  850  and  loi  i),  adduces 
neither  the  above-mentioned  derivation  of  the  name  nor  the  native 
appellation  given  by  .Storm. 

2  See  pp.  370,  371. 


The  pilots  have  reported  to  me  that  in  the  middle  of 
the  course  or  channel  in  the  entrance  to  this  river^  a  great 
sandbank  has  formed  over  which  at  low  spring  tide  there 
are  only  seven  feet  of  water;  this  causes  them  great 
embarrassment.  They  are  of  opinion  that  some  heavy 
rains  might  wash  it  away  again,  but  apart  from  the  fact  that 
there  is  little  prospect  of  such,  since  the  rainy  season, 
generally  heaviest  at  the  beginning,  has  set  in  very  mildly, 
that  is  very  uncertain,  for  I  have  found  by  experience  here 
that  when  once  a  bank  forms  in  the  middle  of  a  channel  it 
invariably  gets  larger.  Such  was  the  case  in  Demerara, 
opposite  the  plantation  "  Soestdijk  "  ;  upon  my  departure 
for  Europe  in  1750  there  were  only  a  few  rushes,  and  now 
there  is  a  whole  island  covered  with  shrubs  and  daily 
getting  larger.  The  same  thing  occurred  off  Boerasierie, 
where  it  has  recently  been  impossible  to  cross  when  the 
tide  is  but  half  out. 

This  could  cause  much  inconvenience  to  this  Colony. 
I  have  ordered  the  pilots  to  take  exact  soundings  every- 
where in  order  to  see  whether  a  channel  might  not 
somewhere  be  found,  for  I  fancy  this  river  must  have 
a  deep  outflow  somewhere,  although  such  is  by  no  means 
certain  ;  the  River  Waini,  much  larger  than  Demerara  and 
much  deeper  inside,  can  scarcely  be  entered  in  a  boat  at 
low  tide,  having  no  channel,  and  an  ordinary  barque  has 
difficulty  in  getting  into  the  Pomeroon. 

1  The  Essequibo,  from  which  he  dates  the  despatch  ;  cf.  p.   529, 
Note  3. 


P.R.O.   473/1 

October  i,   1766. 

What  I  had  the  honour  of  writing  YY.  HH.  concerning 
the  great  want  we  have  suffered  here  is  perfectly  true  in  all 
its  details  and  even  short  of  the  truth.  Kindly  consider, 
YY.  HH.,  that  it  is  25  months  since  I  received  the  same 
goods  as  have  now  come  by  "  Het  Hof  van  Ramsburg"; 
is  it  possible  to  make  one  year's  rations  do  for  25  months? 
The  plantations  and  slaves  have  suffered  most,  and  even 
now  I  fear  to  incur  Your  Honours'  displeasure  by  relating 
in  what  state  these  last  goods  arrived,  but  yet  I  cannot  and 
may  not  remain  silent. 

With  regard  to  what  YY.  HH.  were  pleased  to  write 
concerning  the  manifestoes  I  have  the  honour  to  say  that  it 
is  almost  impossible  for  a  Secretary  to  be  exact  in  this 
matter  if  the  skippers  are  negligent  or  wish  to  act  in  bad 
faith,  to  obtain  proof  of  which  would  be  a  miracle.  They 
come  here  before  their  departure  and  hand  in  their  bills  of 
lading,  from  the  contents  of  which  the  Secretary  makes  up 
his  manifest ;  if  they  keep  aught  back  he  cannot  know  it, 
but  must  act  upon  their  returns,  wherein  they  are  careful 
not  to  include  their  own  sugars. 

I  beg  to  assure  YY.  HH.  that  Your  Honours  are  still  far 
from  being  acquainted  with  this  country,  that  the  tricks, 
subterfuges,  frauds  and  duplicity  practised  here  are  yet  un- 
known and  would  appear  incredible  to  YY.  HH.,  and  that  a 
chief  must  move  very  cautiously  and  take  no  action  unless 
the  matter  be  luce  meridiana  clarior. 

Notwithstanding  all  my  kindness  and  indulgence  I  am 
not  without  enemies.  I  could  send  YY.  HH.  authenticated 
copies  (obtained  for  me  sub  rosa)  of  letters  written  by  men 


who  are  indebted  to  me  for  all  they  possess,  who  frequent 
nny  house  daily  with  the  greatest  show  of  friendship,  and 
who  in  those  letters  treat  me  in  the  most  scandalous 
manner.  And  if  they  have  dared  to  do  this  in  neigh- 
bouring colonies,  what  will  they  not  have  done  with  their 
poisoned  pens  in  Zeeland,  much  of  which  is  already  known 
to  me? 

Mr  Rousselet  has  departed  for  Orinoco^  having  put  out 
to  sea  on  the  15th  August ;  the  list  of  runaway  slaves  he 
has  with  him  comprises  well  over  fifty.  Some  days  before 
his  departure  there  arrived  here  Don  Hieronimo  Fernandez 
de  la  Penna,  Secretary  to  the  Governor  of  Guayana,  bring- 
ing tobacco  with  which  to  buy  other  commodities — a  very 
decent  and  respectable  person,  I  thought.  I  conversed  with 
him  at  great  length  concerning  Mr  Rousselet's  commission; 
he  assured  me  that  he  thought  the  latter  would  be  success- 
ful, that  I  did  very  well  in  sending  such  a  man,  who  would 
be  received  with  much  respect  and  amiability.  Amongst 
other  things  he  said,  "  Your  Excellency  once  sent  a  certain 
Niels,"  meaning  Mr  Schutz^,  "a  real  barbarian  ;  the  second 
time  a  certain  Buisson,  too  stupid  to  sit  alone  by  the  fire, 
who,  had  he  not  had  another" — that  was  E.  Pypersberg — 
"  with  him,  would  scarcely  have  known  why  he  was  come. 
What  can  be  done  with  such  men.?"  he  said.  "  I  doubt  not," 
he  added,  "  that  the  slaves  who  have  not  been  baptized  will 
be  returned  and  restitution  given  for  the  baptized  ones." 
I  hope  his  words  will  prove  true,  for  if  Mr  Rousselet  is  un- 
successful the  Colony  will  be  almost  half  ruined,  since  the 
slaves  will  run  away  in  troops,  and  I  fear  very  much  for 
Your  Honours'  plantation  "  Aechterkerke,"  the  slaves  of 
which  are  the  biggest  scoundrels  in  the  whole  river.  From 
the  above  YY.  HH.  will  see  clearly  that  it  is  not  all  the  same 

1  See  note  on  p.  505.  ^  See  p.  371. 


who  is  sent  there,  and  yet  it  is  very  difficult  to  get  proper 
men  to  go. 

I  think  Mr  Rousselet's  journey  will  take  about  five  or 
six  weeks  and  that  he  will  be  back  before  the  "  Zeeberg's  " 
departure  when  I  hope  to  have  the  honour  to  report 
concerning  his  mission  at  the  close  of  this  despatch. 

Forty-two  slaves  have  run  away  from  Leary  in  two  lots, 
thirty-two  alone  from  his  plantation  here  in  Essequibo,  and 
it  is  a  very  remarkable  thing  that  on  the  last  day  of  Decem- 
ber, 1765,  he  made  a  return,  in  his  own  handwriting,  that  he 
possessed  thirty-five  slaves  ;  now  there  are  just  thirty-five 
remaining,  whilst  thirty- two  have  run  away. 

From  this  example  alone  YY.  HH.  may  now  be  convinced 
that  I  was  not  far  wrong  when  I  had  the  honour  to  write 
that  I  was  sure  a  great  deal  of  fraud  was  going  on  in  the 
slave  returns  and  the  late  Councillor  Pypersberg  was 
probably  certain  about  it,  though  when  he  discussed  the 
matter  with  me  he  would  mention  no  names. 

Mr  Rousselet  returned  from  Orinoco  on  September  20, 
having  performed  the  journey  in  five  weeks,  which  is  fairly 
quick.  He  was  received  with  exceeding  great  courtesy  and 
affability  but  could  get  nothing  done  respecting  the  restitu- 
tion of  the  slaves.  Yet,  notwithstanding  an  order  from  the 
Governor  of  Cumana  (under  whose  jurisdiction  Guayana  is) 
which  was  shown  him,  and  wherein  not  only  the  restitution 
of  slaves  but  also  the  payment  of  any  price  for  them  is  for- 
bidden, the  Governor  of  Guayana  solemnly  promised  upon 
his  honour  that  the  slaves  should  be  sold  and  the  amount 
they  fetched  handed  over  to  us  and  that  the  matter  should 
be  quite  settled  and  liquidated  before  the  expiration  of  his 
term  of  office,  which  has  only  three  months  to  run. 

If  this  promise  be  kept  it  will  be  at  least  something  for 
the  owners  of  the  slaves,  but  for  the  Colony  in  general  it 
would  have  been  much  more  profitable  if  even  but  a  fourth 


part  of  them  had  been  actually  handed  over  and  brought 
back  ;  that  would  have  frightened  others,  but  now  I  fear 
desertion  will  be  rife  and  that  many  people  will  be  ruined  if 
no  effective  measures  are  put  into  operation,  as  I  already 
had  the  honour  to  mention  above. 

Could  nothing  be  done  with  the  Spanish  Ambassador  in 
The  Hague  concerning  this  matter^^  It  is  indeed  very  hard 
that  neighbouring  and  allied  nations  take  each  other's  pro- 
perty by  force  in  this  manner  and  freely  appropriate  it. 
The  accompanying  copy^of  the  letter  from  the  Governor  of 
Cumand  will  show  YY.  HH.  the  sentiments  of  some  of  those 
officials,  and  it  must  not  be  thought  that  they  have  their 
Sovereign's  interest  in  view — no,  YY.  HH.,  to  fill  their  own 
purse  is  their  aim.  There  are  still  at  the  present  moment 
in  the  house  of  the  Commandant  of  Guayana,  Don  Juan 
Valdez,  slaves  who  ran  away  from  us  about  eight  years  ago  ; 
they  have  been  recently  seen  and  spoken  to. 

^  See  note  on  p.  64.  To  this  and  many  similar  entreaties  the 
Directors  sent  a  most  unsatisfactory  and  somewhat  mettlesome  reply 
dated  August .?/,  //d/,  which  ran  : — 

"As  to  taking  efficacious  measures  against  the  running  away  of 
slaves  to  Orinoco  and  elsewhere,  we  are  as  much  as  anybody  con- 
vinced of  the  necessity  thereof;  but  in  our  missive  of  the  9th  March 
of  this  year  we  already  told  you  how  little  effect  we  were  expecting 
from  any  representations  or  requests  here  in  Europe,  in  view  of  the 
result  obtained  at  the  Court  of  Spain  by  the  representations  made  at 
the  request  of  the  Presidial  Chamber  of  Amsterdam,  regarding  the 
slaves  absconding  from  Curasao  to  the  coasts  of  Cora.  However,  in 
order  that  we  rnay  have  nothing  wherewith  to  reproach  ourselves,  we 
have  appointed  a  committee  to  report  to  the  Pensionary  of  this  province 
about  the  condition  of  affairs,  in  order  that  he  may,  when  opportunity 
offers,  lay  the  matter  before  the  meeting  of  the  Provincial  Estates  and 
bring  it  about  that  the  Deputies  to  the  States-General  be  instructed  to 
urge  in  that  body  that  Mr  Doublet  van  Groeneveld  be  requested  to 
make  the  most  vigorous  representations  to  His  Catholic  Majesty,  to 
the  end  that  the  slaves  deserting  from  Essequibo  cmn  annexis  to  the 
Spanish  Colonies  may  be  returned,  as  has  always  hitherto  been  done 
until  a  few  years  ago,  &c.,  and  this  is  all  we  can  do  here  in  this 

2  Inclosure  No.  2.     See  p.  513. 


The  Governor  has  answered  my  letter  very  pohtely^ ; 
we  must  now  wait  and  see  what  happens. 

The  letter  from  the  Governor  of  Cuman^^  deserves  the 
most  serious  attention  on  the  part  of  yy.  hh.,  who  will  see 
from  it  that  he  desires  the  runaways  to  be  declared  free  but 
never  permitted  to  travel  or  go  by  water  lest  they  be  carried 
off  by  the  Dutch,  since  they  have  been  admitted  into  the 
Catholic  faith  by  baptism.  All  the  world  knows  how  far 
the  faith  of  Indians  and  negroes  converted  by  their  mis- 
sionaries extends.  I  have  spoken  to  some  of  those  Indians 
who  were  scarcely  aware  that  there  was  a  Supreme  Being 
and  knew  absolutely  nothing  of  religion  beyond  the  "  Ave 
Maria"  and  the  "  Pater  Noster,"  whilst  a  few  could  say  the 
Creed  in  Latin  and  make  the  sign  of  the  Cross.  Fine 
Christians  indeed  ! 

[Inclosure  No.   i.] 
Dear  Sir, 

I  received,  with  the  esteem  due  to  Your  Honour's  re- 
spected personality,  the  letter  brought  to  me  by  Mr  de  Rousselet, 
charged  with  the  matter  of  the  negro  slaves,  fugitives  from  your 
Colony,  whom  I  treated  with  the  regard  corresponding  to  his  merit 
and  laudable  qualities  and  in  conformity  with  Your  Honour's  re- 
commendation, and  I  assure  Your  Honour  of  my  sincere  desire  to 
repair,  as  far  as  in  me  lies,  the  loss  occasioned  by  the  said  slaves 
to  the  inhabitants  of  your  Colony. 

Your  Honour's  delegate  has  admirably  fulfilled  his  charge  and 
returns  furnished  with  the  documents  necessary  to  attest  his  zeal 
and  my  desire  to  please  Your  Honour  by  the  maintenance  of 
perfect  harmony  with  your  Colony.  He  has  left  his  credendals 
with  the  Government  in  order  that  the  desirable  despatch  may  be 
employed  in  this  matter,  wherein  Your  Honour  may  be  assured 
I  shall  not  omit  my  part  to  bring  it  to  the  earliest  possible 

^  Inclosure  No.  i. 

2  Inclosure  No.  2.     See  p.  513. 


Your  Honour  may  dispose  of  me  whenever  it  may  please  you. 
God  keep  Your  Honour  many  years. 

JoACHiN  Moreno  Mendoza. 

Nueva  Ciudad  de  Guayana, 
Angostura  de  Orinoco, 

September  9,  1766. 

Governor  Don  Louis  Storm  de  's  Gravesande. 

[Inclosure  No.   2.] 
Dear  Sir, 

From  your  letter  of  the  2nd  inst.  I  see  that  a  negro 
slave  came  fieeing  from  the  Colony  of  Essequibo  in  search  of  Holy 
Baptism. ...If  you  find  that  this  negro  slave  certainly  fled  in 
order  to  become  a  Christian  through  baptism  you  shall  guard  and 
protect  him  in  His  Majesty's  royal  name. ...And  if  his  master 
should  subsequently  happen  to  demand  him  you  shall  under  no 
circumstances  give  him  up  but  maintain  and  guard  him  in  the 
possession  of  Christianity  which  he  came  to  seek,  taking  care  that 
he  is  well  treated  and  that  he  has  free  use  of  his  person  without 
any  subjection  or  slavery  whatsoever,  charging  him  ever  to  live 
quietly  and  in  a  Christian  manner,  to  follow  his  trade  or  to  per- 
form his  work  in  order  to  acquire  the  means  wherewith  to  exist 
honourably,  but  not  permitting  him  to  travel  upon  this  river  nor 
to  go  out  of  your  sight  lest  he  be  perverted  or  taken  by  the  Dutch 
and  this  new  plant  be  lost. ...God  guard  you  many  years. 

Joseph  Diguja. 
Cumana,  October  12,  1766. 

Don  Juan  Valdes. 

P.R.O.  473/22 

December  3,   1766. 

Your  Honours'  highly  esteemed  commands  contained 
in  the  despatch  of  the  8th  September  shall  so  far  as  in  any- 
way possible  be  exactly  executed  and  as  speedily  as 
expediency  permits,  and  from  the  first  of  next  January 
I  shall  have  a  careful  account  kept  of  the  distribution  of 

v.s.  II.  33 


the  rations  and  other  provisions  and  a  complete  list  of  such 
rations  drawn  up.  If  I  remember  rightly  I  already  had  the 
honour  not  very  long  ago  of  sending  YY.  HH.  a  ration  list. 
But  for  me  to  give  the  exact  dates  of  all  Your  Honours' 
resolutions  or  letters  wherein  the  respective  rations  have 
been  decreed  or  ordered  is  impossible.  I  should  be  obliged 
to  read  through  all  Your  Honours'  letters  addressed  to  the 
Court  of  Policy  and  to  myself  and  what  a  work  would  that 
not  be !  I  know  for  certain  that  no  rations  beyond  the 
usual  ones  are  distributed  except  by  Your  Honours'  special 
permission,  and  in  accordance  with  the  hard-and-fast  rules 
obtaining  in  this  Colony  upon  my  arrival  and  doubtless 
based  upon  Your  Honours'  commands. 

The  ordinary  employees,  such  as  corporals  and  soldiers, 
receive  every  four  weeks  28  lbs.  of  meat  and  16  lbs.  of  meal ; 
the  artizans,  sergeants,  foremen,  &c.,  42  lbs.  of  meat  and 
24  lbs.  of  flour,  whilst  those  drawing  double  rations  get 
56  lbs.  of  meat  and  32  lbs.  of  flour,  as  YY.  HH.  may  see  by 
the  list. 

Many  clauses  of  Your  Honours'  very  esteemed  letter 
have  been  already  answered  in  my  previous  respective 
despatches  and  Mr  Rousselet  being  at  the  moment  here  in 
Demerara  I  shall  speak  to  him  very  seriously  concerning 
the  ships'  manifests.  I  have  already  done  so  on  several 
occasions  ;  I  myself  do  not  get  the  papers  until  the 
moment  of  closing  the  letter-bag.  when  my  house  is  full  of 
people  and  I  am  obliged  to  put  my  letter  to  YY.  HH.  (which 
has  to  be  kept  open  until  that  moment)  in  order.  It  is 
hard,  Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs,  as  I  have  had  the 
honour  to  write  more  than  once,  that  I  am  obliged  to  be 
everywhere  and  let  my  eye  go  over  everything  if  I  want  it 
properly  done.  In  the  daily  increase  of  affairs,  at  my 
advanced  age  and  with  my  constant  ailments  it  is 
impossible  for  me  to  do  as  much  as  I  would  wish  and  as 
my  duty  demands,  but  ad  hnpossibile  nemo  tenetur. 


That  is  also  the  principal  reason,  YY.  HH.,  for  the 
respectful  request  for  my  discharge  contained  in  my  letter 
going  by  this  ship,  it  being  impossible  for  me  to  endure  the 
fatigues  inseparable  from  my  office  without  succumbing 
thereto.  In  addition  to  that  the  continual  cavilling  and 
secret  opposition  to  which  I  am  exposed  render  my  life  a 
sorrow  and  burden  to  me.  It  is  true  that  if  it  be  given  me 
to  obtain  Your  Honours'  approval  of  my  conduct  I  ought 
to  laugh  at  all  the  rest  and  treat  it  as  naught,  but,  YY.  HH., 
that  cannot  always  be  done — even  a  worm  will  turn. 

There  are  four  or  five  marplots  in  this  Colony  who  will 
not  rest  until  they  have  dug  my  grave — that  is  the  aim  of 
all  their  endeavours,  and  I  think  it  best  to  give  in  to  them 
and  let  them  find  out  whether  they  will  be  better  off  under 
another  chief  My  persistence  in  having  Your  Honours' 
commands  executed  as  exactly  as  possible  and  in  allowing 
no  deviation  whatever  from  that  course  is  not  to  their 
liking,  and  my  long  experience  and  accurate  knowledge  of 
all  that  is  going  on  does  not  permit  them  to  hope  either  to 
deceive  or  to  mislead  me. 

[  Thereupon  Storm  once  more  repeats  his  request  to  be  dis- 
charged, in  the  usual  terms  and  with  the  usual  accompanying 
expressions  of  gratitude""?^ 

The  Postholder  of  Arinda  is  at  present  here  ;  the  fellow 
has  not  made  the  slightest  attempt  to  carry  out  his 
instructions  ;  he  blames  the  assistant,  Bakker,  for  this,  who 
again  throws  the  blame  upon  him.  It  is  a  chaos  of  con- 
flicting statements,  of  which  it  is  impossible  to  make 
anything.  But  the  assistant  being  universally  known  as  a 
rogue,  I  shall  send  him  out  of  the  Colony  with  the  first 
English  vessel.  He  will  then  not  be  able  to  do  any  more 
mischief,  and  I  shall  promote  \sic\  the  Postholder  to  the 
rank  of  assistant  if  1  can  only  manage  to  find  another. 

*  See  his  applications  of  May  and  September^  176J  ;  pp.  425  and  436. 



I  have  set  one  of  the  assistants  of  Moruka  to  carry 
a  gun  once  more  on  the  Island  of  Borssele. 

The  Postholder  of  Cuyuni  is,  according  to  the  latest 
reports,  lying  ill  at  the  Post,  This  is  a  great  pity,  because 
he  makes  great  progress  in  his  work,  and  we  should  lose  a 
great  deal  in  him.  But  sickness  is  the  fate  which  overtakes 
all,  without  exception,  who  proceed  up  the  Cuyuni  for  the 
first  time,  especially  in  the  dry  season,  which  still  continues. 

P.R.O.  473/23 

December  8,   1766. 

On  the  1 2th  of  October,  the  day  of  my  entry  upon  my 

sixty-third  year,  "  De  Spoor"  came  to  anchor  before  the 

Fort,  having  just  met  the  pilot  who  was  going  to  Demerara 

to  take  the  "  Zeeberg "  out  to  sea,  which  vessel  was  too 

ully  laden  to  go  out  before  the  full  moon. 

"De  Spoor"  brought  me  Your  Honours'  much  esteemed 
despatch  of  the  19th  July  last,  the  circumstantial  reply  to 
which  I  shall,  I  fear,  have  to  postpone  until  the  departure 
of  "  Het  Hof  Ramsburg"  or  the  "Maria  Aletta,"  since,  in 
addition  to  my  being  seriously  incommoded  by  gout,  time 
is  so  short  and  my  duties  so  manifold  that  I  can  take 
scarcely  a  few  hours'  rest  and  must  leave  it  to  Mr  Spoors, 
who  arrived  in  the  above-mentioned  vessel,  to  write  a  full 
and  circumstantial  report  of  Your  Honours'  plantations. 
The  administration  of  the  latter  has  now  been  entrusted  to 
that  gentleman  in  conjunction  with  me^ — this  to  my  great 
annoyance,  be  it  said  en  passant,  as  YY,  HH.  will  already  have 
observed  from  an  earlier  letter^ — and  matters  will,  I  hope, 
be  speedily  put  right  by  the  salutary  resolution  concerning 
the  managers  passed  and  transmitted  by  YY.  HH.  The  care 
of  the  plantations  will  have  to  fall  mostly  on  Mr  Spoors 
alone  for  a  month  or  two  since  it  is   my  intention,  if  the 

'  See  p.  38.  2  See  p.  429. 


Lord  will,  to  proceed  to  Demerara  to-day  a  fortnight, 
where  my  presence  is  very  necessary  but  whither  it  was 
impossible  for  me  to  go  before  the  arrival  of  this  ship. 

In  addition  to  this,  both  my  daughters  were  civilly 
married'  the  day  after  the  vessel's  arrival  and  intend  to 
have  their  union  blessed  by  the  Church  immediately  upon 
our  arrival  in  Demerara,  which  occasions  a  deal  of  to-do  in 
the  house.  I  shall  therefore  begin  by  answering  a  few,  and, 
indeed,  the  most  important  of  Your  Honours'  points. 

And  firstly,  I  have  the  honour  to  thank  YY.  HH.  for 
kindly  appointing  another  assistant,  because  this  greatly 
diminishing  the  other  assistants'  work,  especially  as  another 
clerk  has  been  engaged  in  the  Secretary's  office,  I  can 
employ  one  to  help  me  in  my  manifold  and  daily  increasing 
writing  and  copying.  This  favour  comes,  too,  the  more 
opportunely,  since  by  the  marriage  of  my  daughters  I  have 
lost  my  clerks,  so  that  I  saw  no  chance  of  getting  through 
my  work  and  have  already  been  in  negotiations  with  a 
competent  person  from  St  Eustatius  to  engage  him  for  my 
own  service  ;  these,  however,  now  fall  through  by  reason  of 
Your  Honours'  kind  arrangements,  and  I  shall  now  employ 
the  assistant  Milborn  and  let  him  accompany  me  wherever 
my  presence  may  be  required. 

Nothing  could  be  better  or  more  advantageous  than 
Your  Honours'  plan  of  splitting  up  the  requisitions  into 
three  or  four  lots  ;  this  would  not  only  often  prevent  such 
want  as  is  occasioned  by  long  delay  in  the  vessels'  arrival 
and  by  other  causes,  but  the  goods  being  sent  off  more 
betimes  would  certainly  arrive  in  better  condition.  For 
I  assure  YY.  HH.  in  all  truth  that  various  kinds  of  provisions, 
especially  peas,  beans,  &c.,  &c.,  often  arrive  totally  useless 
(though    it    is    Your    Honours'    kind    intention    that   the 

1  See  p.  33. 


employees  shall  derive  benefit  from  these  things  and  pay 
for  them  as  good  and  fit  for  use),  their  condition  caused 
either  by  being  already  too  stale  when  despatched  or  by 
the  fault  of  dishonest  purveyors  who  think  "It  is  good 
enough  for  the  West  Indies."  The  samples  shown  YY.  HH. 
are  very  good,  of  that  I  have  no  doubt,  but  whether  the 
bulk  comes  up  to  the  samples,  Jioc  crcdat  judmis  Apella 
lion  ego'^. 

I  have  (so  I  have  reason  to  believe)  found  a  competent 
Postholder  for  Cuyuni  in  the  person  of  Pierre  Martin, 
formerly  a  corporal  in  Your  Honours'  service.  I  have 
engaged  him  at  the  rate  of  i6  guilders  per  month,  and 
have  given  him  provisionally  two  assistants,  who  are  well 
acquainted  with  the  Indian  languages,  each  to  receive 
8  guilders  per  month.  I  dare  not  trust  any  of  the  soldiers 
here  to  go  there,  for  reasons  already  given  in  my  former 
letters.  He  is  at  present  engaged  in  putting  up  the 
dwellings  and  in  bringing  the  Post  into  some  order,  and 
has  some  Caribs  with  him,  whose  number  I  shall  greatly 
increase  when  sufficient  bread  has  been  planted  and  things 
are  in  a  better  state. 

According  to  the  report  of  these  same  Indians,  the 
Spaniards  have  captured  and  carried  off  Your  Honours* 
Creole,  Tampoko,  together  with  an  Indian  slave  belonging 
to  my  daughter,  who  had  gone  with  him  to  buy  birds  and 
other  things  from  the  Indians  up  in  Cuyuni ;  some  of  these 
Caribs  even  assert  that  the  Indian  slave  has  been  killed. 

The  Postholder  of  Arinda  not  having  come  down  the 
river,  in  spite  of  my  reiterated  commands,  and  not  having 
executed  any  of  my  orders,  and  everything  there  being  in  con- 
fusion, I  have  placed  one  of  the  assistants  under  arrest  here, 
and  sent  a  subaltern  officer  up  the  river  to  bring  down  the 

'  Horace,  Satirae,  I.  v.  loo. 


Postholder,  in  order  that  I  may  inquire  fully  into  the 
matter.  In  Maykouny,  things  are  going  at  present  well ; 
in  Moruka,  fairly  so. 

The  Posts  are  certainly,  YY.  HH.,  of  the  greatest  import- 
ance, both  for  the  Honourable  Company  as  well  as  for  the 
Colony.  If  we  could  only  be  so  fortunate  as  to  get  hold  of 
some  competent  Postholders  we  should  very  soon  have 
good  results.  But  this  was  impossible  up  to  the  present, 
the  bad  behaviour  of  several  of  these  men  having  brought 
that  situation  into  contempt,  and  no  respectable  citizen, 
however  much  he  may  wish  to,  dares  to  ask  for  it ;  and 
with  regard  to  the  military,  we  cannot  expect  anything 
good  from  them.  And  yet,  if  there  be  any  situation  which 
will  enable  a  man  to  put  by  a  fair  capital  in  a  few  years  it 
is  that  of  Postholder  (with  the  exception  of  the  one  at 
Maykouny,  who  has  little  opportunity,  but  who,  if  of 
good  behaviour,  will  be  placed  elsewhere  when  there  is  a 

The  old  de  Scharde  had  held  the  Post  of  Moruka  for 
about  a  year  and  a  half  when  he  died,  yet  he  left  his  son  in 
Demerary  a  plantation  with  more  than  twenty  slaves,  and 
he  was  only  beginning  business'.  The  Spaniards  who  had 
come  hither  with  tobacco,  hides,  and  other  things,  all  have 
to  pass  his  door,  and  some  of  them  rest  at  his  place.  What 
would  prevent  him,  if  he  were  a  man  who  understood  his 
interests,  from  buying  everything  from  them?  If  they 
could  at  his  place  get  the  merchandize  they  require  they 
would  not  be  so  foolish  as  to  come  here  for  them,  but  far 
from  doing  that,  these  men  are,  and  remain,  blood  poor, 
and  up  to  their  ears  in  debt.  Want  of  time  does  not 
permit  me  to  dilate  further  upon  this. 

If   I    had    good   under-officers  and  soldiers,  especially 

*  Aegidius  de  Scharde  figures  in  the  Registers  (see  p.  400)  as  the 
owner  of  "  Hampton  Court."     Cf  also  pp.  469,  470. 


Netherlanders,  or,  at  least,  Protestants,  I  think  it  would  be 
possible  to  find  a  few  good  Postholders  among  them  ;  but 
among  those  I  have  at  present  there  is  not  a  single  one 
except  Sergeant  A.  Nusgen,  who  cannot  possibly  be  spared. 
Only  this  morning  I  was  informed  that  another  plot  had 
been  formed  by  three  or  four  soldiers  to  run  away  with  a 
party  of  female  slaves  to  Orinoco,  which  matter  is  being 
inquired  into  whilst  I  am  writing  this. 

It  is  true,  and  YY.  HH.  are  pleased  to  say,  that  there  is 
no  virtue  which  carried  to  excess  does  not  degenerate  into 
a  defect  or  a  vice.  The  Dutch  proverb  says,  "  Over  good 
is  often  mad  "  ;  and  I  see  the  truth  of  this  more  day  by  day. 
Courtesy  and  indulgence,  born  of  kindness,  were  very  well 
and  even  necessary,  as  long  as  the  Colony  was  in  the 
condition  in  which  I  found  it  (that  is,  from  the  year  1738 
to  1745  or  '46  inclusive)  and  whilst  the  veterans,  such  as 
Messrs  A.  Buisson  and  C.  Boter,  were  still  living,  for  whom 
all  the  planters  had  seme  respect  ;  when  I  was  on  good 
terms  with  them  (as  was  nearly  always  the  case)  I  could 
get  what  I  wanted  and  all  went  well. 

Having  become  accustomed  to  this  line  of  conduct,  fully 
approved  by  YY.  HH.  in  various  letters,  it  is  somewhat 
difficult  for  me  to  make  a  complete  change  for,  Receiis 
imbuta,  servat  odorem  testa  din'^.  Now  that  the  Colony  has 
increased  so  extraordinarily  and  is  still  growing  daily  and, 
like  Noah's  Ark,  holds  clean  and  unclean,  men  of  all 
tongues,  races  and  nations,  things  are  quite  different, 
especially  in  Demerara,  and  one  is  nolens  volens  often 
obliged  to  use  authority  if  everything  is  to  be  brought  into 
proper  order.  Be  pleased.  Your  Honours,  to  believe  an  old 
servant  (who  flatters  himself  he  is  thoroughly  well  known  to 
YY,  HH.)  when  he  says  that  he  will  never  exceed  the  limits 

^  Imbuta  recens  servat  odorem  testa  diu.     Horace,  Epist.  i.  ii.  69. 


of  what  is  just  and  reasonable,  and  to  grant  him  proper 
time  for  vindication  (as  I  doubt  not  YY,  HH.  will  do)  should 
complaints  be  laid  before  YY.  HH.  when  he  is  compelled  to 
make  use  of  the  authority  entrusted  to  him. 

The  boast  of  the  Amsterdam  merchant  that  he  could 
smuggle  as  much  sugar  out  of  Demerara  as  he  liked  proves 
that  all  Gascons  are  not  in  France  but  that  some  of  them 
may  be  found  in  Amsterdam.  I  should  like  to  see  the 
fellow  attempt  it — it  would  be  no  loss  to  the  Commander  or 
to  me,  I  promise  him,  and  the  revenue  would  do  well  by  it. 

YY.  HH.  havincr  done  me  the  honour  to  inform  me  that 
YY.  HH.  had  decided  upon  a  garrison  of  forty  men  for  the 
Colony  (really  much  too  little  for  the  two  rivers)  I  asked 
for  no  recruits,  but  now  that  more  than  half  of  the  garrison 
have  served  their  time  and  are  asking  for  their  discharge, 
I  take  the  liberty  to  ask  for  a  reinforcement  of  twenty-five 
men  and  one  drummer.  If  there  were  a  good  competent 
constable  or  two  among  them  they  would  be  of  the  greatest 
use,  for  such  men  can  really  be  ill  dispensed  with. 

Herewith  I  will  again  reiterate  my  request  that  no 
French  or  Flemish  be  sent,  but  as  many  Protestants  as 
possible.  The  proximity  of  the  Spaniards,  and  especially 
of  the  Spanish  Missions,  renders  it  impossible  to  place  the 
slightest  trust  in  Catholics. 

It  is  hard  that  neighbouring  and  allied  nations  should 
thus  seek  to  compass  the  ruin  of  their  neighbours  upon  the 
frivolous  and  really  ridiculous  pretext  of  bringing  the  slaves 
into  the  Christian  religion^ — a  whited  sepulchre  filled  with 
nothing  but  rotting  bones — because  of  all  their  Indian  and 
black  (so-called)  Christians  I  have  not  seen  a  single  one 
who  knows  anything  more  of  religion  than  that  there  is  a 

1  A  further  reflexion  upon  the  matters  detailed  on  pp.  510  to  513. 


God,  and  perhaps  not  so  much  as  that,  or  with  entirely 
erroneous  ideas  concerning  the  Supreme  Being. 

Only  a  moment  ago  there  arrived  Your  Honours'  Creole, 
Tampoko,  who,  though  having  been  captured  up  in  Cuyuni 
by  the  Spaniards  and  sent  heavily  chained  further  into  the 
interior,  managed  to  find  some  means  not  only  to  rid  him- 
self of  his  chains,  but  to  come  down  through  Orinoco,  and 
to  bring  with  him  two  negroes  from  Angostura,  where  the 
Governor  lives. 

The  fellow  seems  to  be  in  league  with  the  Deuce, 
because  it  is  difficult  to  understand  how  he  managed  to  do 
all  this.  He  tells  me  that  the  Indian  slave  belonging  to 
my  daughter  also  escaped  with  his  assistance,  and  that  he 
is  coming  on  behind  with  a  party  of  Indians,  and  that 
he  will  probably  bring  a  few  with  him.  This  creole  is 
really  priceless,  considering  the  services  that  are  to  be  got 
out  of  him.  It  is  a  pity,  nevertheless,  that  he  is  so  insolent 
when  he  is  drunk  \ 

The  wood  asked  for  went  over  in  the  "  Laurens  en 
Maria,"  by  which  vessel  I  also  had  the  honour  to  write 
further  concerning  the  ouaroiichi-  and  to  send  some  ;  to  this 
I  added  a  small  case  of  the  now  famous  quassia^,  here  called 
caraivadani,  and  for  which  I  have  received  several  requests 
by  '■  De  Spoor."  I  am  impatiently  awaiting  the  time  for 
the  ouaroiichi  to  ripen,  for  the  Indians  will  then  bring  me  a 
kind  growing  near  the  Pomeroon  quite  once  as  large  as 
the  last ;  its  mace  is  much  thicker  and  in  my  opinion  the 
genuine  sort  for  which  I  am  looking.  As  for  the  cinnamon 
which  is  to  come  from  up  the  Essequibo  YY.  HH.  saw  in  the 
beginning  of  this  letter  what  a  Postholder  I  have  there  ;  he 

1  For  further  details  concerning  Tampoco's  life  and  end  see  p.  585. 

2  See  pp.  484  and  499.  ^  See  p.  506. 


has  done  naught  of  what  was  ordered  him.  Speaking 
generally,  Your  Honours,  I  ought  to  be  everywhere  in 
person  if  I  want  anything  done  well  ;  that  was  easy  enough 
some  twenty  years  ago,  but  now  it  is  very  troublesome  for 

I  am  deeply  grateful  and  obliged  to  YY.  HH.  for  the 
permission  so  graciously  granted  me  to  pay  a  visit  to 
Europe,  which  I  have  so  long  and  cordially  desired  to  do  ; 
with  heart  and  soul  would  I  like  to  profit  by  that  favour  in 
the  ensuing  spring,  but,  Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs, 
the  present  state  of  my  health  does  not  allow  me  to  hope 
that  I  shall  be  fit  to  do  so.  It  is  possible  that  during  the 
ensuing  rainy  season  God  may  graciously  grant  me  some 
betterment,  but  the  intense  drought  which  still  continues 
has  increased  my  pain  so  much  that  everything  is  a  burden 
to  me,  and  even  writing,  which  was  always  a  light  and 
pleasant  labour  for  me,  is  now  a  task  which  I  can  perform 
only  with  great  trouble  and  many  breaks.  My  two 
daughters  being  now  married  I  am  left  almost  alone, 
which  in  my  advanced  years  and  ill-health  will  be  ex- 
ceedingly awkward  for  me.  Wherefore  I  have  written  to 
my  son'  by  this  vessel  asking  him  to  return  hither,  and 
telling  him  not  to  fail  to  call  upon  YY.  HH.  before  his  de- 
parture to  hear  Your  Honours'  pleasure  and  to  assure 
YY.  HH.  of  his  respect.  At  the  same  time  I  take  the  liberty 
of  commending  the  youth,  concerning  whom  I  get  good 
accounts  (the  Lord  be  praised),  to  Your  Honours'  favour 
and  protection. 

These  circumstances,  in  addition  to  my  advanced  age, 
bodily  ailments  and   many  other  reasons  compel  me  to 

^  Jeremias,  born  (according  to  family  papers)  Feb.  2,  I74g  (ac- 
cording to  Rietstap,  Op.  cit.  p.  135,  Sept.  2  of  that  year).  He  evidently 
did  not  come  back  at  once  for  \njune,  1767,  Storm  recommended  him 
to  the  protection  of  Bentinck  (see  p.  589)  as  he  had  already  done  to 
that  of  the  Prince  of  Orange  in  Ati^.  1766  (see  p.  550). 


repeat  the  request  I  proffered  some  years  ago  and  to 
implore  YY.  HH.  most  earnestly  and  humbly  to  be  kind 
enough  to  grant  an  old  servant  the  favour  of  releasing  him 
from  a  heavy  burden  daily  becoming  more  impossible  for 
him  to  bear.  As  long  as  the  Lord  preserves  me  in  life  I 
shall  never  forget  the  benefits  and  kindnesses  bestowed 
upon  me  by  YY.  HH.  Although  discharged  from  Your 
Honours'  service  I  shall  ever  be  a  faithful  and  zealous 
servant  and  a  champion  of  the  Company's  interests,  ever 
ready  to  use  all  my  efforts  in  furthering  them.  I  beg  and 
entreat  YY.  HH.  to  grant  me,  who  have  now  served  for  more 
than  twenty-nine  years,  that  favour,  and  not  to  postpone  it 
longer.  Once  more  I  say  Bis  dat  qui  cito  dat,  so  that  I  may 
spend  the  remainder  of  my  days  in  quietness  and  peace 
with  my  children  upon  the  plantation.  There  should  be 
some  interval  between  the  affairs  of  this  world  and  one's 
exit  therefrom. 

Further,  I  take  the  liberty  of  begging  YY.  HH.  to  grant 
me  the  same  favour  as  was  shown  to  Mr  Spoors  and  to  let 
me  keep  the  ration  of  meat  and  flour  together  with  about 
six  slaves  ;  most  of  those  I  have  are  old,  worn-out  folk  of 
no  use  whatever  upon  a  plantation,  among  them  being 
some  who  have  lived  with  me  since  the  day  I  arrived  in  this 
country  and  to  whom  I  have  got  accustomed. 

I  ask  for  no  pension,  salary  or  provisions ;  that  would 
be  very  unreasonable,  for  the  Honble.  Co.  has  already 
burdens  enough  without  being  saddled  with  such  un- 
necessary ones.  I  would  indeed  ask  for  nothing  did  I  not 
require  it  and  were  I  not  convinced  of  Your  Honours' 
goodness  towards  me. 

I  have  taken  the  liberty  of  addressing  a  similar  and 
most  earnest  petition  by  this  ship  to  His  Serene  Highness^ 

1  William  V,   Prince  of  Orange,    Hereditary   Stadholder   of  the 
United  Provinces  and  Governor-General  of  the  West  India  Company. 


and  to  His  Highness'  Representative,  and  have  asked  my 
friends  to  be  good  enough  to  support  me  therein. 

Notwithstanding  this,  I  shall  not  lose  sight  of  the  voyage 
to  Europe  if  the  Lord  grant  me  strength,  but  would  like  to 
have  obtained  my  discharge  before  that  and  to  have  been  able 
to  hand  everything  over  properly  to  my  successor,  in  which 
case  my  stay  would  not  necessarily  be  so  limited.  My 
children,  seeing  my  helpless  state,  my  incessant  work  and 
care  are  also  constantly  begging  me  to  resign  my  office  and 
to  come  and  live  quietly  with  them.  I  would  like  to  go 
with  honour,  yet  if  it  last  longer  this  can  scarcely  be  by 
reason  of  the  amount  of  worry  and  opposition  I  have  to 
contend  with.  To  cope  therewith  properly  youth  and 
strength  are  required,  but  not  a  worn-out  decrepit  old 

Therefore  I  humbly  entreat  YY.  HH.  graciously  to  per- 
mit me  to  resign  my  office  and  to  thank  H  is  Serene  Highness 
and  YY.  HH.  for  so  many  favours  and  benefits  received,  of 
which  I  will  all  my  life  retain  a  grateful  remembrance,  and 
while  imploring  the  Lord's  blessing  I  will,  until  my  suc- 
cessor's arrival,  endeavour  to  do  my  duty  according  to  my 

From  the  accompanying  letter  from  Mr  Clarke  respecting 
his  ship  YY.  HH.  will  see  what  that  gentleman's  sentiments 
and  displeasure  are.  What  will  they  be  now  after  the 
receipt  of  my  letter  informing  him  of  Your  Honours'  pro- 
hibition to  import  slaves  for  his  plantations?  It  would 
grieve  me  exceedingly  if  we  came  to  lose  so  wealthy  a 
planter  and  one  so  profitable  to  the  Colony,  and  yet  I  fear 
it  will  come  to  it.  I  expect  further  letters  from  him  before 
the  departure  of  this  ship. 



Barbadoes,   14th  Sept.,   1766. 
His  Excellency  L.  Storm  van  's  Gravesande  Esq. 

Dear  Sir, 

I  had  the  honour  to  receive  your  Excellency's  Favour 
by  Capt.  Dobby  and  by  Captain  Carberry  and  am  much  obliged 
to  you  for  the  Intelligence  you  have  given  me  with  Respect  to  y^ 
Disputes  between  the  different  Chambers  of  the  West  India  Com- 
pany. I  am  still  of  opinion  with  your  Excellency  that  our  Colony 
will  be  soon  made  free.  If  not,  we  nevertheless  shall  be  upon  a 
much  better  footing  with  Middelburg  than  heretofore.  They  talk 
of  a  Bank  of  Credit  being  established  for  the  use  of  the  Colony. 
Is  that  true?  I  am  afraid  it  is  too  good  news  to  be  so.  However, 
let  us  always  hope  for  the  best. 

I  am  now  to  mention  a  circumstance  to  your  Excellency  which 
has  given  me  great  concern  and  which  will  also  be  attended  with 
great  Expence  &  Inconvenience  unless  your  Excellency  will 
comply  with  my  Request.  It  is  to  permit  the  Ship  St  George 
Capt.  Foott  to  load  in  the  Colony  without  further  Delay.  I 
observe  what  your  Excellency  says  on  the  subject  &  therefore  to 
make  all  things  easy,  I  have  thought  the  best  way  was  to  purchase 
said  Ship  and  to  make  a  Dutch  Bottom  of  her,  which  I  have  done 
from  John  Haslin  Esq.  who  is  attorney  for  the  owners  of  said 
vessel;  and  Capt.  Foott  will  present  the  Bill  of  Sale  to  your 
Excellency  when  he  has  the  honour  of  waiting  upon  you.  The 
ship  therefore  is  now  the  Property  of  Mr  Peter  de  Bruyn  of 
Middelburg  and  myself,  and  I  intreat  your  Excellency  to  grant  to 
Capt.  Foot  the  necessary  Dutch  Papers  to  enable  him  to  pursue 
his  Voyage  to  Middelburg.  I  will  be  security  for  his  landing  his 
Cargoe  at  Middelburg  and  I  beg  the  Favour  of  your  Excellency  to 
give  him  some  coffee  &c.  on  freight,  and  to  recommend  him  to 
your  Friends.  It  is  very  likely  that  this  ship  will  be  kept  in  the 
Dimmerary  Trade.  If  not,  I  shall  soon  get  another  to  be  entirely 
at  my  disposal,  for  at  present,  I  find  it  is  a  difficult  matter  to  get 
what  we  want  on  Board  of  some  ships  in  y^  trade. 

I  recommend  Capt.  Foot  very  strenuously  to  your  Excellency, 
because  I  would  not  have  him  delayed  longer  on  any  account. 
It  has  been  very  expensive  already  and  although  the  Company  has 
forbid  any  Ships  belonging  to  other  Ports  than  those  of  Zeeland 


from  trading  to  the  Colony,  yet  I  presume  that  was  chiefly 
meant  to  prevent  the  Ships  from  Amsterdam  and  not  those  wherein 
I  &  the  other  Inhabitants  were  interested. 

Your  Excellency  will  be  pleased  to  observe  that  I  am  a  Burgher 
of  Middelburg  as  well  as  of  Demerary  &  therefore  I  have  as  good 
a  Right  to  load  my  Ship  in  Dimmerary  as  any  man  whatever  &  I 
expect  that  no  Hindrance  be  given  to  Capt.  Foott.  I  shall  there- 
fore be  much  obliged  to  you  to  give  him  his  necessary  Papers  as 
soon  as  possible. 

Such  frequent  oppositions  make  it  appear  as  if  the  whole 
Colony  were  my  Ennemies;  and  for  what  cause,  they  themselves 
cannot  tell,  nor  can  I  conceive,  unless  it  proceeds  from  Envy.  I 
am  however  easy  about  the  Matter;  but  at  the  same  time  deter- 
mined, if  these  Proceedings  continue,  to  draw  my  Interest  out  of 
Demerary  as  soon  as  possible;  for  notwithstanding  I  shall  lose 
considerably  by  it,  yet  it  surely  is  much  better  for  me  to  have  one 
Half  of  my  Property  secured,  than  to  run  the  Risque  of  losing  the 
whole,  and  indeed  I  had  better  suffer  a  great  deal,  than  to  be 
eternally  fatigued  with  Complaints. 

I  beg  my  best  Respects  to  your  good  Family  &  particularly 
to  my  God-Daughter  and  am  with  much  Truth  &  Attachment 

Dear  Sir, 

Your  Excellency's 

Most  obedient  hble  servant 

Gedney  Clarke. 

Both  from  the  point  of  view  of  territorial  limits  and  that  of 
international  law  the  despatch  from  which  the  following 
extracts  are  taken  is  one  of  Storm's  best.  It  contains  in 
a  very  short  space  a  complete  bird's-eye  view  of  the  way 
in  tvhich  the  Director-General  was  watching  all  the 
various  boundaries  of  his  colony.  Written  in  a  cramped 
hand,  and  comprising  abont  19,000  zvords  in  tzventy-one 
folio  pages,  it  was  commenced,  as  a  side-note  shozvs,  on 
fanuary  6. 


P.R.O.   473/37 

March  20,  1767. 

Concerning  the  matter  of  Barima  and  the  case  of  Rose, 
I  have  the  honour  to  inform  YY.  HH.  that  we,  as  well  as  the 
Spaniards,  regard  the  River  Barima  as  the  boundary  divi- 
sion of  the  two  jurisdictions,  the  east  bank  being  the 
Company's  territory,  and  the  west  bank  Spanish. 

Fearing,  however,  because  there  is  a  dearth  of  competent 
and  discreet  persons,  and  because  the  work  was  getting  as 
dangerous  for  the  Spaniards  as  for  us — fearing,  I  say,  that 
my  envoy  would  also  come  to  the  west  bank,  I  have  in  two 
consecutive  letters  given  the  Governor  of  Guayana  a  cir- 
cumstantial account  of  the  matter,  and  asked  him  to  send 
some  men  to  help  us  clear  out  this  nest. 

His  Honour  did  not  answer  those  letters,  but  sent  me  a 
verbal  message  by  Vicente  Franco,  one  of  the  principal 
colonists  of  Guayana,  that  it  was  impossible  for  him  to  send 
men  on  account  of  the  great  distance  and  the  lack  of  boats, 
&c.,  and  that  the  best  thing  would  be  to  let  those  evil-doers 
fight  it  out. 

Thereupon  I  sent  the  Postholder  of  Moruka  my  orders, 
being  careful  to  charge  him  to  avoid  the  Spanish  bank  but 
not  the  islands  lying  in  the  river,  because  these  were  un- 
certain territory.  He  followed  my  orders  faithfully.  Rose 
having  been  apprehended  on  our  shore. 

I  am  fully  acquainted  with  the  rule.  Extra  territorium 
suum  jus  dicenti  enim  inipune  7ion  paretur ;  but  it  is  not 
applicable  to  the  Resolution  of  the  Court  in  this  matter, 
because — 

1.  The  east  bank  being  in  our  jurisdiction,  the  Court 
can  enforce  its  order  there. 

2.  Because  I  think  that  the  Court  certainly  has  the 
power  to  forbid  its  citizens  and  colonists  to  go  to  any  places 


when  such  is  considered  to  be  inexpedient  or  dangerous  for 
the  Colony \ 

The  resolution  concerning  charts  of  the  allotments  is 
being  carried  out  and  several  have  already  been  deposited 
in  the  Office  ;  then,  as  to  the  title-deeds,  for  which  I  get  a 
fee  of  from  seven  to  ten  guilders  each,  I  shall,  in  order  that 
the  colonists  may  have  no  cause  for  complaint,  ask  them 
to  pay  no  more  for  three  than  for  one.  I  hope  the  Secretary 
will  do  the  same  for  his  dues,  but  I  doubt  it. 

I  have  no  doubt  whatever,  Your  Honours,  that  this 
Colony  will,  with  the  Lord's  blessing,  equal  the  most 
flourishing  in  a  few  short  years.  God  grant  that  the 
motto  of  our  commonwealth  be  better  kept  in  mind — 
Concordia  res  parvae  crescunt'^. 

The  war  between  the  Caribs  and  the  Accuways  is  still 
proceeding,  but  in  a  very  half-hearted  and  sluggish  manner, 
and  there  is  great  probability  that  it  will  soon  be  settled  ; 
this  would  already  long  have  been  done  if  the  Postholder 
of  Arinda  had  discharged  his  duty. 

Having  received  the  various  reports  of  events  that  had 
occurred  during  my  absence^  I  found  several  matters  had 
gone  otherwise  than  they  should  have  done  and  these  will 
cause  me  a  deal  of  work  and  worry  before  I  get  them  right 

What  am  I  to  say,  Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs  ? 
I  must  speak  out  and  cannot  contain  myself  any  longer. 

1  All  the  above  is  in  reply  to  the  Directors'  comments  dated 
Sept.  2J,  lydd  (see  Note  2,  p.  504).  The  addition  of  the  second  reason 
in  the  final  paragraph  was  ingenious. 

2  See  p.  267. 

3  Storm  had  been  out  to  sound  the  channel  at  the  mouth  of  the 
river  where  a  sandbank  had  been  long  forming  (see  p.  507)  ;  he 
found  that  there  was  still  room  enough  for  entering,  but  that  there 
was,  as  he  had  feared,  difficulty  in  tacking  out. 

v.  s.    11.  34 


I  am  grieved  to  my  very  soul  and  cannot  suppress  my 
chagrin  when  I  see  and  find  all  my  kindness,  indulgence 
and  courtesy  rewarded  by  the  vilest  ingratitude,  when 
people  who,  as  the  whole  Colony  knows,  have  nought  but 
obligations  towards  me,  seek  only  to  thwart  me  and  to  do 
me  every  possible  harm  and  injury,  speaking  of  me  in  the 
most  malicious  way,  saying  what  is  true  and  untrue,  and 
not  disdaining  even  the  most  detestable  and  palpable 
lies.  Mr  Spoors  has  also  some  very  good  reasons  for  com- 
plaint ;  he,  however,  thinks  it  is  but  for  a  short  time  and 
therefore  says  little  about  it, 

I  should  require  some  half-dozen  sheets  of  paper  if  I 
would  take  the  trouble  to  inform  YY.  HH.  circumstantially 
of  these  various  matters  and  to  unburden  my  overflowing 
bosom.  But  having  had  the  honour  by  "  De  Sarah  "  humbly 
to  entreat  His  Serene  Highness  and  YY.  HH.  for  my  dis- 
charge 1  will  be  silent  and  await  my  successor  with 

In  God's  name,  Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs,  do  I 
implore  YY.  HH.  to  release  Your  Honours'  old  and  (as  his 
conscience  tells  him)  faithful  servant  from  purgatory.  I 
cannot  possibly  endure  it  any  longer  or  I  shall  die  of  grief. 
Do  not.  Your  Honours,  I  beg,  grudge  me  a  little  rest  if  it 
please  the  Lord  to  lengthen  my  days  still  a  little.  I  cannot 
possibly  hold  out  any  longer  and  cannot  therefore  be  of  any 
use  or  service  to  YY.  HH.  or  the  Colony. 

O  tempora,  O  mores  I  may  indeed  say,  but  I  will  leave  that 
matter  now  and  weary  YY.  HH.  no  more.  God  grant  that 
YY.  HH.  may  find  a  competent,  sensible  and  steadfast  man 
in  my  place,  for  otherwise,  be  he  indulgent,  especially  in 
the  beginning,  the  Colony  will  soon  be  ruled  in  despotic 
manner  by  minor  officials  and  so  turn  to  chaos.  For 
arhongst  the  burghers  there  are  some  not  bereft  of  sense 
who  have  publicly  told  me  that  they  were  willing  to  be 
ruled  and  commanded  by  a  Governor  but  by  no  other,  and 


that  they  hoped  I  would  not  take  it  amiss  if  they  showed 
their  teeth. 

I  was  very  agreeably  surprised  to  see  what  progress  had 
been  made  with  the  work  at  the  Fort.  Since  I  entrusted 
Commandant  Bakker  with  its  superintendence  it  has 
advanced  so  much  that  everyone  who  visits  it  is  sur- 
prised ;  many,  too,  who  were  defaulters  in  the  matter  of 
sending  their  slaves  have  since  the  New  Year  done  better 
in  view  of  the  Commandant's  threats,  especially  as  I  allow 
him  one  half  the  fines  imposed  by  the  Court  (the  other  half 
going  to  the  poor),  so  that  it  will  soon  be  finished.  They 
are  now  working  at  the  drawbridge  and  lock,  after  which 
the  batteries  and  then  the  crown-work  will  be  put  into  order. 
But  stones,  stones,  these  are  what  is  wanted,  likewise  iron, 
there  being  no  more  in  the  smithies.  Stones  for  the  crown- 
work  will  be  fetched  from  the  old  Fort^  in  the  punt. 

The  newly-arrived  surgeon,  E.  Couzijn,  having  called 
upon  me  in  Demerara  I  asked  him  to  go  and  see  Saffon, 
the  surveyor,  on  his  way  to  Essequibo  and  to  examine  his 
eyes-.  Having  done  this  he  reported  to  me  that  there  was 
some  chance  of  stopping  the  constant  pain  but  that  it  was 
quite  impossible  to  restore  the  sight,  since  the  nervi  optici 
were  quite  corroded  or  eaten  away  by  the  former  remedies 
applied  and  that  there  was  no  cure  for  this.  He  will  send 
me  a  report  in  writing. 

Now  I  shall  have  the  honour  to  take  up  the  remaining 
unanswered  Articles  in  Your  Honours'  former  letters,  so  far 
as  time  will  permit  me. 

1  Kijkoveral  (see  p.  474). 

"  It  is  interesting,  when  one  takes  into  consideration  the  despond- 
ency shown  by  Storm  in  an  earlier  portion  of  this  very  despatch,  to 
note  the  alertness  and  versatility  of  his  mind — how  no  detail  escapes 
him ;  here,  for  instance,  is  a  wonderful  jump  from  the  state  of  the 
fort  batteries  to  that  of  the  Surveyor's  eyes. 



In  reply  to  Your  Honours'  letter  of  the  19th  June,  I 
come  first  to  the  Article  concerning  the  Postholders. 

It  is  certain  that  we  are  gradually  becoming  more  aware 
how  extremely  important  this  matter  is  to  the  service  of 
the  Honourable  Company  and  the  maintenance  of  the 
Colony.  Up  to  the  present  I  have  not  had  a  single  one 
that  I  could  call  good  or  even  passable,  and  I  have  even 
been  obliged  to  send  the  one  from  Arinda,  who  had  been 
under  arrest  in  the  Fort  here  for  about  four  weeks,  back  to 
the  Post,  not  having  been  able  to  find  a  proper  person  to 
send  in  his  place,  notwithstanding  that  I  made  inquiries  on 
all  sides.  The  mulattoes  of  this  country,  who,  understand- 
ing the  languages,  would  be  the  most  fit,  are  much  too  lazy; 
they  are,  moreover,  unwilling  to  submit  to  the  least  form  of 
subjection,  and  having  not  the  slightest  ambition  nor  any 
desire  for  money,  nothing  is  to  be  done  with  them,  so  that, 
as  I  have  no  good  soldiers,  I  can  find  no  remedy  for  this. 

Your  Honours'  prophecy  concerning  the  Indian  spy 
from  the  Spaniards  was  a  perfectly  correct  one,  because  the 
man  has  really  managed  to  escape.  But  he  could  not  have 
been  kept  a  prisoner  for  ever,  and  the  Post  in  Cuyuni  now 
being  re-established  it  does  not  matter  so  much. 

It  is  unfortunate  that  the  Postholder  there  has  had  to 
pay  the  usual  toll  exacted  from  all  who  go  there  for  the  first 
time,  he  having  had  a  severe  illness  from  which  he  has  not 
yet  quite  recovered. 

For  the  reasons  given  in  my  former  letters  I  have  not 
yet  sent  him  any  soldiers,  but  two  assistants  who  are 
acquainted  with  the  Indian  languages.  I  hear  that  the 
dwellings  are  constructed,  and  large  bread-gardens  are 
planted  ;  this  work  is  being  daily  continued,  and  the 
Indians  are  beginning  to  come  in  slowly. 


Passing  now  to  Your  Honours'  letter  of  the  8th  Septem- 
ber\  there  is  still  left  for  me  to  answer : 

Firstly,  concerning  the  Pyramids.  Up  to  the  present  it 
has  been  impossible  for  me  to  get  anyone  upon  whom  I  can 
in  any  way  rely  in  order  to  make  a  careful  inspection  and 
description  of  the  same,  however  much  I  may  desire  and 
long  to  have  it  done,  never  having  lost  that  object  out  of  my 
sight,  as  being  one  by  which  indeed  some  discoveries  of  the 
greatest  importance  to  the  learned  world  might  be  made. 
There  are  no  nations  known  in  antiquity  besides  the  two^ 
mentioned  by  YY.  HH.  who  have  made  their  work  of  such 
constructions,  and  it  not  being  possible  to  suppose  that  any 
colonies  of  the  same  ever  by  any  chance  came  this  way, 
such  increases  curiosity  very  much. 

With  regard  to  the  Phoenicians  and  Carthaginians  it  is 
by  no  means  so  improbable  that  they  came  to  South 
America^;  those  people  are  known  to  have  sent  out 
colonies  far  and  wide,  as  navigation  went  in  those  days, 
and  it  may  well  be  that  some  of  their  ships  being  driven 
away  from  land  and  far  out  to  sea  by  a  storm,  got  caught 

^  See  p.  502,  Note  2.  ^  Tj^e  Egyptians  and  the  Chinese. 

^  It  is  of  course  a  well-known  fact  that  many  theories  have  been 
put  forward  concerning  pre-Columbian  discoveries  of  America,  mostly 
ascribed  to  Northmen.  We  quote  at  random  but  a  few  works  of 
n.odern  times  on  the  subject. 

Anderson  (R.  B.),  America  not  discovered  by  Columbus,  pp.  164. 
Chicago,  i88j.     [With  a  bibliography.] 

Vining  (E.  P.),  An  inglorious  Columbus j  evidence  that  Hwui 
Shan  discovered  America,     pp.  788.     New  York,  188^. 

Brown  ( M.  A.),  Icelandic  discoverers  of  America,  pp.  2 1 3.  London, 

De  Costa  (B.  F.),  Pre-Columbian  Discovery  of  America  by  North- 
tnen.     pp.  196.     Albany,  rSgo. 

Horsford  (E.  N.),  The  La}idfall of  Leif  Erikson.,A.D.  1000.  pp.  148. 
Boston,  i8g3. 

Stephens  (T.),  Discovery  of  America  by  Madoc  ap  Owen  Gwynedd 
in  the  12th  century,     pp.  249.     London,  i8gj. 

Neukomm  (E.),  Les  Dompteurs  de  la  Mer.  Les  Normands  en 
Amerique  depuis  le  X^  jusqu^au  XV^  sikle.     pp.  295.     Paris,  iSgj. 

534  STORM  VAN  's  gravesande's 

in  the  trade  winds  and  were  compelled  to  go  on,  when  they 
must  necessarily  have  reached  these  shores^ 

I  feel  strengthened  in  this  idea  by  the  fact  that  in 
certain  places  between  Demerara  and  Essequibo  I  have 
myself  found  (upon  the  indications  of  Indians)  many  frag- 
ments of  tiles,  baked  stone,  iron-work,  mortars  and  vices, 
together  with  other  stone  instruments  of  an  entirely  different 
make  and  composition  than  those  of  to-day  and  the  use  of 
which  was  totally  unknown  to  our  Indians,  who  could  give 
no  information  whatever  about  them".  I  have  myself  taken 
the  spade  and  pick-axe  in  hand,  dug  many  out  and  sent 
them  to  Professor  Allamand^  at  Leiden^,  and  according  to 
the  Indians  there  are  many  places  where  much  more  could 
be  found.  No  one  will  be  so  stupid  as  to  imagine  that 
these  things  have  grown  there  but  to  know  how  and  by 
whom  they  were  brought  hoc  opus  hie  labor  est.  But  I  am 
like  to  lose  myself  in  a  dissertation  and  abuse  Your  Honours' 

I  do  not  think  there  is  any  gold  or  silver  under  or  near 
those  pyramids,  but  they  are  called  by  the  same  name 
amongst  the  Indians  as  those  places  where  those  metals 

^  The  Directors'  reply,  dated  August  24,  lydy,  ran  : — 

"  The  judicious  reflections  communicated  to  us  regarding  the 
founders  of  the  pyramids  in  question  are  so  many  proofs  of  your 
famiharity  with  ancient  history,  and  if  there  is  any  means  of  making 
further  discoveries  about  them  or  of  obtaining  accurate  drawings  of 
their  situation,  size,  structure,  and  other  outward  features,  such  would 
be  particularly  agreeable  to  us,  and  we  are  disposed  to  hope  for  the 
same  from  your  sagacity." 

^  It  will  prove  interesting  to  read  in  connection  with  this  subject 
im  Thurn's  remarks  on  Indian  antiquities  and  especially  on  shell- 
mounds  or  "kitchen-middens"  {Among  the  Indians  of  Guiana., 
pp.  389-428). 

3  See  pp.  370,  371. 

*  A  search,  kindly  instituted  by  Professor  J.  M.  Janse,  of  Leiden, 
has  failed  to  lead  to  the  discovery  of  any  of  these  remains  in  the 
Ethnographical  Museum  of  that  town,  where,  as  the  Professor  says, 
they  "should  have  been." 


are  found,  to  wit,  that  the  Javvaho,  that  is,  Satan,  has  his 
dwelling-place  there. 

And  that  there  are  rich  mines  of  those  metals  in  that 
district,  and  especially  in  Cuyuni,  I  believe  to  be  as  certain 
as  my  own  existence,  and  I  think  that  my  reasons  for  such 
belief  are  well-grounded. 

I  shall  try  to  get  a  good  honest  interpreter,  and  having 
found  such  an  one  will  bind  him  by  oath. 

I  can  rely  upon  the  assistance  of  the  Caribs  in  case  we 
have  to  meet  violence  with  violence,  but  so  long  as  circum- 
stances demand  soft  measures  they  are  no  earthly  use  to 
me,  their  hatred  against  the  Spaniards  being  deep-rooted 
and   great. 

Thank  God,  things  are  progressing  exceedingly  well  in 
Demerara;  Mr  Spoors,  being  recently  there,  was  greatly 
surprised  to  see  the  changes  for  the  better  which  had  been 
made  since  his  last  visit.  Of  all  products  I  see  none  so 
promising  and  of  such  astonishing  success  as  the  cocoa  in 
the  boggy  soil.  This  was  tried  in  the  low  grounds  upon  the 
advice  of  some  Spaniards  ;  a  few  thousand  shrubs  about  a 
hand's  breadth  high  which  I  had  planted  at  "Soestdijk" 
last  July  I  now  found  to  be  over  three  feet  high  and  many 
already  developing  crowns.  It  is  the  same  with  Ruysch, 
van  der  Lott  and  others  who  took  up  this  product  and  are 
now  beginning  to  gather  the  fruit.  One  cocoa  tree,  six 
years  old,  that  I  had  planted  in  the  bog  soil  as  an  experi- 
ment, yielded  last  July  160  burrs\  Cotton  would  do  ex- 
ceedingly well  if  the  seasons  were  somewhat  more  regular. 

1  Betirsen  in  the  original.  Though  Murray's  New  English  Dic- 
tionary would  have  burr  (or  bur)  to  signify  something  rough  or 
prickly,  it  does  not  profess  to  give  the  derivation  of  the  term  with 
any  certainty.  The  cocoa  pod  or  husk,  in  which  from  30  to  40  of  the 
beans  are  found,  is  neither  prickly  nor  very  rough,  yet  it  may  well  be 
that  our  English  word  btirr  is  directly  derived  from  or  is  cognate  with 
the  Dutch  beurs,  commonly  meaning  a  purse  ;  in  any  case,  this  seems 


By  the  weather  that  we  have  now  had  for  the  past  four 
weeks  or  so  all  the  ripe  cotton  on  the  trees  has  been 

Eight  English  barques  are  now  lying  off  the  Fort  and 
three  in  Demerara,  so  that  there  is  at  present  no  lack  of 
either  horses  or  provisions;  within  about  three  weeks  more 
than  120  horses  have  been  sold  and  32  more  are  being 
offered  for  sale.  Three  ships  in  addition  to  the  above 
make  a  fine  sight  and  I  have  never  seen  the  harbour  so  full 

After  apologizing  for  having  omitted  to  advise  the  Directors 
concerning  a  bill  of  exchange  draivn  at  a  very  busy 
moment  Storm  goes  on  to  say : — 

It  is  impossible  for  YY.  HH.  to  comprehend  how 
manifold  my  duties  are  becoming ;  it  is  really  marvellous 
that  I  do  not  forget  half  of  them.  YY.  HH.  have  seen  that 
the  Court  of  Justice  refuses  to  sit  in  my  absence.  Its  next 
meeting  is  on  February  2  and  we  shall  be  unable  to  get 
through  the  work  already  on  the  agenda  in  less  than  three 
days,  and  the  parties  to  all  those  matters  come  to  me 
previously  to  discuss  them  ;  this  is  necessary  in  order  to 
give  me  a  clear  idea  of  everything  and  saves  the  Court 
much  time. 

The  "  Spoor "  will  not  depart  for  quite  another  fort- 
night though  she  would  already  have  done  so  were  she  not 
waiting  for  the  coffee,  which  cannot  be  washed  in  this 
rainy  weather.     Before  she  goes  I  ought  to  make  out. 

The  Register  for  the  year  1766. 

The  rations  list. 

The  draft  concerning  acreage  dues. 

The  list  I  am  making  of  produce  sent  over  in  the  above 

a  fitting  opportunity  to  apply  it  to  the  cocoa  pod,  for  which  there 
appears  to  be  no  generally-accepted  lay  designation.  . 


year,  which  I  have  deemed  necessary  for  reasons  I  hope  to 
have  the  honour  to  give  when  I  have  finished  it. 

The  Hst  of  the  Company's  servants. 

All  these  are  things  which  I  must  do  myself  if  I  want 
them  well  and  properly  done.  And  then  there  are  the 
requisitions,  &c.,  which  I  must  go  through  carefully,  as  well 
as  the  lists  of  slave  rations  and  many  other  matters  ;  every- 
thing must  go  through  my  hands  and  I  cannot  trust  others 
to  do  the  least  thing.  In  addition  to  this  the  inventories 
are  still  to  be  taken,  these  requiring  at  least  a  whole  week. 

Kindly  consider,  YY.  HH.,  whether  I  have  not  to  have 
my  wits  about  me  and  whether  it  is  to  be  wondered  at  if  I 
occasionally  forget  something... 

On  account  of  all  this  work  I  was  not  able  to  go  to 
church  this  morning,  though  I  was  already  dressed  for  it 
and  should  have  liked  to  go,  especially  as  Dominie  Lingius, 
who  continues  to  give  great  satisfaction,  has  come  from 
Demerara  to  preach. 

Your  Honours'  creole,  Tampoko,  has  come  down  the 
river  to-day  according  to  my  instructions,  and  has  reported 
to  me  that  the  Postholder  at  Cuyuni  was  fairly  well  again, 
that  the  Capucine  of  the  Mission  close  to  the  river  was 
daily  engaged  in  inciting  the  Acuways  and  the  Caribs 
against  each  other,  and  that  in  this  way  he  was  spreading 
trouble  throughout  the  river.  The  creole  made  me  laugh 
by  saying,  "If  my  lord  and  master  gives  me  orders  to  do 
so,  I  will  bring  the  priest  here  to  the  Fort  within  three 
weeks,  bound  hand  and  foot,"  and  I  really  believe  he  would 
do  it. 

I  told  him  that  he  must  be  very  careful  not  to  undertake 
the  least  thing  against  the  Mission,  but  that  he  must  keep 
a  watchful  eye  upon  all  the  doings  of  the  Spaniards,  and 
expressly  forbid  the  Caribs,  in  my  name,  to  molest  our 
Acuway  subjects.     All  of  which  he  promised  to  do. 


My  mind  having  been  turned  towards  obtaining  some 

proper  basis  for  the  assessment  of  taxes  I  compiled  a  Hst  of 

the  produce  exported  in  the  year  1766  and  found  it  to  be  as 

follows : — 

3753  hhds  of  sugar, 

343  ^-hhds  of  sugar, 

2186  bags  of  coffee, 

51  casks  of  coffee, 

87  bales  of  cotton, 

49  casks  of  annatto  dye, 

7  bags  of  cocoa, 

without  enumerating  kiltum,  lemon-juice,  tobacco,  &c. 

Permit  me,  Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs,  to  end 
this  despatch  with  the  words  with  which  my  highly 
esteemed  friend,  Mr  J.  J.  Mauricius,  concluded  his  speech 
before  the  Directors  of  the  Society  of  Surinam\  in  so  far  as 

^  Jan  Jacob  Mauricius  was  born  at  Amsterdam  May  3^  i6q2.  A 
remarkably  precocious  child,  he  preached  before  a  congregation  of 
hundreds  of  people  at  the  age  of  six  and  a  half,  entered  Leiden 
University  at  13  and  took  his  doctor's  degree  in  law  in  his  sixteenth 
year.  A  deputy  of  the  States  of  Holland  and  West  Friesland,  a 
pensiotiaris  ad  vitai/i  and  burgomaster,  he  was  in  172J  sent  as 
Resident  to  Hamburg  to  represent  the  Netherlands  in  the  Circle 
of  Lower  Saxony  ;  in  lyjj  his  title  was  raised  to  that  of  Minister 
and  his  salary  to  6000  guilders.  In  1742  the  Chartered  Company 
of  Surinam  offered  him  the  governorship  of  that  colony  ;  in  that 
post  he  spent  nine  miserable  years,  a  victim  of  cabals  and  intrigues, 
and  then  returning  home  was  forced  to  undergo  a  trial  from  which  he 
issued  victoriously.  It  was  on  Aug.  /,  //JJ,  that  he  delivered  the 
memorable  speech  from  which  Storm  quotes.  Two  years  later  he 
was  sent  to  Hamburg  for  the  second  time  as  Netherlands  Minister. 

The  literary  talents  of  the  man  were  as  eminent  and  varied  as  his 
career — a  full  list  of  his  prose  and  poetical  works  (the  former  being 
largely  composed  of  treatises  on  history,  law,  the  drama  and  geo- 
graphical matters)  is  given  in  Van  der  Aa,Biographisch  Woordenboek. 
A  collation  of  Storm's  extract  from  Mauricius'  speech  with  the  version 
published  by  C.  A.  van  Sijpestein  in  his  life  of  the  Surinam  Governor 
shows  the  wording  to  be  fairly  though  not  absolutely  identical- 
Storm  was  probably  quoting  from  a  MS.  copy  or  from  one  subse- 


they  are  applicable  to  my  condition,  and  inasmuch  as  they 
correspond  precisely  with  the  feelings  of  my  heart  and  soul. 

I  may  say  with  His  Honour,  "  Sat  P atria  Priamoque 
datum^,  and  there  is  naught  left  for  me  but  to  praise  God 
on  my  bended  knees  and  to  thank  Him  that  having  led 
me  since  my  youth  He  has  not  abandoned  me  in  my  old 
age  ;  that  He  has  not  only  continually  shielded  me  from 
the  many  dangers  of  sea,  of  sickness  and  of  evil  men,  but 
has  also  supported  my  mind  and  strength  that  these  did 
not  fail  under  the  burden  and  the  vexations  whereby  I  was 
oppressed  and  provoked. 

"  Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs,  after  God  it  is 
YY.  HH.  whom  I  have  most  respectfully  to  thank  for  all 
the  benefits  which  YY.  HH.  have  conferred  upon  me  and 

"  Let  me  be  permitted.  Your  Honours,  on  this  occasion  to 
recommend  myself  and  mine  to  Your  Honours'  protection 
and  though  YY.  HH.  are  on  the  point  of  discharging  me 
from  the  Company's  service  I  pray  that  YY.  HH.  may 
always   maintain   me  in  that   favour  with   which  YY.   HH. 

quently  slightly  improved.  In  the  same  booklet  {Jan  Jacob  Mauricius, 
Gouverneur-Generaal  van  ^uritiame...^s  Gravenhage,  /i?5<?,  pp.  I75) 
we  are  reminded  of  the  fact  that  it  was  to  Governor  Mauricius  that 
La  Condamine,  after  having  vainly  waited  five  months  at  Cayenne  for 
a  ship,  was  indebted  for  his  passage  home  in  1744  :  the  incident  is 
recorded  in  his  Relation  dun  voyage  dans  fAtnerique  (Paris,  1743, 
p.  212),  where  he  speaks  of  "la  r^ponse  extremement  polie  que  je 
requs  de  M.  Mauricius,  Gouverneur  de  la  Colonie  HoUandoise  de 
Surinam  ;  11  m'ofifroit  sa  maison  a  Surinam,  le  choix  d'un  embarque- 
ment  pour  la  Hollande,  et  un  passeport  meme  en  cas  de  rupture 
entre  la  France  et  les  Etats  Gdneraux."  The  explorer  reached 
Paramaribo  on  Attg.  28,  I744i  was  well  entertained  by  the  Governor 
and  set  out  on  Sept.  2  for  Europe  ;  but  the  chiefest  interest  to  us  of 
all  this  is  that  he  carried  amongst  his  papers  whilst  visiting  Storm's 
friend  the  fragmentary  diary  of  Storm's  emissary,  Horstman,  which 
was  150  years  later  to  be  used  as  evidence  of  the  first  importance  in 
determining  the  boundaries  of  British  Guiana  (see  pp.  61,  62  and 


1  Virgil,  /En.  ii.  291. 


have  been  pleased  to  honour  me.  On  my  side,  although 
about  to  lose  the  title  of  Director- General  of  Essequibo,  I 
shall  always  be  in  name  and  deed  Your  Honours'  grateful, 
zealous  and  faithful  servant,  and  when  with  my  pen,  with 
my  lips  or  with  my  whole  person  I  can  ever  be  of  any 
service  to  YY,  HH.  I  shall  always  consider  it  a  duty  and  a 
great  honour  to  give  YY.  HH.  proofs  of  my  profound  respect 
and  of  my  true  and  sincere  gratitude.  And  as  long  as 
there  is  a  drop  of  blood  in  my  veins  I  shall  never  cease 
to  pray  God  that  He  may  shower  blessings  upon  Your 
Honours'  persons  and  honoured  families,  that  He  may 
make  Your  Honours'  rule  happy  and  steadfast  and  let  the 
Colony  flourish  and  thrive  under  Your  Honours'  sway." 

These,  Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs,  are  my 
sincere  wishes.  I  have  now  had  the  honour  of  serving 
YY.  HH.  more  than  nine-and-twenty  years  and  have  en- 
deavoured to  use  the  means  given  me  by  the  Almighty  as 
far  as  possible  for  the  service  of  the  Honble  Co.  and  the 
interests  of  the  Colony,  but  Homo  sum  et  nihil  hmnani  a  me 
alienum  puto^,  and  it  being  Juimanum  errare  it  cannot  well 
be  otherwise  than  that  in  so  long  a  service  and  with  so 
much  opposition  I  have  occasionally  made  mistakes,  for 
which  I  humbly  ask  Your  Honours'  pardon.  I  console 
myself  with  an  easy  conscience  that  those  mistakes  were 
never  made  with  evil  intent  and  that  I  was  never  unwilling 
to  remedy  them  when  brought  to  my  notice,  for  it  being 
humanimi  errare,  it  is  angelicum  resipiscere,  diabolicum 

^  Homo  Slim;  humani  nihil  a  me  alienum  puto.     Terence,  Heau- 
ton  Timorumenos,  I.  i. 


P.R.O.    473/50 

March  23,  1767. 

I  am  anxious  to  have  some  tidings  from  Cuyuni,  because 
I  received  a  note  from  the  manager  van  der  Heyde  yesterday 
in  which  he  informs  me  that  the  Creole,  Tampoko,  had  been 
to  see  his  son  at  "  Old  Duynenburg,"  and  had  reported  that 
he  had  heard  from  a  few  Indians  that  a  party  of  Indians 
had  been  sent  by  the  Spanish  Mission  to  make  a  raid  upon 
the  Post,  and  had  completely  sacked  it,  and  that  he  was 
eroinp;  to  find  out  how  true  that  was.  That  Post  is  a 
terrible  eyesore  to  the  Spaniards  and  there  is  no  doubt 
that  it  stands  in  the  way  of  their  attaining  some  important 
aims.  As  soon  as  I  have  reliable  tidings  I  shall  deliberate 
with  the  Court  what  is  to  be  done  in  the  matter. 

P.R.O.   473/51 

March  27,   1767. 

Therefore  (may  it  please  YY.  HH.  not  to  take  it  amiss 
that  I  express  myself  so  frankly — the  importance  of  the 
matter  forces  me  to  it),  if  it  is  desired  to  prevent  the  ruin 
of  the  Colony,  the  three  following  points  should  be  taken 
into  serious  consideration  and  be  put  into  effect  as  soon  as 
possible  : — 

1.  To  insist  with  the  Court  of  Spain  upon  redress  for 
the  grievances,  and  to  ask  there  for  measures  to  make  those 
in  command  obey  the  orders  of  His  Catholic  Majesty,  for 
they  really  laugh  at  them. 

2.  Two  good,  armed,  and  well-manned  coast-guards, 
one  in  the  mouth  and  one  outside  the  river,  to  put  an  end 
to  all  the  desertions. 


3.  The  fortifying  of  Demerara,  in  order  that  nothing 
go  out  of  that  river  without  being  seen. 

And  if  no  redress  can  be  obtained  at  the  Court  of 
Spain,  to  use  reprisals  against  the  Missions,  situated  on 
our  frontier,  even  on  our  territory ;  I  think  they  would 
then  be  brought  to  reason. 

This  is  concisely  what  I  think  it  my  duty  to  propose  to 
YY.  HH. 

A  starving  beggar  cannot  long  for  a  crust  of  bread  as  I 
long  for  the  arrival  of  my  successor.  Though  it  is  perfectly 
impossible  for  me  to  think  of  and  to  do  everything  it  is, 
however,  my  unshirkable  duty  to  see  after  and  to  care  for 
all.  That  Your  Honours'  commands  are  executed  ;  that 
the  works  go  on  properly ;  that  the  Colony  is  kept  in 
order  and  that  its  growth  and  progress  are  advanced  ;  that 
all  accidents  and  misfortunes  are  prevented  as  far  as  possible, 
or  unavoidably  occurring,  are  remedied ;  that  Your  Honours' 
plantations  and  servants  are  kept  in  good  order  and  that 
the  latter  get  their  due  ;  that  the  soldiery  is  kept  in  proper 
discipline  but  at  the  same  time  gently  treated,  not  oppressed 
or  cheated,  as  too  often  happens — in  a  word,  everything 
rests  upon  my  shoulders  and  did  I  not  have  a  Commander 
in  Demerara^  and  a  Commandant-  here  upon  whom  I  can 
trust  I  would  be  in  misery  and  could  not  possibly  go  on. 
Some  may  think  that  I  speak  of  these  two  in  that  way 
because  they  are  my  sons-in-law,  but  I  have  the  honour  to 
assure  YY.  HH.  that  even  if  they  were  my  sons  I  would  not 
spare  them  in  the  least  if  they  deserved  blame. 

1  J.  C.  van  den  Heuvel  (cf.  p.  597). 
^  Johannes  Bakker. 


P.R.O.  473/53 

April  21,  1767. 


How  hard  it  is,  Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs,  how 
hard,  I  say,  that  I,  who  always  strove  with  heart  and  soul 
to  promote  union  and  harmony,  used  every  possible  in- 
dulgence, always  neglected  my  own  interests  to  further 
those  of  peace  and  tranquillity,  should,  in  the  last  days  of 
my  administration,  be  involved  in  such  a  chaos  of  con- 
fusion, and  plainly  see  and  experience  that  those  who 
always  appeared  to  be  my  best  friends  were  in  reality  my 
bitterest  enemies  and  calumniators.  As  far  as  concerns 
myself  personally  or  my  office  I  would  care  little  for  all 
this  barking  and  take  no  note  thereof,  for  Mens  sibi  conscia 
recti^  has  no  need  to  fear  calumny. 

Jiistiim  ac  tetiaceni  propositi  viriim 
Non  civium  ardor  prava  jiibentium 
Non  viiltus  instantis  tiranni 
Mente  qiiatit  solida-. 

But  now  that  downright  disobedience  reigns  and  the 
most  infamous  libels  are  circulated,  and  all  this  publicly, 
I,  as  well  as  Mr  Spoors,  will  be  compelled  to  do  what  I 
never  have  done,  that  is,  to  play  the  Fiscal's  part  in  all  its 
rigour;  an  example  must  certainly  be  made  to  serve  as  a 
deterrent  to  others.  This,  too,  will  be  of  great  advantage 
to  my  successor,  for  he  will  immediately  be  able  to  see 
with  what  sort  of  people  he  will  have  to  deal. 

For  some  time  past  I  have  felt  very  unwell.  Age 
brings  many  infirmities.      I   intend,  God  willing,  to  go  to 

^  Virgil,  y£";/.  i.  604.  ^  Horace,  Odes,  ill.  iii. 


Demerara  immediately  after  the  conclusion  of  the  next 
Court  meeting  (which  I  fear  will  last  a  full  week)  and 
there  await  Your  Honours'  esteemed  reply  to  my  letters 
by  "  De  Sarah,"  skipper  F.  Barker,  which  departed  on  the 
4th  of  January  last,  in  order  to  act  in  accordance  therewith. 

When  there  I  hope  to  make  an  effort  to  see  whether  I 
can  get  the  burghers  to  agree  to  the  proposition  I  have 
made  for  fortifying  that  river,  building  the  church,  &c. 
I  have  however  reason  to  fear  that  I  shall  not  be  successful, 
especially  as  my  opponents  have  the  dominie  on  their  side. 

To  what  chagrin  and  difficulties  is  not  he  exposed  who 
occupies  any  important  office  !  It  is  true  that  it  always 
has  been  so  all  the  world  over  and  will  probably  remain  so, 
but  it  is  misery  to  the  sufferers ;  they  have  need  of  great 
strength  of  mind  and  of  the  special  support  of  Providence 
in  order  not  to  succumb.  Truly,  Noble  and  Right  Honour- 
able Sirs,  I  might  say  with  Moliere's  Misanthrope : — 

Trahi  de  toutes  parts,  accable  d' injustices, 
Je  vais  sortir  d'uu  gouffre  ok  triomphent  les  vices 
A  cJiercher  sur  la  terre  un  inorceau  ecarte 
Oil  d'etre  homine  d'honneur  on  ait  la  liberie^. 

I  hope  that  the  Gracious  Ruler  of  All  will  in  His 
mercy  grant  that  1  may  spend  the  little  life  that  is  left 
me  in  peace  and  quietness,  untrammelled  by  the  cares  of 
office,  and  that  He  may  have  moved  the  hearts  of  His 
Serene  Highness  and  of  YY.  HH.  graciously  to  accord  me  the 
request  I  made  by  "  De  Sarah  "  and  subsequently  repeated. 

^  Act.  V.  Sc.  4.     The  third  hne  should  read 

Et  chercher  sur  la  terrc  tin  endroit  ecarte. 
This  is  pretty  good  evidence  that  Storm  quoted  from  memory  only. 


p.R.O.  473/59 

Demerara,  June  27,  1767. 

Mr  Spoors  sent  me  word  in  writing  that  the  Spanish 
deserters  have  arrived  in  Essequibo,  and  that  there  is  a 
sergeant  among  them.  They  give  the  harsh  treatment  of 
the  new  Governor  as  a  reason  for  deserting.  I  immediately- 
answered  him  saying  that  I  wished  them  to  be  sent  out  of 
the  Colony  at  the  first  opportunity,  for  I  do  not  know 
what  there  may  be  behind  this  ;  I  do  not  trust  the  whole 
business,  especially  since  commerce  with  Orinoco  is  entirely 
stopped,  and  even  the  fishery  is  absolutely  at  a  standstill, 
which  has  never  happened  before,  and  which  is  exceedingly 
embarrassing  to  Your  Honours'  plantations  and  to  the 
whole  Colony. 

At  the  same  time  I  received  a  report  from  the  Post  in 
Cuyuni  that  the  Indians  are  being  bribed  and  incited  to 
such  a  degree  that  they  are  unwilling  to  do  the  least  thing 
for  the  Postholder,  and  that  when  he  orders  them  to  go 
alongside  the  passing  boats  to  see  whether  there  are  any 
runaways  in  them  they  obstinately  refuse  to  do  so,  and 
when  he  threatens  to  shoot  upon  them  they  reply  that  they 
have  bows  and  arrows  with  which  to  answer. 

The  fortification  of  these  two  Posts,  Cuyuni  and  Moruka, 
becoming  a  matter  of  greater  necessity  every  day  (there 
being,  indeed,  periaihiin  in  mora),  I  hope  that  some  good 
soldiers,  and  especially  Protestants,  will  be  sent  by  the 
"  Laurens  en  Maria^" 

1  The  usual  unsatisfactory  (and  in  this  case  really  incredible)  reply 
of  the  Directors,  dated  Sept.  21,  1767,  ran  : — 

"  We  hope  that  you  will  have  found  means  of  frustrating  the  evil 

designs  of  the  Spaniards  against  the  Post  in  Cuyuni ;  and,  however 

persuaded  of  the  necessity  of  strengthening  both  that  Post  and  the 

one  in  Moruka,  we  have,  nevertheless,  been  unable  to  send  by  this 

v.S.    II.  35 


P.R.O.  473/63 

Demerara,  June  27,   1767. 

P.S.^  Just  after  signing  this  I  receive  by  an  express 
messenger  from  Commandant  Bakker  the  painful  tidings 
that  Mr  N.  Rousselet  de  la  Jarie  died  between  4  and  5 
o'clock  on  the  afternoon  of  the  24th  inst."  Noble  and 
Right  Honourable  Sirs,  what  confusion  this  will  cause ! 
What  work  for  me !  I  am  terrified  to  think  of  it.  I  have 
immediately  written  back  to  have  the  office  kept  in  proper 

ship  a  greater  number  of  soldiers,  having  had  trouble  enough  to  find 
available  ship-room  for  these  few. 

By  a  subsequent  ship  we  shall  again  try  to  send  some  good  soldiers, 
and,  as  we  informed  you  in  our  ample  missive,  to  continue  doing  so 
from  time  to  time  until  the  garrison  shall  reach  its  full  quota  of  fifty 
men,  and  be  in  proper  order." 

A  further  reply,  dated  Nov.  28,  iy68,  ran  : — 

"  Against  the  desertion  of  the  slaves  from  the  Colony  to  Orinoco 
we  also  know  no  other  means  of  provision  than  the  projected  coast- 
guards, concerning  which  we  have  more  than  once  expressed  ourselves. 
We  have  repeatedly  instructed  our  Deputies  in  the  Assembly  of  Ten 
to  propose  there  that  the  States-General  be  again  urged  to  have 
emphatic  representations  made  to  the  Court  of  Spain  for  restitution 
of  the  slaves  who  run  away  from  Curagao  to  the  coasts  of  Cora  and 
from  Essequibo  to  Orinoco  ;  but,  no  report  having  yet  been  made 
thereof,  we  cannot  as  yet  inform  you  of  the  result.  In  the  meanwhile, 
the  measures  which  have  been  taken,  of  letting  no  slaves  pass  \yithout 
permits  from  their  masters,  and  of  encouraging  the  free  Indians  to 
bring  in  the  runaways,  are,  to  be  sure,  in  themselves  very  good,  if 
carried  out,  but  still  it  seems  to  us  that  they  are  in  no  way  sufficient 
effectively  to  hinder  and  stop  the  runaways,  and,  if  you  mean  to  do 
things  properly,  it  will  be  necessary  to  determine,  and  the  sooner  the 
better,  upon  the  purchase  and  retention  of  the  aforesaid  coast-guards." 

1  This  is  not  a  postscript  to  the  preceding  despatch,  but  to  another 
of  the  same  date. 

2  Nicolas  Rousselet  de  la  Jarie  was  appointed  StcreidLiy  ad  interiin 
upon  the  failure  of  Spoors'  sight  in  1764  (see  p.  483)  and  his  appoint- 
ment was  later  made  absolute  when  Spoors'  resignation  was  accepted. 
In  Ai(g7isf,  1766,  he  proceeded  to  the  Orinoco  on  a  mission  respecting 
the  restitution  of  fugitive  slaves  (see  p.  509)  but  returned  the  next 


P.R.O.   473/71 

Demerara,  July  24,   1767. 

The  letter-bag  of  "  De  Jonge  Jan  "  closes  to-day  and  in 
a  fortnight's  time  that  of  "  Het  Land  Canaan,"  so  that 
although  I  am  scarcely  able  to  write  for  half-an-hour  at  a 
stretch  I  am  obliged  to  take  up  the  pen  in  order  to  acquit 
myself  of  my  task  as  far  as  possible.  I  am  very  weak  and 
suffering  intolerable  pain,  sleepless  all  night  long  and,  unless 
the  Lord  graciously  better  it,  unable  to  bear  up  longer. 

Among  many  other  insolent  utterances  the  aforemen- 
tioned Richter^  said  "  The  Colony  desires  perforce  to  be 
under  Amsterdam  and  the  two  chiefs " — meaning  the 
Commander  and  myself — "  are  ever  striving  and  contriving 
to  make  it  so^" 

Although  I  am  perfectly  certain  that  YY.  HH.  and  all 
in  Zeeland  who  know  me  are  convinced  of  the  contrary, 
whereof  I  gave  abundant  proofs  when  in  Europe  and  sub- 
sequently, and  of  which  I  have  complete  proof  still  in 
hand,  such  a  calumny  grieves  me  to  the  soul.  And  since 
I  understand  that  to  bolster  it  up  use  is  being  made  of  the 
letter,  dated  November  26,  with  which  His  Serene  Highness 
graciously  honoured  me  in  reply  to  mine  of  August  12  I 
take  the  liberty  of  sending  YY,  HH.  herewith  a  copy  of  my 

month  with  an  unsatisfactory  reply  (see  p.  510).  His  widow  appears 
to  have  acted  in  a  somewhat  truculent  manner  (m  many  instances 
recorded  by  Storm  but  not  reproduced  in  this  work)  ;  we  ought, 
however,  to  be  grateful  to  her  for  having  drawn  from  the  Director- 
General  that  one  expression  (see  p.  624)  savouring  more  of  a  Schopen- 
hauer than  of  a  pope. 

1  Manager  of  the  Company's  plantation  "Duynenburg"  and  there- 
fore one  of  Storm's  subordinates. 

2  Referring  to  the  dispute  between  the  Chambers,  for  particulars  of 
which  see  pp.  143-145. 



letter  and  the  duplicate  of  the  answer  I  received  by  "  De 
Laurens  en  Maria." 

I  have  received  a  Report  from  the  Postholder  of  Maroco 
that  on  account  of  the  bad  treatment  received  at  the  hands 
of  the  present  Governor  of  Orinoco,  all  the  Warouws, 
thousands  of  whom  live  on  the  islands  in  the  mouth  of 
Orinoco ^  are  fleeing  from  there,  and  that  hundreds  of 
them  have  already  arrived  in  Barima.  Our  fishery  is 
therefore  knocked  on  the  head  for  some  time,  unless  that 
tribe  should  resolve  to  exchange  blow  for  blow ;  they  are 
numerous  enough  to  do  so,  but  courage  fails  them,  for  of 
all  the  tribes  known  to  us  it  is  the  one  which  is  most  afraid 
of  fire-arms. 

Inclosure  I.] 

[Essequibo,  August  12,  1766^] 

Le  temps  sy  longtemps  desire  etant  enfin  arrive 
ou  nous  jouyssons  de  bonheur  de  voir  Votre  Altesse  Sere- 
nissime  a  la  tete  de  notre  Republique'',  j'espere  que  V.  A.  S. 
voudra  bien  excuser  la  liberte  que  je  prends  de  feliciter 
V.  A.  S.  a  son  heureux  avenement  au  Gouvernement  priant 
le  Tout  Puissant  de  vouloir  combler  V.  A.  S.  de  ses  plus 

1  See  p.  343. 

2  The  copy  bears  no  date  or  signature,  but  the  former  is  given  in 
Storm's  covering  letter  to  the  Directors,  p.  547.  Neither  is  it  in 
Storm's  handwriting,  and  the  errors  may  possibly  have  to  be  attributed 
to  the  copyist. 

^  William  V,  Prince  of  Orange,  was  born  March  8,  1748.  His 
succession  to  the  Stadholdership  of  the  United  Provinces  followed,  as 
a  matter  of  course,  upon  the  attainment  of  his  majority  at  the  age 
of  18.  Like  his  father,  he  became  Governor-General  of  the  West 
India  Company,  and  we  see  that  Storm  lost  little  time  in  addressing 
him  direct  in  that  capacity. 


precieuses  Benedictions  de  Lui  accorder  un  Gouvernement 
long  et  heureux  de  benir  tous  ses  desseins  et  entreprises, 
une  sante  parfaite  et  les  forces  necessaires  pour  ces  grands 
et  penibles  emploijs  et  contentement  le  plus  parfait. 

Les  termes  me  manquent  pour  exprimer  a  Votre  Altesse 
Ser^nissime  les  vceux  sinceres  que  je  fais  au  Tout  Puissant 
pour  le  bonheur  et  la  conservation  de  V.  A.  S.  attache  depuis 
I'age  de  raison  inviolablement  a  I'lllustre  Maison  a  laquelle 
Notre  Republique  doit  son  etre  et  sa  conservation,  honore 
de  la  protection  et  bienveillance  de  Feu  Leurs  Altesse 
Serenissime  et  Royale  Pere  et  Mere  de  V.  A.  S.  dont  j'ay 
eu  le  bonheur  de  recevoir  tout  marques  et  dont  le  Souvenir 
me  fait  encore  couler  les  larmes  des  yeux  je  serais  le  plus 
ingrat  des  hommes  si  mes  vceux  les  plus  ardents  et  les  plus 
sinceres  n'etoient  point  pour  le  bonheur  de  Votre  Altesse 

C'est  ce  qui  met  le  comble  a  notre  satisfaction  est  la 
nouvelle  req:ue  par  Barbade  que  nous  avons  aussi  le  bonheur 
d'avoir  Votre  Altesse  Serenissime  a  la  tete  de  la  Compagnie 
des  Indes  Occidentales.  Permettez  moy,  Monseigneur,  de 
prendre  la  liberte  de  recommander  particulierement  a 
V.  A.  S.  cet  Colonie  et  principalement  notre  Rivier  de 
Demerary  qui  n'etant  que  dans  son  enfance  a  besoin  d'une 
protection  puissante.  Commence  en  I'annee  1746^  j'ay  le 
plaisir  de  voir  que  nonobstant  mille  traverses  et  tous  les 
efforts  qu'on  a  fait  pour  empecher  son  accroissement  d'y 
voir  a  present  passe  cent  plantages  qui  avancent  journelle- 
ment,  la  ou  son  ancienne  Essequebo  n'en  a  qu'un  peu  plus 
de  soixante  que  seroit  ce  si  elle  avait  recu  le  moindre 
encouragement  ?      Daignez,    Monseigneur,   de   la   prendre 

1  This  refers  only  to  the  allotment  of  plantations  ;  there  had  been 
a  Company's  post  or  trading-place  there  long  prior  to  that  date  (cf. 
p.  217). 


SOUS  Votre  Protection  les  voeux  de  tous  les  habitans  sans 
exception  ont  6t6  depuis  bien  longtemps  de  voir  I'evene- 
ment  du  present  et  leur  joye  ne  pouvoit  etre  plus  eclatante 
qu'elle  n'a  ete  a  la  reception  de  cette  heureuse  nouvelle. 

Permettez  moy,  Monseigneur,  que  je  profite  de  cette 
occasion  pour  prendre  la  liberte  de  recommander  tres 
humblement  en  la  protection  et  bonnes  graces  de  Votre 
Altesse  Serenissime  ma  personne  et  celle  d'un  fils  unique^ 
reste  de  sept,  qui  est  presentement  en  Europe  pour  son 
education  ;  I'aine^  de  ces  sept  freres  a  ete  nomme  a  I'age 
[de]  1 8  ans*  par  une  grace  de  bonte  singuliere  de  Feu  Son 
Altesse  Serenissime,  pour  premier  Commandeur  de  Deme- 
rarij  en  I'annee  1750  ;  il  n'a  pas  joui  longtemps  de  cette 

J 'ay  a  present  I'honneur  d'avoir  servi  la  Compagnie 
passe  vingt-huit  annees  avec  des  gages  modiques,  que  je  ne 
suis  guerre  plus  riche  qu'a  mon  arrivee  dans  ce  pays  ayant 
toujours  en  pour  une  regie  inviolable  dans  mes  actions  de 
preferer  en  toute  occasion  les  interests  de  la  Compagnie  et 
de  la  Colonic  a  mes  interests  particuliers,  toute  mon  am- 
bition n'a  ete  dirigee  qu'a  m'acquitter  fidellement  de  mon 

Mon  age  avance  presentement  ne  m'en  laisse  point 
d'autre  que  de  finir  mon  long  service  avec  honneur  de 
passer  le  peu  de  temps  qu'il  plaira  au  Tout-Puissant  de 
m'accorder  encore  en  repose  et  de  voir  ce  cher  fils  place  et 
en  etat  de  subsister  avant  mon  depart  de  ce  monde. 

Mais  je  ne  m'apper^ois  pas  que  j'abus  d'un  temps 
precieux  et  de  la  patience  de  Votre  Altesse  Serenissime ; 
ainsi  je  finis  en  prenant  encore  une  fois  la  liberty  d'assurer 

1  Jeremias,  born  in  /74Q.     Cf.  pp.  45,  523  and  589. 

2  Jonathan  Samuel. 

^  A  singular  error,  for  Jonathan  was  born  jo  Noik^  1728,  and  was 
therefore  in  his  twenty-second  year  when  appointed  Commander. 


Votre  Altesse  Serenissime  que  personne  au  monde  ne  peut 
etre  avec  un  plus  profond  respect, 
De  Votre  Altesse  Serenissime 

Le  tres  humble  et  tres  ob^issant  serviteur. 

[Inclosure  IP.] 


A  Monsieur 

Monsieur  Storm  de  's  Gravezande, 

Directeur  General  des  Colonies  de 
Rio  Essequebo  et  Demerary. 


La  lettre  que  vous  m'avez  adressee  le  12^  aout  dernier, 
qui  caracterise  la  bonte  de  votre  coeur,  votre  attachement  a  tous 
vos  devoirs,  et  vos  bons  sentimens  pour  moi  et  pour  ma  Maison,' 
m'a  fait  grand  plaisir.  J'y  vois  surtout  avec  satisfaction  que  vos 
soins  ont  e'te  suivis  de  succes  k  Demerary,  et  j'y  reconnais  la 
fidelite  de  vos  services.  Soyez  persuade,  Monsieur,  que  rien  ne 
pourra  m'etre  plus  agre'able  que  de  contribuer  a  la  prosperite  de 
la  Colonic,  dont  la  direction  vous  a  e'te  confiee,  et  que  je  me 
ferai  pareillement  un  plaisir  de  donner  en  terns  et  lieux  a  votre 
fils  des  preuves  de  I'estime  que  j'ai  pour  son  Pere,  et  avec  laquelle 
je  suis  sincerement. 


Tres  affectionne'  a  vous  servir 

W.  Pr.  v.  Orange. 

La  Haie  ce  26^  Novemb. 

1  It  must  have  cost  Storm  a  pang  or  two  to  part  with  this  letter, 
which,  although  a  duplicate,  bears  the  autograph  of  the  Stadholder. 


p.R.o.  473/79 

August  lo,  1767. 

A  few  Caribs,  having  come  down  from  Upper  Essequibo, 
have  reported  to  Diderik  Nelis,  living  up  near  the  planta- 
tion "  Oosterbeek,"  that  there  is  neither  Postholder  nor 
assistant  to  be  found  at  Post  Arinda,  and  that  they  have 
not  been  seen  for  fourteen  days  ;  that  the  house  is  half 
ruined  and  the  warehouse  broken  open  and  empty,  and 
that  they  could  not  say  whether  the  men  had  been  murdered 
or  had  run  away. 

Nelis  immediately  gave  notice  of  this  at  the  Fort,  and 
I  have  ordered  someone  to  go  up  there  and  make  inquiries 
into  the  matter. 

I  cannot  believe  that  they  were  murdered,  because  these 
two  men  were  kindness  itself,  and  never  offended  any 
Indian,  unless  it  be  that  the  deed  was  done  by  a  savage 
tribe  from  the  interior ;  but  then  the  latter  would  have 
been  discovered  in  their  march  by  the  Caribs,  who  live  in 
such  great  numbers  round  about  there,  unless  it  was  done 
by  those  scoundrels  themselves  in  order  to  get  rid  of  their 
debts  and  obtain  possession  of  the  goods. 

P.R.O.  473/90 

September  6,  1767. 

We  lose  a  great  deal  in  E.  Athing^  who  was  an  honest 
upright  man.  Perfectly  acquainted  with  the  Indian 
languages  and  having  the  uppermost  plantation,  he  was 
as  good  as  a  Postholder,  and  faithfully  reported  all  that 
took  place  amongst  the  Indians  and  especially  amongst 
the  Acuways  living  up  in  Demerary — a  quarrelsome  tribe 
which  will  not  endure  the  least  injustice  and  which  is 
continually  at  war  with  the  Caribs.... The  upper  reaches  of 

^  A  planter  whose  death  Storm  had  just  reported. 


that  river  are  now  quite  undefended,  which  I  fear  will  lead 
to  many  differences  with  the  Acuways. 

An  experience  of  many  years  has  made  me  only  too 
well  acquainted  with  the  Spaniards,  and  being  convinced 
that  not  the  least  reliance  is  to  be  placed  either  upon  their 
most  solemn  promises  or  even  upon  their  oaths,  I  place  no 
trust  in  them  at  all.  Far  be  it  from  me  to  impute  such 
evil  sentiments  or  such  infidelity  to  the  Spanish  nation  as 
a  whole ;  on  the  contrary  I  believe  that  honest,  upright 
people  are  to  be  found  amongst  them  as  amongst  other 
nations  ;  such  are,  however,  but  thinly  sown  in  Europe  and 

Their  Governors,  who  exercise  an  absolutely  despotic 
power  in  these  parts,  are  only  appointed  for  three  or  at 
most  for  five  years,  a  period  which  they  employ  in  scraping 
together  as  much  money  as  possible /^ry^j  and  nefas,  and 
in  oppressing  and  plundering  the  colonists  in  every  way  in 
order  that  when  their  term  of  office  has  expired  and  two 
inquisitors  are  sent  with  their  successor  by  the  Supreme 
Council  to  inquire  into  their  conduct  and  to  receive  the 
complaints  which  every  citizen  is  then  free  to  make,  they 
may  be  able  to  fill  the  hands  of  these  officials  and  still 
have  something  left  for  themselves,  in  which  case,  be  the 
complaints  what  they  will,  they  themselves  will  come  out 
white  as  snow,  though,  if  they  have  not  anything,  they  are 
sent  in  chains  to  Spain. 

The  red  slaves  are  ostensibly  set  free  on  arriving  there, 
but  are  compelled  to  stay  at  the  Missions  where  they  have 
to  do  more  work  than  with  us.  The  black  slaves  are  sold, 
and  the  proceeds  are  said  to  go  to  the  Royal  Treasury, 
but  that  His  Catholic  Majesty  sees  much  of  them  Jioc 
credat  judcsus  Apella  7ioii  ego. 

The  last  Governor  of  Orinoco  was  sharper.  Having 
held  office  for  about  three  years  only,  and  having  probably 

554  STORM  VAN  's  gravesande's 

been  unable  to  scrape  enough  together  in  that  short  time 
he  did  not  wait  for  the  inquiry,  but  as  soon  as  he  heard 
that  his  successor  was  on  the  way  he  took  possession  of  a 
barque  that  happened  to  be  there,  and  placing  in  it  all  his 
property  he  made  off,  taking  with  him  more  than  thirty  of 
our  runaway  slaves  ;  his  destination  is  still  unknown. 

And  really  the  necessity  for  adopting  preventive 
measures  is  daily  getting  greater.  There  has  again  been 
cause  for  alarm  upon  Your  Honours'  plantation  "  Achte- 
kerke,"  and  on  the  9th  of  August  we  discovered  that  upon 
our  plantation,  "  Soestdijk\"  another  plot  had  been  formed 
by  about  twenty  slaves  to  run  away  to  Orinoco. 

This,  too,  is  a  plantation  upon  which  the  slaves  are 
treated  exceptionally  well  ;  their  rations  never  fail  for  a 
single  day,  and  they  are  never  flogged  except  for  most 
serious  offences. 

A  great  number,  too,  are  missing  here  in  Demerary,  of 
whom  it  is  not  known  whether  they  have  gone  into  the 
bush  or  to  Orinoco. 

Last  week  the  Arruwaks  of  Maheyka  brought  back 
two  negroes  who  had  run  away  from  the  plantation  "  Nieuw 
Amsterdam";  we  at  once  rewarded  them  richly  and  treated 
them  well  to  kiltum. 

It  is  certain  that  the  colonists  themselves  are  greatly  to 
blame  for  the  numerous  desertions.  The  Court  has  more 
than  once  issued  orders  that  no  one  should  send  out  slaves 
from  their  plantations  without  a  pass  from  their  master, 
and  everyone  has  been  charged  to  ask  any  slaves  they  see 
on  the  river  for  their  pass,  and  to  bring  them  to  the  Fort  in 
case  they  have  none.  Few,  however,  have  obeyed  this 
order,  and  although  slaves  have  gone  about  without 
passes,  not  one  has  been  stopped  and  brought  to  the  Fort. 
The  slaves  belonging  to  the  Fort,  who  never  go  out  with- 

1  Cf.  p.  367. 


out  a  pass,  have  frequently  told  me  that  no  one  has  ev-er 
asked  them  for  their  pass  except  the  Managers  of  the 
Honourable  Company. 

It  is  certain  that  if  this  order  had  been  observed  many 
a  runaway  would  have  been  caught,  and  even  had  it 
been  only  two  or  three  it  would  still  have  frightened  the 

It  seems  to  me  that  Mr  Clarke  wishes  to  leave  Demerary, 
for  I  hear  that  all  his  plantations  except  one  are  for  sale. 
A  price  has  already  been  asked  and  offered  for  "  Golden 
Grove,"  so  Mr  van  der  Sluys  tells  me.  I  am  really  sorry 
for  this,  Mr  Clarke  having  been  one  of  the  strongest 
supporters  of  that  river.  This  also  greatly  discourages 
the  other  English,  all  of  whom  are  beginning  to  sing  the 
same  song. 

The  Creole  Tampoko  came  to  the  Commandant  about 
eight  or  ten  days  before  my  return  and  reported  that  the 
Postholder  and  assistant  at  Arinda  had  not  run  away,  nor 
been  killed,  but  that  the  tribe  of  the  Manoas,  here  called 
Magnauws,  had  been  making  a  raid  through  the  country 
and  had  come  to  the  Post  and  carried  off  both  the  Post- 
holder  and  the  assistant ;  that  they  had  taken  all  the  goods 
and  destroyed  the  buildings.  This  tribe  is  an  ally  of  the 
Portuguese  of  Brazil.  Tampoko  is  coming  down  again  in 
a  fortnight's  time,  when  I  shall  send  him  up  the  Essequibo 
with  a  party  of  Caribs  to  obtain  full  information. 

There  is  a  rumour  here  that  the  Post  in  Cuyuni  has 
again  been  raided.  I  do  not  know  whether  it  is  true, 
because  I  have  as  yet  had  no  direct  tidings  from  above. 
The  old  negro  Abarina,  who  always  looks  after  the  turtle 
business  up  in  Cuyuni,  and  who  is  well  acquainted  with  all 
the  roads  there,  went  up  stream  yesterday  to  get  informa- 


There  will  be  a  fine  heap  of  work  for  the  Court  to  get 
through  at  its  meeting  of  October  5.  I  shall  urge  that 
serious  measures  be  taken  against  the  slave  desertions,  I 
await  with  impatience  the  result  of  Their  High  Mightiness's 
efforts  and  the  advice  of  the  Presidial  Chamber  in  this 
matter ;  if  no  efficacious  remedies  are  instituted  the  Colony 
is  ruined  and  I  have  grave  fears  for  Your  Honours'  planta- 
tion "  Aechterkerke." 

Had  I  only  a  good  garrison  of  Germans  or  even  of 
natives \  say  at  least  a  hundred  men  for  the  two  rivers, 
detachments  could  be  posted  here  or  there  and  small 
vessels  could  cruise  about,  but  with  such  cattle  (forgive  me 
the  expression,  Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs)  what 
can  be  done?  If  matters  proceed  in  this  way  the  Com- 
mandant and  a  sergeant  will  soon  be  the  only  ones  left. 

The  subjoined  extracts  are  from  a  despatch  of  thirteen  pages, 
writte7i  i7i  Storms  smallest  hand  {over  a  thousand 
words  to  each  folio  page),  giving,  in  addition  to  the 
usual  circutnstantial  report  on  the  Colony,  an  account  of 
various  matters  discussed  in  the  Courts  of  Policy  and 
justice  ;  the  concluding  portion  may  serve  not  07ily  as  an 
example  of  the  character  of  the  Cojincillors  but  as  a  proof 
of  the  treatment  and  opposition  the  Director-General  had 
to  contend  with  even  in  the  last  years  of  his  administra- 
tion; en  passant,  it  throzvs  a  side-light  upon  his  relations 
with  Spoors,  then  only  actijig  as  Councillor. 

P.R.O.  474/1 

December  9,   1767. 

The  Assistant  of  Post  Arinda  has  at  last  come  down. 
The  Creole  Tampoko,  whom  I  had  sent  up,  met  him  and 

*  From  a  letter  written  by  the  Directors  in  1162  (see  p.  404)  it  will 
be  seen  that  even  in  Zeeland  it  was  considered  nothing  unusual  to  arm 
the  natives  for  the  Colony's  defence  ;  Storm  was  constantly  doing  so. 


Matters  up  there  are  not  so  bad  as  the  Indians  had 
reported ;  the  Manoas  have  not  been  in  those  parts,  and 
indeed  I  could  hardly  believe  it,  because  it  seemed  to  me 
improbable  that  they  would  have  come  such  a  long  distance 
without  being  discovered  by  the  Caribs,  their  inveterate 
enemies,  and  the  more  so  since,  after  the  raid  upon  Cuyuni 
by  the  Spaniards,  Essequibo  swarms  with  Caribs,  who  have 
all  flocked  there  after  having  asked  me  for  permission  to 
do  so. 

But  the  Postholder  having  had  some  unpleasantness 
with  the  Acuways,  whom  he  had  treated  very  unjustly, 
had  left  the  Post  from  fear  of  that  tribe,  and  had  taken 
refuge  with  the  Caribs.  It  was  this  that  caused  the 
rumour ;  some  passing  Indians,  finding  no  one  at  the  Post, 
and  not  knowing  what  had  become  of  the  Postholder,  had 
given  out  their  conjectures  as  the  truth. 

The  Postholder  having  failed  to  do  his  duty  in  every- 
thing and  his  conduct  being  perfectly  inexcusable,  I  have 
dismissed  him,  and  having  at  last  found  a  man,  one  Gerrit 
Jansse,  who  brought  in  the  slaves  belonging  to  Van  der 
Eyck,  and,  according  to  the  unanimous  testimony  of  all 
citizens,  is  an  honest,  upright  and  sober  fellow,  I  have 
appointed  him  to  be  Postholder.  He  is  to  go  up  stream 
next  week  with  the  assistant  and  is  to  send  down  the 
dismissed  Postholder,  who  has  not  dared  to  come  down  the 
river.     I  hope  the  Post  will  now  be  well  looked  after. 

As  I  could  not  leave  the  Post  at  Maroco  without  some 
defence  I  have  provisionally  and  ad  interim  sent  one 
Diderik  Neelis  there  until  I  could  get  a  good  Postholder. 

It  is  unfortunate  that  no  competent  person  can  be 
found  here  for  places  of  such  an  importance  to  the  Colony ; 
they  are  nearly  all  men  whose  drinking  habits  would  make 
them  unfit  for  such  a  post. 

The  one  in  Cuyuni  is  no  better  than  the  rest  because  he 
is  asking  to  be  placed  elsewhere,  saying  that  he  cannot  live 


there  because  the  place  is  unhealthy.  This  is  only  a 
pretext,  because  he  looks  very  well  indeed,  and  there  must 
be  something  else  behind  it  which  I  have  not  yet  been  able 
to  find  out ;  but  it  is  a  hard  and  fast  rule  in  this  Colony 
that  when  any  one  has  an  honest  and  competent  servant  all 
kinds  of  deceit  are  practised  to  seduce  him  and  entice  him 
away,  a  thing  that  has  happened  in  the  Honourable  Com- 
pany's service  more  than  once. 

1  have  received  a  letter  from  a  missionary  priest  in 
Orinoco,  a  translation  of  which  I  have  the  honour  to  send 
YY.  HH.^  Is  it  not  astonishing  that  such  a  man  who  knows 
very  well  how  we  are  treated  with  respect  to  our  runaway 
slaves,  still  dares  to  ask  that  the  Indians  who  have  run 
away  from  his  Mission  should  be  sent  back  to  him,  the 
same  being  free  people?  YY.  HH.  can  see  from  this  how 
free  they  hold  the  Indians  who  live  under  them,  and  who 
are  treated  much  worse  than  their  slaves.  The  bearer  has 
gone  to  Martinique  and  will  be  back  in  February,  when  I 
hope  to  answer  the  letter  in  a  fitting  manner. 

2  And  since  according  to  the  evidence  of  the  negroes 
the  village  is  as  close  to  Essequibo  as  to  Demerary  Your 
Honours'  creole  Tampoko  will  march  upon  the  same  from 
the  direction  of  Essequibo  with  a  few  Indians  in  order  to 
be  able  to  attack  it  from  two  sides. 

If  the  expedition  were  undertaken  by  well-disciplined 
soldiers  I  should  feel  more  certain  of  its  success  (but  what 
is  to  be  expected  of  a  party  of  unwilling  citizens  with 
whom  the  captains  themselves  fear  little  can  be  done,  and 
who  can  only  be  got  to  obey  with  a  great  deal  of  diffi- 

^  Not  reproduced. 

2  The  matter  here  referred  to  is  amply  elucidated  by  Storm's 
letter  to  his  son,  the  Commander  of  Demerara,  dated  Dece7nber  ij 
(see  pp.  561-563). 


uim  )wi.  j5wk&'  JWi  "m  i&  n 

I  mi  /olStn»e^.H.  Ml  TO  »[&  *i< 
<iju  en?!  <t4i  Ml  4i  "JW  W  6;E8*  ^nvn' 

(?:j  aiMUim  u,iSu«."i^i  1«<A«*  oEti,r'?[  fut  Qtdiuil  tarn  ^m  mi  /iUj/0  vir»  uiuji  wW« 

Mu  lttiva.1t  nojMiuU  lunmWirf  «&ia«Oi  wra  tf itk  5Cu(^  «(  A  Wt  i*mJ  iW?  iwfon.  " 
iii«)n3  W«M)«w   m)  ►)  ij>r  inuLla  knit.  unO(fe<«wCBiml  ffiiiJmit  iwi  iflui'3t*i  i*iJn»  iYa'^  "W 

)i  KMAi  una  W  ««  «i.  Mlom  uwiw  9,i»,  Mn^Jkl&itm  nj  ijAje  wyet  w  1»"M  "^'f  "»^ 
on)  'n£Ji!^}J]-)iu  nKiifct  «■»«  &fi,-£)  «.;  Mf;^  4«iK  fito'®'  *^  •* ''«^  *'¥■'  "Ti 
iw»u«,i)i«w»w  i'lt'JMi  at^ifiw  vlmauJtiMi  '<l^fjQ>m\z«^,  StMivnwtaWW 

SlfcuMUU  ivAW  l^sm  l&i  GW  Iroimrll  i/i  dloJi  &j)m*6 
•^ifUw^  nun  ^mS  tu,  ^  AAnrki  jTSiui  7t  ffj^  6WWu.  wi»i,9iMt«i"fe)lW»«i^ 

isijiuiSi  nmJim. 

5wj It cmUmnamn,  inw fowt  iXfM 
<\  j«j}«<w  ^Jj  urn*". 

nit  PvUJWi.  ' 


iKujtLl^  0^  un  ^  hti  i 

WW.  ^injuji  M Wihi^^frt  (TTi  n^ji^  ft «&  aWXiiVj/MK*  /w*!  k  flow  /ppt 
til  Aji  na*  IijMi  mitfeMl  vivSg^  ix^  oiyyuhit  a^l  8u ■  n^ tttidlt , 

L  (3>rmaAA('/rin«l,;uu^! 


umW:  ««A  ^jAo^'J  .{/.r^rxv,  \jr^j£tL  rMjnQM  fiuk?.!l.i)  m^»,  itf'aui*  oUJ  ■M  mL 
;!o«  mow  i4  Q  mm-MCM  OJ  n^  ivM  m«/ JIm.  «/? w  ftffit  »^*  »»lJu*  WJw  ?w  inM  '.^^  "J 
/(«3lv-^  Oln  ttn  Altto)  ii  Wl   Milo*  4l  '''^«  >»""*">  ft^^f.  V^  MtJI  aJilKi-U  *MM-jlil 


j'jf^f.ut  '»<^»'  fci/w"  -^"^t"^ ,?  ■«'<7 


iifK  -vetWL 



culty  ?) ;  but  since  that  is  impossible  we  must  use  what 
means  we  have,  and  not  being  able  to  do  as  much  as  we 
might  wish  must  be  satisfied  with  doing  what  we  can. 

The  case  of  Somersall's  negroes  or  slaves  then  came  up^ 
and  the  evidence  was  taken  of  each  of  the  purchasers,  nearly 
all  of  whom  declared  they  had  bought  them  of  John  Ber- 
mingham  and  at  his  house,  this  being  stoutly  denied  by 
Bermingham,  even  upon  oath.  The  number  of  these  slaves 
smuggled  in  amounts  to  forty,  and  since  all  the  purchasers, 
with  the  exception  of  three,  maintain  that  they  bought 
them  of  J.  Bermingham  and  at  his  house  and  had  paid  him 
for  them,  since,  moreover.  Councillor  Changuion  declared 
he  had  seen  the  slaves  in  the  boiling-house  there  and  had 
even  bid  for  some  of  them,  the  matter  seemed  clear  and 

The  accused  and  witnesses  having  retired  Mr  Spoors^ 
in  the  first  place  said  that  this  having  occurred  seven 
months  ago  the  action  of  the  Fiscal  was  null  and  void, 
whereupon  I  enquired  in  reply  whether  the  Fiscal  could 
institute  an  action  before  being  aware  of  the  crime  and 
declared  upon  my  word  of  honour  that  neither  I  nor  the 
Commander  had  known,  either  directly  or  indirectly,  of  the 
sale  of  a  single  slave  until  the  last  ordinary  meeting,  when 
a  vague  report  of  the  recovery  of  twelve  runaways  had  led 
to  an  investigation. 

Mr  Spoors,  seeing  that  this  was  not  contradicted  by  the 
other  councillors,  thereupon  said  that  he  would  first  require 
to  see  with  his  own  eyes  Your  Honours'  orders  to  me 
respecting  the  importation  of  slaves,  whereupon  I  replied 

^  i.e.  before  a  Court  meeting  held  November  i'j,  iy6j. 

^  It  should  be  borne  in  mind  that  Spoors,  having  a  plantation  of 
his  own,  would  probably  be  interested  in  smuggled  slaves  (at  least  as 
far  as  their  market  price  was  concerned)  whilst  Bermingham  was  one 
of  the  Englishmen  against  whose  tax-evading  propensities  Storm  had 
often  declaimed. 


that  the  proclamations  concerning  the  matter  had  been 
Hterally  copied  from  Your  Honours'  despatches  and  were 
perfectly  in  accord  therewith.  Mr  Spoors  thereupon  said 
that  he  did  not  believe  it,  and  that  he  must  see  it — "  See  it 
we  must !  "  he  repeated. 

Words  fail  me,  Your  Honours,  to  express  how  pained 
and  upset  I  was  by  this  direct  insult  put  upon  me  in  the  full 
Court — a  blow  at  my  honour  and  character,  a  suggestion 
that  I  was  a  liar  and  capable  of  foisting  upon  the  Court 
pretended  orders  from  Your  Honours !  I  remained  silent 
for  a  while,  and  having  considered  my  physical  condition, 
which  is  so  weak  that  I  was  scarcely  able  to  attend  the 
meeting,  that  my  administration  was  moreover  near  its 
end,  that  unseemly  disputes  and  wrangles,  wherein  one 
word  ever  leads  to  another,  would  only  harm  the  common 
weal,  I  restrained  my  feelings  and  only  said  "  Very  well, 
Mr  Spoors,  you  shall  see."  Thereupon  I  rose  to  get  Your 
Honours'  despatch  of  June  19,  1766,  and  returning,  read 
out  Your  Honours'  commands  distinctly  and  then  showing 
Mr  Spoors  the  signature  asked  him  whether  he  desired 
anything  more.  Whereupon  he  said,  "  No,  it  is  plain  and 
shows  us  what  we  have  to  do — the  matter  allows  of  no  further 
discussion."  The  junior  councillor  then  asking  me  what 
sentence  I  demanded  I  replied,  "  I  demand  confiscation  of 
the  slaves  for  the  benefit  of  the  Honble.  West  India  Co., 
without  prejudice  to  the  purchasers'  claims  upon  J.  Ber- 
mingham  if  he  have  deceived  them  (as  indeed  some  of 
them  he  did),  and  as  Fiscal  I  demand  the  value  of  the 
slaves  as  a  penalty  for  violation  of  the  law."  Thereupon 
I  rose  and  left  the  Court,  ordering  the  Commander  and 
Commandant  to  do  likewise^ 

Invited   to  return   half  an  hour  later   I   was   intensely 

^  Storm  acting  as  Fiscal  for  the  Colony,  would  have  no  voice  in 
the  judgment. 


surprised  to  hear  Mr  Spoors,  who  had  presided,  say  that 
the  Court,  in  view  of  the  lapse  of  time  since  the  occurrence, 
had  agreed  to  excuse  the  purchaser  for  this  occasion  and 
to  condemn  J.  Bermingham  to  pay  a  fine  of  a  thousand 
guilders,  hoping  that  in  future  a  strict  watch  would  be  kept 
upon  smuggling  either  slaves  or  sugar.  Upon  this  I 
laughingly  asked  whether  the  last  speaker  was  himself  able 
or  could  suggest  any  means  to  prevent  it  in  Essequibo, 
whereupon  he  replied,  "  No,  it  is  impossible."  "  As  far  as 
Demerara  is  concerned,"  I  said,  "  I  will  answer  for  the 
slave  smuggling  there  in  future  ;  there  is  now  a  battery  of 
three  six-pounders  at  the  lighthouse  and  orders  have  been 
given  that  incoming  barques  must  be  forced  to  come  to 
anchor  there  under  pain  of  being  sent  to  the  bottom  ;  if 
upon  search  they  are  found  to  carry  slaves  a  guard  is  to  be 
put  on  board  and  they  are  to  be  taken  to  Borssele  Island." 
I  had  nothing,  I  added,  to  say  to  the  judgment,  but  would 
have  the  honour  to  report  to  YY.  HH.  Whereupon  the 
Court  adjourned. 

P.R.O.  474/52 

December  13,  1767^ 
My  dear  Son, 

How  fortunate  it  is  for  de  Scharden  and  his 
companions,  that  the  two  negroes  did  not  know  or  had  forgot- 
ten the  way  ;  we  see  now,  all  the  more  because  it  is  over,  the 
madness  of  his  enterprise.  Tampoko  has  come  down  with 
some  Caribs  and  has  brought  me  a  very  exact  and  circum- 
stantial account.     As  I  had  expected,  it  is  only  too  true 

^  The  above  letter  was  addressed  to  J.  C.  van  den  Heuvel,  Com- 
mander of  Demerara,  Storm's  son-in-law. 

v.  S.    II.  36 


and  certain  that  they  are  rebels  from  Berbice ;  the  village 
surrounded  by  palisades,  lies  some  distance  inland  behind 
the  plantation  of  the  Widow  Stock  ;  this  is  somewhere 
about  the  neighbourhood  pointed  out  by  the  negroes.  They 
are  over  a  hundred  strong,  and  crossed  on  a  raft  from  the 
shore  of  Berbice  up  to  Demerary.  It  took  them  a  day 
before  they  were  all  over ;  they  had  ten  casks  of  powder 
with  them.  Their  cassava  is  already  fairly  high,  and  up  to 
the  present  they  have  obtained  their  bread  from  the  Acuways 
up  in  Demerary,  and  have  already  had  a  skirmish  with  some 
Caribs  and  carried  off  an  Aruwak  woman,  who  has  again 

The  Caribs  have  informed  me  that  they  were  ready  to 
take  up  arms  as  soon  as  they  should  receive  orders  to  attack 
them,  but  as  they  did  not  feel  very  safe  about  it,  they  ask 
for  about  six  canoes  to  transport  themselves  with  their 
bread  ;  these  I  shall  try  to  obtain  as  speedily  as  possible 
and  send  them  up.  They  informed  me  that  it  is  highly 
necessary  that  the  road  of  retreat  up  in  Demerary  should 
be  cut  off,  which  is  also  my  opinion,  wherefore  I  must  request 
you  to  call  the  burgher  officers  together  and  to  invite  the 
Councillors  Changuion  and  van  der  Lot  to  meet  the  same 
in  order  to  weigh  this  matter  well,  and  to  arrive  at  some 
fitting  resolution,  and  lay  down  regulations  for  investing 
the  upper  portion  of  Demerary. 

I  am  of  opinion,  salvo  meliori,  that  the  citizens  ought 
not  to  attack  them  ;  this  should  be  left  to  the  Caribs.  If 
the  enemy  retires  or  flees  they  must  not  be  spared,  but 
certainly  attacked,  and  therefore  good  outposts  should  be 
placed  at  certain  distances  to  give  warning  according  to 
signs  agreed  upon  whenever  they  perceive  anything. 

If  I  can  get  the  canoes  together,  Tampoko  shall  proceed 
up  the  river  on  Monday  or  Tuesday  morning  to  collect  the 
Caribs  who  are  ready,  and  proceed  to  the  attack  with  them. 

Let  the  Councillors  well  consider  this  dangerous  matter: 


there  must  be  no  delay  in  this,  for  the  possession  of  the 
two  rivers  depends  upon  it. 

I  remain, 

Your  affectionate  father, 

L.  Storm  van  's  Gravesande, 

The  utmost  secrecy  is  necessary. 

P.S. — I  shall  inform  you  of  the  day  on  which  the  Caribs 
will  proceed  to  the  attack.  I  have  already  six  canoes  : 
Tampoko  is  now  going  up  the  river  to  fetch  some  men  to 
take  the  canoes  up  and  to  bring  word  to  the  Caribs  to  get 
themselves  ready. 

P.R.O.  474/59 

February  9,  1768. 

After  referrmg  at  some  length  to  the  chaotic  state  of  the 
Company's  accounts  wJiich,  since  the  death  of  Mr  Rous- 
selet,  the  acting  Secretary,  he  has  been  attempting  to 
bring  into  order  and  to  keep  Jiimself  Stoin)i  says : 

Now  in  my  old  age  and  soon,  as  I  flatter  myself,  to  be 
discharged  from  Your  Honours'  service,  I  am  Director- 
General,  Secretary,  Bookkeeper,  Salesmaster,  in  a  word — 
everything.  This  does  not  worry  me.  Your  Honours,  so 
ong  as  it  pleases  the  Almighty  to  grant  me  health  and 
strength,  and  if  only  I  can  have  the  good  fortune  to  gain 
Your  Honours'  approval.  But  I  doubt  not  YY.  HH.  will  be 
convinced  that  it  is  a  very  heavy  task  for  me. 

The  Creole  Tampoko,  having  come  down  the  river  to 
fetch  the  boats,  brought  the  principal  Owl  of  Massaruni 
with  him,  the  same  who  led  the  Indians  in  the  expedition 
to  Berbice  which  succeeded  so  well  ^ ;    I   thought   he   was 

^  This  chief  is  again  mentioned  on  p.  598. 



dead  a  long  time  ago.  He  told  me  that  having  gone  into 
everything  carefully  he  was  of  opinion  that  it  would  be 
better  that  they  should  go  to  Demerary  and  make  the 
attack  from  there,  because  in  going  from  here  they  would 
have  to  walk  for  a  few  hours  up  to  their  knees  in  water 
before  they  came  to  the  negro  houses,  and  that  for  this 
reason  he  had  sent  word  to  his  tribe  in  Upper  Essequibo 
to  come  down  and  keep  watch  upon  that  river  in  case  the 
negroes  should  try  to  escape  that  way.  I  having  approved 
of  this  on  account  of  the  reasons  given,  he  departed  with 
the  canoes  and  will  be  here  on  the  appointed  day.  I  have 
informed  the  Commander  of  this,  and  have  asked  him  to 
warn  the  Owl  Conde  to  hold  himself  in  readiness  with  his 
subject  Warouws^  to  aid  the  Caribs. 

It  is  true,  Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs,  that  I  took 
the  liberty  of  informing  YY.  HH.  that  I  was  about  to  set 
out  for  Demerara^  with  the  intention  of  awaiting  my 
successor  there  and  would  meanwhile  entrust  Mr  Spoors 
with  the  command  in  Essequibo ;  such  however  was  to  be 
with  the  proviso  that  I  was  to  be  informed  of  anything  of 
importance  that  took  place  and  that  my  orders  concerning 
such  events  were  to  be  awaited. 

I  could  not  possibly  imagine  that  "  De  Sarah  "  would 
have  such  a  terrible  voyage  and  was  hoping  to  receive  my 
discharge  by  "  De  Laurens  en  Maria,"  in  which  case  my 
stay  in  Demerara  would  not  have  exceeded  the  usual  time 
determined  by  YY.  HH. 

The  Lord  be  praised,  I  am  not  yet  so  bereft  of  my 
senses  as  to  imagine  that  it  was  permissible  for  me  to 
divest  myself  propria  authoritate  of  the  responsible  charge 
entrusted  to  me  and  to  lay  it  down  de  but  en  blanc.  I  am  well 
aware  that  such  conduct  would  have  been  inexcusable  and 

1  See  p.  343.  2  See  despatch  21  April,  ^7^71  PP-  543)  544- 


not  to  be  justified  upon  any  grounds  whatsoever  ;  moreover, 
it  is  an  established  custom  here  for  such  Company's  servants 
as  desire  their  discharge  to  give  a  year's  notice  thereof  so 
that  others  may  be  found  in  that  time  to  take  their  place. 
If  this  be  the  case  with  minor  officials  how  much  more  so 
with  a  chief  I  am  even  surprised  that  YY.  HH.  could  for 
a  moment  have  thought  such  a  thing  of  me^ 

^  Storm  was  of  course  ignorant  of  the  fact  that  Spoors,  the  former 
Secretary  and  still  a  Councillor,  had,  under  date  oi  June  j6,  1767, 
written  home  as  follows  : — 

"  On  May  12  the  Director-General  set  out  from  this  river  for 
Demerara,  after  having  charged  me,  both  verbally  and  in  writing, 
with  the  command  of  Essequibo,  His  Excellency  adding  that  it  was 
his  intention  to  remain  in  the  aforesaid  river  until  the  arrival  of  his 
successor,  he  having  definitely  laid  down  his  office  and  placed  his 
resignation  in  the  hands  of  His  Serene  Highness,  and  that  he  was 
resolved,  in  the  event  of  his  successor  not  arriving  soon,  to  return 
home  direct  by  the  first  ship."     (P.R.O.  473/69.) 

No  one  who  has  even  casually  perused  a  few  of  Storm's  despatches 
— let  alone  those  who  have  followed  him  throughout  his  career — can 
possibly  believe  that  his  sense  of  duty  would  allow  him,  as  he  himself 
says  (p.  566),  "to  leave  the  Colony  ci  Pabandon  and  to  let  things 
drift  into  chaos."  Nevertheless,  the  matter  needs  some  elucidation. 
Already  in  //JJ  an  application  by  Storm  for  leave  to  visit  Europe 
solely  in  the  Company's  interests  (see  p.  339)  had  been  refused  and 
early  in  176^  we  find  a  similar  refusal  recorded  (see  p.  482)  ;  per- 
mission was  at  length  tardily  granted  in  1766  (see  p.  523)  when 
Storm's  state  of  health  made  him  despair  of  being  able  to  profit  by 
it.  Recovering,  however,  a  few  weeks  later,  he  was  preparing  for  his 
voyage  when  he  received  peremptory  orders  to  stop  where  he  was 
(see  p.  591).  Exceedingly  chagrined  hereat  Storm  early  in  May 
placed  the  command  of  Essequibo  in  Spoors'  charge  (see  Spoors' 
own  words  ut  supra),  as  he  had  often  been  wont  to  do,  and  set  out 
for  Demerara  with  the  announced  intention  of  awaiting  there  his 
discharge  (see  p.  544),  which  he  confidently  expected  to  receive  at 
any  moment  in  reply  to  his  oft-repeated  and  most  insistent  demands. 
His  discharge  did  not  come  and  he  returned  to  his  duties  (p.  566) 
which  Spoors  was  unwilling  longer  to  undertake  {ib.). 

As  faithful  recorders  of  Storm's  life  we  must  admit  that  his  con- 
fession to  Bentinck — "j'ay  etd  sur  le  point  plus  d'une  fois  de  mettre 
bas  mes  emplois  et  de  partir  pour  I'Europe"  (p.  591) — taken  in 
conjunction  with  Spoors'  statement  ("that  he  was  resolved,  in  the 
event  of  his  successor  not  arriving  soon  to  return  home  direct  by 

566  STORM  VAN  's  gravesande's 

Seeing  then  my  expectations  disappointed  upon  the 
arrival  of  Capt.  Different,  by  whom,  too,  no  news  came  of 
the  "  Sarah's "  arrival,  I  tarried  no  longer  but  returned  to 
Essequibo,  There  was  no  necessity  to  resume  the  command, 
for  I  had  in  no  wise  laid  it  down,  but  I  hurried  the  more 
(although  my  stay  in  Demerara  for  some  weeks  longer  was 
not  only  desirable,  but  in  some  measure  necessary,  since  the 
investigation  of  certain  dealings  would  have  been  of 
advantage  to  the  Honourable  Company)  because  Mr  Spoors 
had,  in  reply  to  Commandant  Bakker's  request  for  certain 
orders,  been  good  enough  to  say,  "  Let  those  give  orders 
who  are  paid  for  doing  so  ;  I  am  out  of  the  service  and  the 
deuce  take  me  if  I  bother  any  more  about  it."  Receiving 
this  report  at  6  o'clock  in  the  evening  I  was  on  my  way 
already  at  six  the  next  morning,  although  otherwise  I  would 
have  waited  for  the  next  spring  tide,  when  the  voyage  is 
much  easier  because  one  need  not  then  avoid  the  sandbanks 
and  can  keep  close  to  the  shore. 

Since  then,  too,  I  have  not  been  out  of  Essequibo,  as 
YY.  HH.  have  been  able  to  see  from  all  my  letters  written 
after  the  arrival  of  "  De  Laurens  en  Maria."  All  the 
vessels  having,  thank  God,  safely  arrived  in  Middelburg 
I  should  certainly  have  had  the  honour  of  reporting  verbally 
to  YY.  HH.  and  of  presenting  my  thanks  for  the  various 
benefits  enjoyed,  such  having  been  my  dearest  wish  and  in 
truth  necessary  for  many  reasons.  But,  Your  Honours,  how- 
ever great  my  desire  was  I  could  not  possibly  bring  myself 
to  leave  the  Colony  a  rabandoji  and  to  let  things  drift  into 
chaos ;  the  death  of  Mr  Rousselet,  the  lack  of  a  proper 
substitute,  the  unwillingness  of  Mr  Spoors  to  undertake 

the  first  ship") — would,  standing  as  a  single  action,  be  open  to  the 
construction  the  Directors  appear  to  have  placed  on  Spoors'  words 
alone,  but  we  submit  that  the  whole  tenour  of  Storm's  life  proves  it 
to  have  been  not  an  intention  but  a  lapsus  calami  due  to  his  well 
justified  exasperation. 


Mr  Rousselet's  duties  ad  interim  or  even  to  take  the  com- 
mand— all  this  rendered  my  departure  if  not  impossible,  at 
least  unjustifiable. 

The  reasons  for  my  resignation  submitted  both  to  His 
Serene  Highness  and  to  YY.  HH.  consist  alone  in  my 
advanced  age  and  the  ailments  with  which  it  pleases  the 
Almighty  often  to  visit  me.  Those  reasons  exist,  but  the  true 
reason  that  forcibly  impelled  me  I  have  always  kept  to 
myself  and  will  still  do  so  for  some  days,  having  only  the 
honour  to  assure  YY.  HH.  that  it  in  no  wise,  directly  or 
indirectly,  concerned  YY.  HH.,  whose  treatment  of  me 
personally  is  worthy  of  all  praise  and  calls  for  my  deepest 
gratitude.  The  reasons  I  had  at  the  departure  of  "  De 
Sarah"  are  far  from  extinct  but  on  the  contrary  increase 
in  force  daily  and  have  now  become  of  much  greater  import 
to  me — an  example  whereof  may  be  seen  in  the  proceedings 
of  the  Court  on  November  25  last,  an  occurrence  all  too 
public  (and  for  an  honourable  and  respectable  man  all  too 
unbearable)  to  be  glossed  over\ 

And  the  longer  things  go  on  the  worse  they  get.  If  I 
write  letters  I  receive  no  reply — only  a  verbal  message  that 
the  person  written  to  will  come  to  me  ;  meanwhile  weeks  pass 
and  no  one  comes.  I  found  the  books  in  a  terrible  muddle 
and  have  had  endless  toil  and  trouble  to  get  them  into  order. 
The  office  is  in  uttermost  confusion — some  protocols  missing, 
some  badly  injured  by  wood-lice,  deeds  of  all  sorts  mixed 
up  in  a  heap,  no  register  or  notes  of  the  mortgages  (upon 
which  I  am  now  at  work,  as  being  of  the  first  consequence) 
— in  a  word,  perfect  chaos. 

This  must,  however,  not  be  accounted  to  the  late 
Mr  Rousselet ;  he  went  on  with  it  as  he  found  it.  I  doubt 
not  that  YY.  HH.  will  have  received  a  copy  of  the  office 
inventory    made  by   Messrs  van   der  Heyde  and   Bakker 

1  See  pp.  559-561. 


when  Mr  Rousselet  succeeded  Mr  Spoors,  if  not,  I  will  ask 
Mrs  Rousselet  for  it.     Ex  tingiie  leoneni. 

We  very  frequently  see,  as  the  proverb  says,  that  even 
a  worm  will  turn.  It  had  always  been  my  idea  that  to 
endure  without  retaliating  was  the  surest  way  to  disarm 
one's  foes,  but.  Your  Honours,  patience,  long  tried,  has  its 
limits.  My  period  of  endurance  is  coming  to  its  end,  and, 
if  further  ill-treatment  compels  me  to  take  up  the  pen  and 
to  make  formal  and  de  facto  complaint  to  His  Serene 
Highness  and  YY.  HH.,  I  hope,  if  life  and  health  be  spared 
me,  to  do  so  with  all  the  necessary  details,  and  to  repeat 
the  same  verbally. 

I  find,  God  be  thanked,  that  the  Merciful  and  Omni- 
potent One  gives  each  one  strength  to  bear  his  burden. 
I  must  now  do  what  I  have  not  done  for  twenty-nine  years, 
that  is,  sit  writing  in  my  office  from  seven  till  twelve  in  the 
morning  and  from  three  to  six  in  the  afternoon ;  and 
although  unused  to  it,  I  do  it  with  pleasure  and  without 
fatigue.  Never  to  put  off  till  to-morrow  what  can  be  done 
to-day  is  a  lesson  I  learnt  from  my  worthy  grandfather  in 
my  eighth  year,  the  careful  practice  of  which  now  stands 
me  in  good  stead  and  gives  me  much  ease.  If  one  goes 
regularly  about  one's  work,  dealing  sparely  with  drink  and 
not  permitting  that  pleasant  seductive  Madeira  wine  to 
become  one's  master,  a  good  deal  more  can  be  done  than 
one  would  think. 

"  Time  enough,  time  enough  !  "  is  the  common  cry  of 
the  Creoles  and  natives  here,  and  thereby  many  a  one  has 
been  brought  to  confusion. 

I  am  not  at  all  surprised  that  Mr  Spoors  is  opposed  to 
the  introduction  of  the  acreage  dues  ;  self-interest  always 
comes  to  the  top  with  most  people.  Should  he  desire  to 
keep  all  his  land  (which  he  still  maintains  he  has  the  right 


to  do  notwithstanding  Your  Honours'  formal  decision)  he 
would  have  to  pay  a  pretty  considerable  sum  in  acreage 
dues  or  give  up  a  deal  of  the  land — and  neither  alternative 
pleases  him.  Many  colonists  are  against  the  tax,  though 
quite  as  many  are  for  it,  but 

Tnrba  per  extremas  semper  bachata  vagatur 
Et  medias  nescit  carpere  tiita  vias'^. 


Mille  hominum  species  et  rernin  discolor  usiis : 
Velle  SHum  cuique  est,  nee  voto  vivitur  tmo"^. 

In  the  same  despatch  in  which  the  Commander  informs 
me  of  the  arrival  of  the  ship  "  De  Vliegende  Visch  "  I  find 
these  words : — "  There  are  twelve  soldiers  on  board  who 
are  again  good  recruits  for  Orinoco,  because  they  are  nearly 
all  French^"  Mr  Lonk,  who  came  over  as  a  passenger, 
has  assured  me  that  they  are  all  French,  and  that  with  the 
exception  of  one  or  two  they  are  all  Roman  Catholics. 
Can  it  be  possible  that  YY.  HH.  are  so  deceived  by  the 
crimps  ?  I  shall  have  them  closely  examined,  but  as  I  have 
received  no  muster-roll  I  do  not  know  how  they  are 

1  We  have  been  unable  to  trace  this  quotation  ;  Professor  Bensly 
does  not  think  it  is  from  any  classical  author. 

"  Persius,  v.  52. 

2  The  Commander  of  Demerara,  in  a  despatch  to  the  Zeeland 
Directors  dated  Februmy  /S,  1768,  writes  : — 

"  I  was  very  pleased,  YY.  HH.,  on  reporting  the  arrival  of  the  twelve 
men  to  the  Director-General  to  hear  from  him  that,  according  to  Your 
Honours'  letter,  they  were  all  Protestants  and  that  there  was  not  a 
Frenchman,  Fleming,  Portuguese,  or  Spaniard  amongst  them.  But 
when  I  mustered  them  I  found  to  my  great  surprise  that  out  of  these 
twelve  men  there  were  only  three  who  were  not  French,  these  being 
the  corporal,  who  comes  from  Utrecht,  and  has  served  in  the  State 
troops  for  some  years,  and  a  German,  a  native  of  Zweibrucken,  and  a 
French  deserter.  The  others  are  all  Frenchmen  and  deserters,  so  that 
I  conclude  that  YY.  HH.  have  been  scandalously  deceived  by  the 
recruiting  agents,  who  are  infamous  scoundrels." 


In  addition  to  this  all  the  Indians  have  declared  that 
they  will  have  no  French  at  the  Posts,  a  troop  of  more 
than  lOO  Warouwans,  all  well  armed,  having  already- 
arrived  at  the  Post  Maroco  saying  that  they  came  to  see 
whether  there  was  a  Frenchman  there,  and  intending  to 
kill  him  if  it  were  so. 

Wherefore  also  Pierre  Martin  has  come  down  the  river 
from  Cuyuni,  the  Indians  flatly  refusing  to  come  and  live 
anywhere  near  the  Post  so  long  as  he  is  there.  They  will 
have  a  Dutchman,  they  say. 

The  soldiers  who  came  in  "  De  Spoor  "  have  arrived ; 
they  are  again  nearly  all  Frenchmen,  but  I  will  say  no 
more — oleum  et  operant perdidi  in  this  matter.  I  was  engaged 
upon  the  Register  when  the  letter-bag  of  "  De  Spoor  "  was 
brought  in  so  that  I  have  had  to  break  off  and  put  it  away 
until  the  next  ship  goes — ultra  posse  nemo  tenetur. 

P.R.O.  474/82 

April  9,  17681. 

In  my  last  I  had  the  honour  of  replying  concerning  the 
earnest  request  I  made  for  my  discharge  and  my  letter  to 
H.  S.  H.  on  the  matter  and  I  shall  not  dilate  thereupon  here 
except  to  say  that  I  am  still  very  impatiently  longing  for 
my  release.  Although,  contrary  to  expectation,  my  constant 
infirmities,  one  of  the  reasons  that  then  prompted  me, 
have,  the  Lord  be  praised  and  thanked,  much  diminished, 

1  The  despatch,  consisting  of  about  20,000  words,  from  which  the 
above  extracts  are  taken,  was  commenced,  as  the  text  shows,  on 
February  12  (see  p.  571). 


I  have  no  reason  to  flatter  myself  that  this  will  remain  so 
long,  and  as  I  am  hoping  very  much  for  rest  I  will  not  yet 
enter  upon  the  further  weighty  reasons,  which,  far  from 
diminishing,  increase  daily  and  really  render  the  service 
bitter  to  me. 

Were  I  to  write  circumstantially  regarding  these,  this 
despatch  would  be  as  voluminous  as  Your  Honours'  very 
esteemed  of  August  24,  the  reply  to  which  I  am  beginning 
to-day  February  12  (quite  early  enough);  time,  too,  would 
not  allow  me  to  do  so  without  neglecting  my  own  affairs 
and  those  of  the  Company  and  Colony,  the  latter  occupying 
so  much  thereof  that  I  have  really  need  of  three  bodies. 

I  am  very  sorry  that  I  expressed  myself  ill  in  my  letter 
or  was  misunderstood  by  YY.  HH.  It  was  in  no  wise  my 
intention  to  give  up  the  direction  of  affairs  before  the 
arrival  of  my  successor  or  to  remain  in  Demerara  if  his 
coming  was  delayed  longer  than  I  expected  or  wished  ; 
this,  too,  YY.  HH.  will  have  fully  perceived  from  my  later 
letters,  but  I  have  already  answered  this  in  my  last. 

Tela  prcevisa  minus  nocenf^.  One  can  guard  against  an 
open  enemy,  but  it  is  not  so  easy  to  withstand  a  concealed 
one  who  under  the  mask  of  noble-hearted  friendship  seeks 
to  injure,  to  calumniate  and  to  thwart  us  in  every  way. 
Ungrateful,  envious  and  mean  spirits,  who  grudge  their 
fellows  even  a  crust  of  bread  and  secretly  attack  their 
honour  are  only  too  frequently  met  with  in  this  world. 
The  English  dramatist  Shakespear  says  with  good  reason  : 

^  This  is  another  quotation  which  we  have  been  unable  to  trace. 
Professor  Bensly  points  out  that  in  John  of  Salisbury's  Epistolae 
(Ep.  cxii.  p.  203  in  the  1611  edit.)  occurs  the  line 

Jacula  qiioque  minus  laedttnt,  quae  praevidentur 
which  is  extraordinarily  similar  ;  also  that  the  line 

Nam  levins  laedit,  quidquid  praevidimus  ante, 
expressing  the  same  sentiment,  is  found  in  Uionysius  Cato's  Disticha 
de  moribus  (Bk.  11.  xxiv.  p.  188  in  Arntzenius'  ed.,  Amsterdam,  1734). 


"  Despoil  my  purse,  I  heed  it  not — tis  trash : 
Tis  mine,  tis  yours,  tis  anybody's  ; 
But  rob  me  of  my  good  name,  I'm  poor  indeed ^" 

When  I  was  at  the  Court  in  175 1  I  took  the  Hberty  to  say 
to  Mr  van  VVassenaer,  BailHe  of  the  Hague,  "  To  have  the 
West  Indian  sense  one  must  have  been  in  the  West  Indies," 
and  this  may  well  pass  for  an  axiom,  for  it  is  an  absolute 
impossibility  for  a  European  to  form  a  just  idea  of  these 
regions  and  one  in  accordance  with  the  actual  state  of 
affairs.  No  reading,  no  narratives  sufifice ;  experience  is 
here  certainly  the  best  and  safest  instructress. 

Moreover,  this  Colony  resembling  Noah's  Ark,  in  which 
were  clean  and  unclean  beasts,  by  its  mixture  of  all  tongues, 
races  and  nationalities,  patience  and  forbearance,  so  far  as 
circumstances  permit,   are  the  best  qualities  to  cultivate. 

The  proverb  says,  "  Patience  is  a  good  herb,  but  it  does 
not  grow  in  every  man's  garden  I"  In  Europe  it  absolutely 
refused  to  grow  in  my  garden,  but  in  this  Colony  I  was 
compelled  to  cultivate  it  and  to  tend  it  with  great  care. 
This,  too,  was  most  necessary  at  the  beginning  of  my 
service,  and  I  was  more  than  once  earnestly  recommended 
by  Your  Honours'  Assembly  to  exercise  all  possible  in- 
dulgence.    But  Tempora  imitantnr,  et  nos  vmtamur  in  illis^. 

^     Who  steals  my  purse,  steals  trash  : 
'Tis  something,  nothing  ; 

'Twas  mine,  'tis  his,  and  has  been  slave  to  thousands, 
But  he  that  filches  from  me  my  good  name 
Robs  me  of  that,  which  not  enriches  him 
And  makes  me  poor  indeed. 

Othello,  Act  in.  So.  iii. 

Shakespeare's  exact  words  (as  they  appear  in  the  1623  edition) 
have  been  reproduced  here  in  order  to  show  that  not  only  was  Storm 
trusting  to  his  memory  but  that  he  was  able  in  so  doing  to  put 
English  together  pretty  fairly. 

2  Patientie  is  een  goed  krtiyd,  iiiaer  het  wast  in  alle  mans  hove  niet. 

3  Sic.  Stormused  the  usually  accepted  order  of  the  words.   Matthias 


Things  are  no  longer  what  they  were.  In  those  days  I 
could  by  kind  words  and  pithy  reasons  get  the  burghers  to  do 
anything ;  now  neither  good  nor  bad  words,  and  not  even  the 
most  urgent  commands  of  the  Court,  are  of  the  least  avail. 

To-morrow  is  the  day  appointed  by  the  Caribs  for  the 
attacks  God  knows  how  it  will  end  if  things  go  in 
Demerary  as  the  Commander  has  reason  to  fear.  There 
is  no  difficulty  about  the  Caribs;  they  will  do  their  duty 
well ;  but  if  the  fugitives  are  not  stopped  at  Demerary  and 
can  get  over  the  river  this  matter  may  have  results  that 
can  last  for  years.  It  is  a  sad  thing  that  there  are  so  many 
people  who  will  not  understand  reason — will  not,  I  say, 
because  it  is  impossible  to  believe  that  they  do  not  grasp 
the  danger  and  the  results  of  their  unwillingness. 

I  fully  agree  with  YY.  HH.  that  if  the  Company's  revenues 
are  not  alone  to  equal  but  to  exceed  the  expenditure  already 
and  still  to  be  incurred  many  new  measures  will  have  to  be 
framed.  But  permit  me,  YY.  HH.,  once  more  to  say  that  to 
have  the  West  Indian  sense  one  must  have  been  for  a  time 
in  the  West  Indies.  I  trust  that  no  wrong  measures  will 
be  passed  or  false  economy  regarded,  which  would  make 
matters  much  worse  than  they  are  now. 

Take  it  not  amiss,  Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs, 
that  an  old  servant  who  has  now  served  YY.  HH.  over  thirty 
years,  who  flatters  himself  to  have  looked  after  the  best 
interests  of  his  lords  and  masters  and  of  the  Colony  faith- 
fully and  honestly,  whose  greatest  and  latest  pleasure  in 
life  would  be  to  see  the  latter  in  a  flourishing  condition, 

Borbonius,  Delitiae  Poctarutn  Ger7)ia7toriiJii  (Frankfort,  1612)  vol.  i. 
p.  685,  attributes  this  line  to  Lothair  I,  Emperor  of  Gei'many,  though 
in  the  following  form  : — 

Onniia  imitantur^  110s  et  inutamur  in  tilts. 

^  See  p.  564. 

574  STORM  VAN  's  gravesande's 

and  who,  burdened  beyond  his  strength  with  matters  that 
his  zeal  and  affection  for  the  Company  do  not  permit  him 
to  neglect,  is  now  through  old  age  and  worries  soon  about  to 
leave  that  service, — take  it  not  amiss  if  he  makes  bold  to 
speak  openly  and  as  his  heart  dictates.  I  detest  all  flattery 
and  feigning  and  am  also  convinced  of  Your  Honours' 
righteousness  and  justice,  of  which  I  have  had  so  many 
proofs,  wherefore  I  have  no  fear  YY.  HH.  will  take  it  in  ill 
part  and  shall  therefore  continue  to  write  in  that  spirit. 

March  28. — I  am  again  sending  an  express  to-day  to 
the  Commander  to  inform  him  that  Gerrit  Jansse,  the  Post- 
holder  of  Arinda,  had  come  down  stream  and  reported  to 
me  that  he  had  spoken  to  the  body  of  Caribs  up  by  the 
fall  ;  that  the  Owl^  had  charged  him  to  tell  me  that  every- 
thing there  had  been  well  searched  but  that  nothing  had 
been  found  ;  that  they  had  imprisoned  the  Aruwak  who 
had  brought  them  there  and  had  sent  him  off,  together 
with  Tampoko,  a  few  Aruwaks,  and  some  of  their  own 
men,  to  catch  a  negro  from  Berbice  who  was  living  in 
those  parts ;  that  they  would  closely  examine  him  and 
attack  anything  he  pointed  out,  but  that  if  there  were 
nothing,  he  would  come  to  me  with  the  negro  and  the 

The  Postholder  of  Arinda  has  reported  to  me  that  all  is 
well  up  there,  and  that  the  tribes  are  at  perfect  peace  with 
each  other. 

Such  is  not  the  case  with  the  Acuways  up  in  Demerary 
called  Wapessansis^ ;  these  have  killed  three  Caribs  on  the 
coast  of  Berbice,  and  the  latter  will  not  rest  until  they  have 

^  The  designation  for  a  native  chief. 

2  There  is  no  warrant  for  regarding  the  Wapisanas  as  a  connection 
or  branch  of  the  Akawois  ;  Storm  however  had  but  little  knowledge 
of  the  former  until  I'^dg  (see  p.  617). 


had  their  revenge.  The  former  tribe  is  thus  in  continual 
fear  of  being  unexpectedly  attacked  by  the  Caribs,  which  is 
certain  to  happen  even  if  it  should  be  after  the  lapse  of  a 
year.  I  have  written  the  Commander  earnestly  to  warn  all 
the  citizens  and  his  soldiers  that  when  this  occurs  they  are 
not  to  interfere,  directly  or  indirectly,  except  to  make  peace 
if  possible,  and  especially  are  they  to  take  care  not  to  pro- 
vide either  party  with  arms  or  otherwise  to  assist  them, 
since  such  action  might  bring  the  other  party  upon  us  and 
have  fatal  results,  especially  for  those  colonists  who  live  up 
the  river  in  isolated  places,  and  especially  since  they  now 
see  for  themselves  what  help  they  would  get  from  their 
neighbours  in  case  of  need. 

Tampoko  came  down  the  river  yesterday  evening  with 
his  body  of  Caribs.  When  the  canoes  arrived  we  thought 
there  were  some  negroes  in  them,  because  some  of  the 
Caribs  had  entirely  covered  their  head  and  face  with  their 
salempouris.  This  custom  was  quite  unknown  to  me.  When 
they  came  on  shore  I  asked  Tampoko  what  it  meant,  and 
he  told  me  that  these  were  men  who  had  killed  negroes ; 
this  is  their  custom,  and  they  must  go  like  that  for  a  month. 
After  which  I  got  the  two  Owls  to  give  me  a  full  account  of 
the  expedition.  They  said  that  on  the  day  when  they  had 
spoken  to  the  Postholder  of  Arinda  and  given  him  a  mes- 
sage for  me  they  had  not  yet  been  able  to  discover  anything; 
that  on  the  same  day  they  had  climbed  Mount  Arisari^  to  be 
able  to  look  around.  On  reaching  the  top  they  immediately 
discovered  the  negro  houses  and  plantations.  Being  very 
pleased  with  this,  they  commenced  their  march  on  the 
morning  of  the  next  day  ;  that  close  to  the  place  they  first 

^  Mt  Arissari  will  be  found  marked  on  the  Map  in  latitude  5°  35', 
therefore  much  below  the  site  of  Post  Arinda  at  this  date,  but,  as 
Storm  explains  on  the  previous  page,  the  Postholder  was  on  his  way 
down  to  the  Fort. 


came  to  the  house  of  a  free  Creole  from  Berbice  named 
Peter,  who  had  served  in  Demerary  for  about  three  years  as 
a  carpenter,  and  who  was  now  Hving  alone.  No  one  mis- 
trusted him,  and  he  was  at  my  house  only  about  six  weeks 

Tampoko  was  extremely  surprised  at  finding  him  at 
home,  because  he  had  spoken  to  him  down  here  before 
starting,  and  had  asked  him  whether  he  had  not  heard  any- 
thing of  the  negroes,  whereupon  he  had  answered,  "  Not 
the  least,"  and  that  scoundrel  lived  only  a  rifle-shot  from 
them,  and  asked  Tampoko  where  he  was  going.  The 
latter  not  trusting  him  said,  "  I  am  going  to  look  for  the 
negroes."  "  It  is  labour  in  vain,"  said  the  other,  "  there  are 

Tampoko,  being  very  suspicious  concerning  his  speedy 
journey  home,  asked  him,  "  How  do  you  come  here  before 
me  when  I  made  such  haste  ?  Are  there  no  negroes  about 
here  .-• "  "  No,  not  one,"  said  he.  "  What  is  this  talking 
then  that  I  hear  on  the  other  side  of  the  creek  ? "  asked 
Tampoko.  "  I  don't  know,"  said  Peter,  "  but  there  are  no 
negroes  here." 

Meanwhile  Tampoko  had  sent  out  two  Carib  scouts, 
who  were  immediately  attacked  by  the  negroes  and  one  of 
them  severely  wounded. 

Upon  hearing  their  shouts  for  help  the  other  Caribs 
rushed  to  their  assistance,  two  remaining  with  Tampoko, 
to  whom  the  latter  said,  "  Capture  this  Creole  and  bind  him," 
and  thereupon  went  to  the  main  body. 

The  Creole,  hearing  this,  tried  to  escape,  but  the  two 
Caribs  sent  two  poisoned  arrows  into  his  back,  and  followed 
Tampoko.  On  their  coming  up  he  asked  them  whether 
they  had  caught  or  killed  the  Creole.  They  said,  "  No,  but 
we  have  sent  two  arrows  into  his  body."  Tampoko  said, 
"  He  must  be  killed  or  taken  prisoner,"  whereupon  one  of  the 
two  went  back  and  finding  him  dragging  himself  along  shot 


another  arrow  at  him  and  coming  back  to  Tampoko  said, 
"  Now  he  has  enough,  he  will  not  go  much  farther." 

The  Caribs  were  not  at  work  very  long,  having  killed 
seven  men,  one  woman  and  one  girl — three  men  and  a  few 
women  and  children,  whom  they  could  not  pursue,  having 
escaped.  They  have  brought  the  seven  right  hands  to  me, 
and  I  am  just  now  occupied  in  paying  them^ 

They  have  assured  me  that  the  Acuways  of  Essequibo 
have  promised  them  to  look  after  the  rest  and  deliver  them 
up.  With  the  permission  of  the  Caribs  they  have  taken 
po.ssession  of  the  negro  bread  plantations,  which  they  will 
entirely  lay  waste ;  the  houses  are  already  razed  to  the 
ground,  and  all  the  weapons  of  the  negroes  have  been  brought 
to  me. 

The  Lord  be  praised  that  the  matter  turned  out  so 
successfully.  What  might  not  the  results  have  been  for 
this  Colony,  especially  when  they  had  such  a  scoundrel 
with  them  who  had  free  access  to  all  the  plantations  both 
here  and  in  Demerary,  and  who  was  not  mistrusted  in  the 
least,  he  having  only  recently  shown  me  a  certificate  from 
Calleway  and  Bikkel  that  he  had  worked  on  their  planta- 
tion for  about  a  year  and  always  behaved  honestly  and 

"  What  will  the  busy-bodies  in  Demerary  say  now  ?"  I 
wrote  to  the  Commander  to-day.  Last  week  de  Scharde 
said  in  several  places  "  a  Creole  like  that  is  believed  before 
me  who  know  everything  and  have  examined  everything, 
and  the  burghers  are  obliged  to  endure  all  kinds  of  fatigues 
and  hardships  on  his  account,  and  I  will  wager  that  it  is  all 
for  nothing."     The  Commander  and  myself  are  obliged  to 

^  The  interest  of  this  narrative  hes  in  the  fact  that  Tampoco,  who 
subsequently  hanged  himself,  was  said  to  have  invented  it  and  to  have 
imposed  upon  Storm  ;  there  is  however  ground  for  doubting  that 
assertion.  Storm  himself  certainly  believed  in  the  Creole  even  after 
his  suicide.     See  pp.  583  and  585. 

V.  s.   II.  i7 


hear  such  speeches  daily.  It  is  our  turn  to  speak  now,  but 
what  is  the  use  of  it  with  such  people,  who  think  that  they 
are  excused  when  they  say,  "  I  should  not  have  thought  it," 
or,  "  I  cannot  believe  it." 

May  I  not  justly  say  that  activity,  attentiveness,  and 
patience  are  absolutely  necessary  here  now  ? 

Time  does  not  permit  me  to  write  so  circumstantially 
concerning  all  this  as  the  importance  of  the  matters  perhaps 
demand.  If  the  Almighty  grant  me  life  and  health,  I  hope, 
when  discharged  from  my  office  and  more  at  peace,  to  use 
the  pen  somewhat  more  freely,  it  being  however  my  inten- 
tion not  to  engage  in  any  business  matters  and  to  write 
only  to  YY.  HH.,  if  so  desired,  concerning  the  above  and 
Colony  affairs.  Nor  shall  I  undertake  any  commissions  or 
procurations  of  any  sort,  hoping  then  to  be  able  to  say 
with  the  Roman  lyric  poet  Horace  (Lib.  2  Ode   10): 

Rectius  vives,  Licini,  neque  altU7n 
Semper  urgendo  neque,  dum  procellas 
Cautus  horrescis,  nimium  premendo 

Litus  iniqimni. 
Auream  quisqiie  mediocritatem 
Diligit,  tutus  caret  obsoleti 
Sordibus  tecti,  caret  tnvidenda 

Sobrius  aula. 
Saepius  ventis  agitatur  ingens 
Pinus  et  celsae  graviore  casu 
Decidunt  turres  feriuntque  summos 

Fubnitia^  motites. 

1  Some  editions  have  fulgura  ;    of  all  Storm's  longer  quotations, 
this  is  most  free  from  slips. 


P.R.O.   474/102 

Demerara,  June  i,  1768. 

This  pleasure  and  satisfaction  I  have,  however,  in  all  my 
worries — that  my  efforts  on  behalf  of  Demerara  have  not 
been  fruitless  and  that  that  river  now  not  only  far  surpasses 
Essequibo  but  is  apparently  about  to  become,  under  the 
Lord's  blessing,  and  through  the  great  and  daily  increasing 
afflux  thither,  a  mighty  and  flourishing  colony ;  to  secure 
this,  however,  the  scum  will  have  to  be  removed  and  the 
obstacles  cleared  away,  which  labour  I  will  leave  to  my 
successor.  God  grant  that  he  may  have  the  necessary 
knowledge  and  firmness  for  his  task  ;  I  look  for  his  coming 
with  great  longing. 

The  principal  fishery,  YY.  HH.,  has  always  been  in 
the  mouth  and  between  the  islands  of  Orinoco,  near 
the  Warouws,  to  which  we  send  salting  markott'  twice 
every  year.  This  has  never  been  prevented  until  recently, 
to  the  inexpressible  injury  of  the  Company's  plantations 
and  Colony,  because  there  now  being  a  want  of  that  fish, 
and  the  slaves  being  obliged  to  have  their  rations,  salt 
cod  has  continually  to  be  bought,  which  even  in  one  year 
runs  pretty  high,  and  sometimes  brings  me  into  difficulties 
with  the  payment.  Onl)'  this  week  I  paid  over  300  guilders 
to  Captain  Andrew  ;  the  twelve  casks  of  meat  which  each 
plantation  gets  annually  are  of  little  use,  and  1000  lbs.  of 
fish  is  soon  gone. 

The  other  fishery  is  carried  on  in  the  two  dry  seasons  on 
the  sea-coast  for  querman^ ;  it  is  very  uncertain,  the  seasons 

^  Schomhuvg'k  {Description  of  British  Guiana,  1840,  p.  39)  mentions 
the  "  morocoto,"  which  may  be  an  alternative  spelling. 

-  Hilhouse,  Indian  Notices  (p.  35),  says  that  the  Warouvv  Indians 
"barbacot  and  salt  great  quantities  of  the^querryman  {genus  inugH) 
with  which  they  traffic  on  the  coast,  and  sometimes  as  far  as  town." 



having  been  unreliable  since  1763.  We  are  now  at  the 
height  of  the  dry  season,  and  there  is  not  a  single  querman 
on  the  coast.  This  fishery  moreover  costs  immeasurably 
more  than  the  others,  the  Aruwaks  who  are  engaged  in  it 
requiring  four  times  as  much  pay,  &c. 

The  Posts  are  now  in  proper  order  ;  those  at  Maroco  and 
Cuyuni  ought  to  be  strengthened  ;  but  Roman  Catholic 
soldiers  ought  not  to  be  sent  there,  and  we  have,  so  to  say, 
no  others.  I  should  otherwise  certainly  have  sent  reinforce- 
ments to  Moruka,  because  our  rascally  deserters  have 
arrived  in  Barima  with  a  few  Spaniards  and  have  robbed 
the  widow  la  Riviere  of  all  her  slaves  and  property.  This 
did  not  matter  very  much,  because  I  had  strictly  forbidden 
Jan  la  Riviere  to  settle  between  Essequibo  and  Orinoco, 
and  for  greater  security  I  had  this  inserted  in  his  pass ;  he 
was  also  forbidden  by  the  Court  to  settle  in  Barima.  The 
deserters  also  threatened  to  come  and  make  a  raid  upon  the 
Post  of  Moruka,  but  having  offered  a  few  insults  to  the 
Caribs,the  latter, being  rather  short-tempered,  killed  Hendrik 
Rodemeyer  and  the  drummer  Jacobus  Van  Maelen,  and 
came  to  bring  me  information  of  what  they  had  done. 
When  I  told  them  that  they  had  acted  wrongly  they  said 
that  the  killed  men  were  only  Touarimbos,  that  is  to  say,  run- 
aways who  are  no  great  loss,  and  who  are  only  mischievous. 
Whereupon  I  answered,  "  That  is  true  as  far  as  regards  thair 
being  no  great  loss,  but  your  people  ought  to  have  taken 
them  alive,  and  brought  them  here,  then  you  would  have 
received  good  payment."  Whereupon  they  replied,  "  Very 
well,  we  shall  try  to  get  the  other  two."  I  therefore  do  not 
think  that  the  Post  is  in  any  danger  now,  because  I  do  not 
believe  that  the  Spaniards  would  dare  to  join  them  openly, 
and  the  Postholder  has  abundance  of  scouts  and  is  on  his 

It    is    of   the    utmost    necessity   that    we    should    have 


Protestant  soldiers.  I  am  certain  that  YY.  HH.  are  con- 
vinced of  the  necessity  of  this,  but  how  little  hope  there  is 
of  getting  them  I  see  from  the  last  shipment  which,  with 
the  exception  of  about  four,  consisted  of  none  but  Catholics, 
and  from  Your  Honours'  letter  I  can  only  conclude  that 
YY.  HH.  have  been  greatly  deceived \ 

This  ties  my  hands  completely,  and  nothing  can  be  done 
at  the  Posts,  which  are  daily  exposed  to  pillage  ;  the  Post- 
holder  cannot  absent  himself  for  a  few  days,  let  alone  for  a 
few  weeks,  as  he  would  have  to  do  to  make  any  discoveries. 
We  have  now  a  good  Postholder  at  Arinda  who  has  done 
more  in  six  months  than  the  others  did  in  six  years,  but 
reinforcements  is  his  daily  cry  in  order  to  be  able  to  go 
farther,  it  being  impossible  to  leave  the  Post  alone  among 
those  savage  tribes  without  having  all  his  bread  and 
merchandise  stolen,  and  it  is  inadvisable  for  any  one  to 
go  inland  unless  there  are  at  least  two  of  them,  in  case  of 
illness,  etc. 

The  garrison  of  the  two  rivers  ought  to  consist  of  at 
least  lOO  men  (as  it  does  in  Berbice),  but  if  they  are  to  be 
Catholics  it  would  be  better  to  remain  as  we  are,  and  even 
less,  since  the  proximity  of  the  Spaniards  is  a  standing 
danger  of  desertion,  and  if  the  opportunity  were  embraced 
by  many  at  once  it  would  have  fatal  results  for  some 
plantations.  This  was  very  much  feared  when  those  seven 
deserted  together,  and  we  do  not  dare  to  send  any  one  after 
them,  not  only  on  account  of  the  smallness  of  our  numbers, 
but  because  it  is  feared  that  those  who  are  sent  would  join 

^  The  Directors'  reply,  dated  Nov.  28,  1768,  ran  : — 
"We  agree  with  you  in  deeming  an  adequate  garrisoning  of  the 
various  Posts  of  the  Colony  to  be  of  the  highest  importance,  but,  as 
for  the  sending  of  Protestant  or  Lutheran  soldiers,  we  have  again  to 
refer  to  our  preceding  letter.  Up  to  the  present  we  have  not  been 
able  to  obtain  any  Protestant  soldiers,  nor  even  any  Germans,  although 
we  have  given  abundant  orders  to  all  lodging-house  keepers." 


the  runaways,  especially  if  they  have  a  good  boat  and  pro- 

The  description  of  our  neighbouring  Spanish  Governors 
which  I  had  the  honour  to  send  YY.  HH.',  is  taken  from 
life  and  by  no  means  exaggerated.  YY.  HH.  may  well  say, 
"  May  God  preserve  our  colonists  from  such  ! "  because  such 
government  would  soon  result  in  total  ruin. 

But,  YY.  HH.,  that  would  not  be  so  easy  with  free-born 
Netherlanders  or  Englishmen  as  with  people  born  under  a 
despotic  rule  and  accustomed  to  slavery,  since  the  colonists 
all  coming  from  Guayana  and  Trinidad  are  slaves  in  the 
narrowest  sense  of  the  word.  Such  Governors  would  not 
be  tolerated  long,  and  the  Assemblies  of  Their  High  Mighti- 
nesses and  of  YY.  HH.  would  soon  re-echo  with  perfectly 
justifiable  complaints. 

What  have  those  people  but  their  cattle,  for  which 
Providence  has  given  them  excellent  pastures .''  They  have 
nothing  else  in  the  world,  and  are  actually  in  want  of 
bread.  It  might  be  urged  that  this  is  due  to  their  sloth. 
This  is  true  in  a  sense,  but  who  would  willingly  work  for 
another?  If  we  took  the  bread  from  the  gardens  of  our 
slaves,  do  YY.  HH.  think  they  would  work  for  love  of  the 
thing  on  their  free  Saturdays  ?     By  no  means. 

I  should  be  very  grieved  if  Mr  Clarke  were  to  leave  the 
Colony  ;  the  reasons  why  he  called  in  some  of  his  out- 
standing monies  are  now  known  to  me  and  are  very  good 
ones.  Mr  Clarke  in  Demerara  and  W.  Croydon  in  Esse- 
quibo  are  honest,  upright  men,  of  much  profit  and  advantage 
to  the  Colony,  the  welfare  of  which  they  have  at  heart ;  but 
were  we  quit  of  all  the  other  English  and  had  Dutch  or 
Germans  instead  the  loss  would  not  be  great,  but  on  the 

1  See  p.  553. 


contrary,  the  Colony's  progress  and  welfare  would  be  much 
furthered  and  smuggling  put  an  end  to. 

As  soon  as  the  Court  meeting  of  June  4  is  over  I  intend, 
if  the  Lord  grant  me  health,  to  proceed  to  the  three  planta- 
tions in  order  to  have  a  careful  inventory  made,  but  I  can 
rely  so  little  upon  my  condition,  which  is  very  changeable. 
Old  age  brings  many  infirmities  and  that  is  the  common 
course  of  nature.  Were  it  permissible  to  compare  the  very 
humble  with  the  very  great  I  could  almost  say  with  the 
Emperor  Vespasian  Decet  imperatoreni  stantem  mori,  for  I 
fear  it  will  be  my  fate,  if  I  am  not  soon  released,  to  succumb 
under  the  weight  of  my  work. 

We  are  at  present  in  very  precarious  circumstances,  the 
Acuways  and  Caribs  being  now  in  open  war,  which  will 
probably  bring  about  a  great  massacre  shortly. 

There  was  a  report  here  that  Tampoko  and  the  Caribs 
had  not  killed  negroes  but  Indians,  and  that  the  hands 
brought  down  were  the  hands  of  Indians'.  If  such  were 
found  to  be  true  I  have  never  seen  a  rascally  trick  executed 
more  carefully  and  clothed  with  more  feasible  circumstances, 
and  I  think  that  Satan  himself  might  be  deceived  in  this  way. 

I  have  requested  Mr  van  der  Heyde,  who  lives  right 
amongst  the  Caribs,  to  be  good  enough  carefully  to  examine 
the  matter  ;  he  has  already  had  the  Owls  at  his  place,  who 
stoutly  and  emphatically  deny  this  accusation.  (I  can 
scarcely  believe  it  myself.)  He  will  continue  his  investiga- 
tions and  send  me  down  Tampoko  as  soon  as  he  comes 

The  Postholder  of  the  Corentin-  has  provided  the  Caribs 

1  See  pp.  575-577  and  585. 

2  The  west  bank  of  the  Corentin  (being  the  bank  nearest  Demerara 
and  Essequibo)  was  regarded  {see  Laws  of  British  Guiana,  igoj)  as 


with  blunderbusses.  What  does  this  mean,  YY.  HH.,  when 
an  old  law  still  in  force,  and  one  that  I  have  always  in- 
sisted upon  being  observed,  forbids  the  sale  of  arms  to  any 
Indians?...!  believe  that  too  strong  a  self-interest  is  at  the 
bottom  of  the  Postholder's  unjustifiable  conduct,  for  the 
Akavvois  being  slaves  in  Surinam  he  hopes  by  that  war  to 
get  hold  of  a  good  number  of  them  and  Heaven  knows 
whether  he  did  not  himself  incite  the  war.  Quid  iion 
mortalia  pectora  cogis  aiiri  sacra  fames'^} 

The  drummer  Jacobus  van  Maelen,  who  ran  away  with 
the  Postholder  of  Moruka,  and  who  was  believed  to  have 
been  killed  by  the  Caribs  (this  fate  having  in  reality  befallen 
one  of  the  other  deserters)  has  returned,  together  with  a 
negro  belonging  to  Miss  Persik,  and  alleges  that  he  was 
coerced  by  the  dire  threats  of  the  Postholder.  He  relates 
that  all  the  French  deserters  from  here,  together  with  the 
Postholder,  have  left  for  Martinique  in  a  French  vessel,  and 
that  Streep  is  a  carpenter  and  Philip  Boucher  a  constable, 
in  Guayana. 

P.R.O.  474/125 

June  6,  1768. 


Things  are  now  really  becoming  serious,  YY.  HH.  Last 
night  an  express  arrived  from  Berbice  reporting  that  the 
Caribs  above  Berbice  having  been  defeated  by  the  Acuways, 
a  body  of  600  Caribs  has  passed  the  fort  there,  and  together 

under  the  jurisdiction  of  Surinam  until  the  year  1800,  when  it  was 
"  declared  and  acknowledged  henceforth  to  belong  to  the  Government 
of  the  Colony  of  Berbice"  (then  under  English  rule)  but  with  the 
express  proviso  that  the  post  established  on  that  bank  should  remain 
in  the  possession  and  under  command  of  the  Surinam  government. 
1  Virgil,  JEn.  iii.  57. 


with  several  other  bodies  had  taken  the  road  to  Upper 
Demerary  and  Essequibo,  so  that  now  our  Caribs  of  Esse- 
quibo  and  Massaruni  will  take  up  arms  and  the  war  will 
become  universal.  The  Lord  knows  what  the  results  will 
be ;  1  do  not  expect  much  good  from  it. 

P.R.O.  474/139 

July  20,   1768. 

The  Creole  Tampoco,  who  was  apprehended  and  placed 
in  prison  here  by  my  orders  on  account  of  a  report  that  he 
had  had  Arawaks  killed  instead  of  negroes  and  was  to 
have  been  tried  by  the  Court,  hanged  himself  as  soon  as  he 
heard  that  I  had  returned  from  Demerara ;  I  have  had  him 
hanged  by  his  legs  on  the  gallows.  The  Caribs  whom  I 
had  ordered  to  be  here  on  that  day  did  not  come ;  probably 
they  are  also  fighting  against  the  Akawois.  Nor  did  the 
Arawaks,  Tampoco's  accusers,  come\ 

P.R.O.  474/180 

September  15,   1768. 

Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs, 

A  report  which  I  received  after  the  closing  of  my 
letterscompelsmeto  add  these  few  lines.  A  Spanish  privateer 
from  Orinoco,  cruising  along  our  coast,  made  an  attempt 
to  capture  Your  Honours'  Salter  before  the   River  Waini 

1  The  incident  which  gave  rise  to  Tampoco's  arrest  and  suicide  is 
fully  set  out  on  pp.  574-577  and  583.  Already  in  his  June  despatch 
Storm  expresses  his  doubt  concerning  the  Creole's  guilt,  the  last 
sentence  of  the  above  extract  being  also  very  suggestive  ;  he  again 
refers  to  the  matter  in  February^  ^7^9  (see  p.  598)  and  remains  as 
unconvinced  as  ever.  Tampoco  was  certainly  a  strange  and  interest- 
ing character,  and  had  been  of  much  service  to  the  Company  ;  earlier 
exploits  of  his  are  narrated  on  pp.  488,  489,  496,  522,  537  and  563. 


(indisputably  the  Company's  territory)  and  fired  very 
strongly  upon  him.  The  latter  was  cautious  enough  (not 
being  able  to  escape  otherwise)  to  run  his  boat  high  and 
dry  upon  the  bank  so  that  he  could  not  be  reached  by  the 
privateer  who,  having  continued  to  fire  upon  him  for  some 
time,  and  seeing  that  he  could  do  nothing,  finally  departed. 

They  are  not  content  with  most  unreasonably  keeping 
our  runaway  slaves  and  with  hindering  us  from  carrying  on 
the  fishery  in  Orinoco,  which  we  have  always  been  free  to 
do,  but  they  now  wish  to  prevent  us  from  salting  along  our 
own  coasts,  and  will  in  this  manner  end  by  closing  our 
river,  and  no  boats  will  dare  to  go  out  any  more.  Is  this 
proper  behaviour  on  the  part  of  our  neighbours  and  allies  ? 

Must  we,  YY.  HH.,  regard  all  this  quietly  and  endure  all 
these  insults  and  hostile  acts  ?  Must  we  see  our  Posts 
raided  and  ruined  and  our  boats  attacked  upon  our  own 
coasts  .'*  What  is  to  be  the  end  of  this  ?  There  is  no  redress 
to  be  got  from  the  Court  of  Spain.  Why  not  exercise  the 
JUS  talionis  ? 

The  Caribs  of  Barima  were  here  last  week  and  complained 
that  some  of  our  deserters  with  a  party  of  Spaniards  were 
continually  molesting  them  in  Barima  and  robbing  them  of 
everything.  I  asked  them  whether  they  were  not  men  and 
had  no  hands  to  defend  themselves.  They  answered, 
"  Indeed,  they  had,"  but  that  they  did  not  know  whether  they 
might  do  so.  I  replied  that  they  must  indeed  be  careful  to 
give  the  Spaniards  not  the  slightest  reason  for  complaint,  but 
that  if  they  were  unjustifiably  attacked  they  might  stoutly 
defend  themselves.  This  pleased  them  very  much,  because 
I  had  not  yet  been  willing  to  grant  them  so  much  liberty. 

We  have  discovered  that  at  the  same  time  that  the 
corporal  and  three  soldiers  ran  away  from  Demerary  to 
Orinoco  there  was  a  plot  formed  here  by  a  party  of  French- 
men to  take  to  their  heels.  We  were  warned  just  in  time, 
whereupon  the  Commandant  immediately  had  all  the  boats 


secured  as  far  as  possible  and  sent  warnings  to  "  Duynen- 
burg"  and  all  the  neighbours.  The  desertion  was  thus 
prevented,  but  it  is  only  for  a  short  time  ;  they  will  watch 
their  opportunity,  and  even  if  they  went  away  before  our 
eyes,  in  a  manner  of  speaking,  what  could  we  do  ?  To 
have  them  pursued  would  be  going  ex  Scilla  in  Charibdim, 
for  the  pursuers  would  very  probably  join  them,  and  the 
more  so  because  they  would  be  well  armed  and  well 
furnished  with  provisions. 

Therefore,  YY.  HH.,  be  pleased  not  to  take  it  amiss  if  as 
long  as  I  have  the  honour  to  be  in  Your  Honours'  service 
(which  I  trust  will  be  but  a  short  time)  I  send  back  to 
Europe  by  the  first  ship  all  recruits  who  come  here  and 
turn  out  to  be  French.  Necessity  compels  me  to  do  this, 
and  I  would  no  longer  be  answerable  to  God  or  man  for 
the  danger  into  which  the  Colony  would  be  brought  by  this. 
The  colonists,  especially  those  down  in  the  river  and  on  the 
sea-coast,  are  unceasingly  complaining  that  they  are  con- 
tinually compelled  to  be  on  their  guard,  and  really  they  have 
great  reason  for  doing  so. 

Having  written  this  in  great  haste,  I  have  the  honour 
to  be,  with  deep  respect  and  esteem.  Noble  and  Right 
Honourable  Sirs, 

Your  Honours'  most  humble  and  obedient  servant, 

L.  Storm  van  's  Gravesande. 

p.R.o.  474/166 

November  9,  1768. 

The  beginning  of  this  letter  will  not  be  pleasant,  because 
I  am  obliged  to  inform  YY.  HH.  that  in  the  night  between 
the  5th  and  6th  of  October  four  French  soldiers  ran  away 
from  the  Fort  here  to  Orinoco,  as  I  had  expected,  and  as 


YY.  HH.  will  have  seen  from  my  former  letters.  They  have 
taken  as  a  companion,  and  apparently  as  a  leader,  one 
Servaes  Smith,  whom  Mr  Massol  had  taken  from  the  ship 
"  Zeeberg "  in  place  of  another  sailor  after  paying  fifty 
guilders  into  the  bargain  ;  he  had  driven  Smith  from  his 
house  a  few  days  before  the  desertion  of  the  latter,  for  what 
reason  I  do  not  know. 

The  Commander  of  Demerary  made  a  very  good  guess 
when  he  wrote  to  me  on  the  arrival  of  the  last  transport, 
"  There  are  again  some  good  recruits  for  Orinoco."  In  this 
way  they  will  not  require  any  recruits  from  Europe,  if  they 
are  so  well  provided  by  us. 

This  matter  is  really  getting  more  dangerous  for  this 
Colony  every  day,  because  the  rascals  are  employed  upon 
the  so-called  coast-guards  and  privateers  of  which  I  wrote 
in  my  last  letter,  and  it  has  been  reported  to  us  by  Spaniards 
themselves  that  the  aforesaid  deserters  openly  threaten  that 
they  will  not  only  make  a  raid  upon  the  Post  in  Maroco, 
but  that  they  will  also  pay  a  visit  to  a  few  of  the  lowest 
plantations.  Certainly  not  to  pay  their  respects  to  the 
owners,  as  their  mode  of  life  in  Barima  plainly  proves. 

The  folloiving  letter,  comimuiicated  {like  that  of  March  21, 
775/^)  by  the  courtesy  of  Dr  Robert  Fruifi,  was  probably 
addressed  to  the  same  person  as  the  earlier  document — 
Count  William  Bentinck'^ — a  supposition  ivhich  its  tenour 
tends  to  prove.  The  corroboration  it  gives  to  various 
matters  touched  upon  in  Storm's  more  official  despatches 
renders  it  highly  interesting  and  it  has  been  deemed  best 
to  reproduce  it  in  the  original  FrencJi. 

^  See  p.  277.  2  See  p.  276. 


Rio  Essequibo  le    Decembre,  1768. 

La  derniere  lettre  que  j'ay  eu  I'honneur  de  vous 
ecrire,  a  ete  du  27  Juin  1767,  dont  la  Copie  est  allee  par 
Suriname,  elle  a  ete  pour  prendre  la  liberte  de  recom- 
mander  mon  fils^  en  votre  protection.  Je  n'ay  pas  ose 
m'ingerer  de  reiterer  mes  prieres,  craignant  de  vous  ennuyer 
&  d'abuser  de  votre  patience. 

La  fatale  dispute  entre  les  Provinces  d'Hollande  &  de 
Zeelande  au  sujet  de  notre  colonie  qui  nous  cause  un 
dommage  considerable,  nos  Directeurs  ayant  pour  ainsi 
dire  les  mains  liees  &  n'osant  rien  faire  de  consequence, 
fait  que  tout  restant  icy  in  statu  quo,  tout  va  sans  dessus 
dessous,  chacun  veut  etre  maistre  &  il  n'y  a  plus  ny  subor- 
dination ny  obeissance  parmi  les  habitants. 

Cecy  m'avoit  necessite  au  mois  de  Decembre  1766^ 
d'ecrire  a  son  Altesse  Serenissime  &  aux  Directeurs  pour 
demander  avec  instance  ma  dimission.  N'osant  pas  reiterer 
mes  prieres  a  son  Altesse  Serenissime,  je  n'ay  pas  manque 
par  tous  les  vaisseaux  partis  depuis  ce  temps  la  &  dans  toutes 
mes  lettres  aux  Directeurs  de  reiterer  ma  demande  &  d'in- 
sister  tres  serieusement  sur  I'envoy  d'un  successeur. 

Nous  voila  en  Decembre  1768,  ainsi  deux  annees  d'ecou- 
lees  depuis  ma  demande,  &  il  n'y  a  rien  encore  de  fait  a  cat 
egard,  ce  qui  me  Chagrine  extremement. 

Je  ne  seray  pas  venu  a  cette  resolution  &  n'aurois  pas 
insiste  si  fortement,  s'il  y  avoit  moyen  de  continuer  le 
service  avec  honneur,  deux  ou  trois  esprits  turbulents  se  font 

1  His  youngest  son,  Jeremias,  born  Sept.  2^  i749i  and  the  only  one 
that  survived  him.  The  last  letter  extant  signed  by  Storm,  dated 
July   jg^i   i775t    is   a   request   to   the    Directors  of  the   West    India 

Company  to  appoint  this  son  salesmaster  in  Demerara.  It  is  in 
the  Rijksarchief  at  the  Hague  and  is  evidently  not  Storm's  own 

2  See  pp.  524,  525. 


une  affaire  d'animer  tous  les  petits  habitants  et  de  les 
soulever ;  ils  leur  font  accroire  ce  qu'ils  veulent  et  se  servent 
de  la  patte  du  chat  pour  tirer  les  chataignes  du  feu.  Ils 
payent  tous  mes  soins  et  mes  veilles  pour  le  bien  et  I'avance- 
ment  de  la  colonic  de  la  plus  noire  ingratitude. 

En  second  lieu  les  emplois  de  secretaire,  du  vendue- 
maistre,  teneur  de  livres  et  receveur  de  tous  les  droits  etant 
vacants  depuis  juin  1767  tout  tombe  sur  mes  epaules. 
Je  dois  exercer  moy-meme  tout  cela,  sans  compter  les 
affaires  du  gouvernement.  Chacun  de  ces  emplois  demande 
une  personne  entiere.  Jugez,  je  vous  prie,  de  I'accable- 
ment  ou  je  me  trouve,  principalement  etant  d'une  humeur 
que  je  ne  puis  rien  voir  de  neglige  qui  soit  de  la  moindre 

Enfin  la  peine  qu'il  y  a  depuis  cinq  ou  six  annees  de 
contenter.  Les  lettres  que  je  regois  et  celle  du  Comman- 
deur  de  Demerary  sont  remplies  de  louanges  et  de  reproches, 
et  les  derniers  sont  quelque  fois  tres  sensibles  pour  des 
personnes  qui  se  font  un  devoir  de  s'acquitter  avec  honneur 
de  leurs  emplois. 

Je  n'aurois  jamais  cru  que  I'animosite  entre  deux 
provinces  d'une  meme  republique  put  aller  si  loin.  Cette 
annee  un  vaisseau  de  Rotterdam  nomme  I'Amphitrite 
apartenant  a  Mr  A.  Tulleken  arriva  a  Demerary  ayant  des 
vivres  et  utensiles  pour  les  plantages  qui  sont  en  correspon- 
dance  avec  ce  monsieur.  Le  Commandeur  en  suivant  ses 
ordres  precis  mit  d'abord  a  bord  une  garde  d'un  corporal 
et  deux  soldats  et  fit  defendre  absolument  au  capitaine  de 
ne  rien  charger  ou  decharger,  et  de  partir  des  qu'il  auroit 
mis  son  vaisseau  en  ordre.  Vous  ne  scauriez  croire, 
Monsieur,  les  reproches  vifs  et  terribles  qu'il  regoit  pour 
avoir  permis  a  ce  vaisseau  de  rester  plus  de  trois  ou  quatre 
jours  dans  la  riviere. 

Plusieurs  de  cette  nature  ont  oblige  le  Commandeur 
aussi  bien  que  moy  de  demander  sa  demission. 


Aussi  si  longtemps  que  les  choses  restoit  en  cet  etat  et 
que  la  dispute  n'etoit  pas  finie,  je  n'ay  ose  abuser  de  votre 
temps  precieux,  voyant  que  toutes  mes  peines  etoit  inutiles. 
Sans  cela  persuade  de  votre  inclination  et  bonne  volonte 
pour  notre  colonie,  je  n'aurois  pas  manquer,  Monsieur,  de 
prendre  la  liberte  quelques  fois  de  vous  la  recommander. 

Ainsi  n'y  pouvant  plus  tenir  j'ay  ete  sur  le  point  plus 
d'une  fois  de  mettre  bas  mes  emplois  et  de  partir  pour 
I'Europe^  et  j'ay  I'honneur  de  vous  assurer  que  si  je  n'avois 
craint  que  son  Altesse  Ser^nissime  auroit  pris  cette  con- 
duite  en  mauvaise  part,  je  I'aurois  fait  et  principalement 
lorsque  I'annee  passee  ayant  demande  a  Messieurs  les 
Directeurs  la  permission  de  faire  un  tour  en  Europe  et  cela 
m'etant  accorde,  quatre  semaines  apres  me  preparant  pour 
partir  je  regus  une  lettre,  ou  on  retiroit  cette  permission  et 
on  m'ordonna  positivement  de  rester. 

Cecy  m'a  oblige  de  remettre  la  main  a  la  plume  et  de 
prendre  la  liberte  d'ecrire  une  lettre  a  son  Altesse  Serenis- 
sime  pour  le  prier  tres  humblement  de  vouloir  avoir  la 
bonte  de  me  tirer  de  cet  esclavage,  qui  devient  de  jour  en 
jour  plus  insupportable,  et  pour  encore  une  fois  recom- 
mander mon  fils  en  sa  protection, 

Oserai  je,  Monsieur,  implorer  votre  protection  et  votre 
intercession  aupres  de  son  Altesse  Serenissime?  Je  vous 
en  auray  une  obligation  intime  pour  le  reste  de  ma  vie.  Je 
me  flatte  que  vous  voudrez  bien  avoir  cette  bonte  pour 

Un  des  articles  qui  me  chagrinent  extremement,  c'est 
qu'ayant  la  plupart  de  ma  famille  a  Demerary,  lorsque 
je  vais  la  une  ou  deux  fois  par  annee  et  y  reste  six  ou  huit 
semaines,  on  m'en  fait  les  reproches  les  plus  sensibles  et 
temoignent  un  mecontentement  extreme. 

Je  ne  scaurois  en  penetrer  la  raison  parce  que  soit  que 

^  Cf.  llie  note  on  p.  565. 


je  soye  a  Demerary,  soit  a  Essequibo  les  affaires  vont  le 
meme  train  et  il  n'y  a  pas  la  moindre  difference.  On  ne 
s'en  aper^oit  pas  ny  dans  I'une  ny  dans  I'autre  riviere. 

Vous  jugez  bien,  Monsieur,  que  mon  sejour  a  Demerary 
quelques  fois  me  doit  etre  tres  agreable  et  me  donner  quel- 
que  delassement.  J'y  ay,  comme  j'ay  I'honneur  cy  dessus 
de  dire,  ma  famille.  Ma  fille  ainee^  avec  quatre  enfants  ne 
peut  faire  ce  voyage  et  me  venir  voir  comme  elle  voudroit 
bien,  elle  I'a  pourtant  fait  une  fois  cette  annee. 

D'un  autre  cote  cette  colonie  commencee  sous  ma 
direction  qui  m'a  coute  tant  de  peine  et  de  soins  commengant 
a  fleurir  et  a  avancer  autant  que  le  temps  present  peut  le 
permettre,  ayant  presentement  passe  i6o  plantages,  la  ou 
Essequibo  n'en  a  qu'environ  70  au  plus,  et  avangant  de  jour 
en  jour,  ce  doit  m'etre  un  veritable  plaisir  de  Taller  voir 
quelques  fois  et  cela  ne  peut  etre  juge  que  tres  naturel. 

Mais  il  est  temps  de  finir  cette  longue  lettre.  Excusez 
je  vous  prie  d'excuser  la  liberte  que  je  prends  et  celle  de 
vous  assurer  que  je  seray  toute  ma  vie  avec  le  plus  profond 


Votre  tres  humble  et  tres  obeissant  serviteur 
L.  Storm  van  's  Gravesande. 

p.R.o.  474/181 

February  9,   1769. 

There  is  not  the  slightest  probability  of  a  Cartel  being 
concluded  with  the  Spanish  Governor  for  the  exchange  of 
deserters  on  either  side,  whether  they  be  whites  or  others, 
that    being    a    matter    to   be   regulated    by  the   respective 

^  Maria  Catharina,  married  first  to  van  Bercheyck  and  afterwards 
to  van  den  Heuvel,  both  Commanders  of  Demerara  (cf.  p.  ss)- 


Sovereigns.  Moreover,  whenever  it  is  desired  to  enter  into 
any  negotiation  with  them  this  ordinarily  proceeds  so 
slowly  on  their  side  that,  before  any  agreement  is  come  to, 
one  Governor's  term  of  office  expires  (that  being  only  for 
three  years),  and  everything  has  to  be  done  anew,  for 
experience  has  taught  us  that  the  successors  will  in  nowise 
conform  to  the  engagements  of  their  predecessors^ 

As  regards  the  running  away  of  slaves,  there  is  no 
possibility  of  regulating  anything  advantageously  before 
that  subordination,  which  (as  YY.  HH.  well  express  it  in 
Your  Honours'  letter  to  the  Commander  in  Demerara)  is 
at  the  lowest  ebb,  shall  be  restored,  and  again  placed  on  a 
good  footing.  So  long  as  this  is  not  the  case,  of  what 
assistance  are  all  the  orders  and  publications  of  the  Court 
and  of  myself .''  Pursuant  to  a  Resolution  of  the  Court 
at  the  last  ordinary  Session,  there  was  renewed,  in  extremely 
stringent  terms,  the  ordinance  that  no  slaves  should  be 
allowed  to  leave  their  plantation  without  a  certificate  from 
their  master,  and  that  those  which  are  found  without  one 
on  the  river  should  be  brought  to  the  Fort.  This  is  now 
almost  three  months  ago,  and  yet  no  single  example  of  that 
which  was  ordained  has  transpired,  and  the  same  is  the 
case  with  numerous  other  things. 

Time  does  not  permit  me  to  look  through  a  chest  of 
papers  for  a  copy  of  the  journal  of  J.  La  Chau  and  Elias 
Lindgreen  concerning  their  journey  through  Demerara  as 
far  as  the  great  fall^  (which  is  80  feet  high)  and  to  the  Post 
on  the  Upper  Essequibo,  where,  having  quarrelled.  La  Chau 
returned  and  Lindgreen  proceeded  further  up,  but  was  never 
heard  of  again.  But  I  am  as  certain  as  I  am  of  being  alive 
that  I  had  the  honour  of  writing  YY.  HH.  all  the  details 

^  See  note  on  p.  65. 

2  See  p.  465.  La  Chau  clearly  crossed  from  the  Demerara  to  the 
Essequibo  by  the  Indian  path  and  was  stopped  at  the  great  fall  on  the 
latter  river  (see  p.  112). 

v.  s.    11. 


594  STORM  VAN  's  gravesande's 

and  of  sending  the  journal,  which  was  very  well  compiled  ; 
thereupon  YY.  HH.  did  me  the  honour  of  replying  that  the 
journal  had  given  YY.  HH.  much  pleasure  and  that  if  La  Chau 
was  willing  to  resume  his  journey  YY.  HH.  would  defray  the 
cost,  the  first  having  been  at  my  expense.  Such  was  also 
his  firm  intention  and  I  had  ordered  and  received  from 
Mr  P.  de  Bruijn  all  the  requisite  things,  such  as  aqua  fortis, 
quicksilver,  &c.,  &c.,  &c.,  but  by  that  time  Mr  Spoors  had 
engaged  the  man  as  manager  for  the  plantation  "  Laurentia 
Catharina"  (where  he  remained  until  that  gentleman's 
deaths  having  left  it  only  this  year),  which  grieved  me  very 
much,  for  besides  the  outlay  being  lost  no  fitter  man  could 
have  been  found  for  such  a  task.  As  far  as  I  remember  it 
must  have  been  in  the  year  1761  or  1762-. 

That  slaves  are  much  cheaper  in  Surinam  than  here  is 
perfectly  certain  and  in  the  English  possessions,  in  spite  of 
big  consignments  to  the  Spanish,  they  cost  no  more  than 
300  guilders  a  piece,  whilst  here  we  have  to  give  six  or  seven 
hundred.  It  may  be  urged  that  purchasers  are  mad  to  pay 
this,  but  what  are  they  to  do  ?  They  must  have  slaves,  else 
they  are  not  only  at  a  standstill  but  losing  money,  and  the 
number  of  those  imported  here  is  far  less  than  half  of  that 
actually  needed.  Had  there  not  been  this  dearth,  what  a 
Colony  would  this  not  have  been  !  We  have  been  twelve 
consecutive  years  without  the  arrival  of  a  single  slave- 
ship^  ;  it  has  been  irreparable  and  ruinous  for  the  Colony 
that  the  slave  trade  devolved  from  the  Honble.  Co.  to 
private  merchants.  The  Company  would  not  have  left  its 
Colonies  so  denuded,  especially  as  its  own  interests  were 
involved,  whilst  the  merchants,  regarding  their  private 
concerns  only,  cared   but  little  for  the  Colonies'  progress. 

1  This  took  place  on  Feb.  22.,  lydS  (P.R.O.  474/70)  and  was  re- 
corded by  Storm  in  the  briefest  words. 

^  See  p.  413.  ^  See  remarks  on  pp.  299,  300. 


It  is  all  one  to  them  as  long  as  they  make  money,  and  I 
really  believe  that  if  the  slaves  were  sold  at  a  thousand 
guilders  each  they  would  still  complain. 

The  Assistant  Gerrit  van  Leeuwen  has  reported  to  me 
concerning  the  Post  in  Cuyuni  that  he  had  heard  from  the 
fugitive  Indians  that  a  detachment  of  Spaniards  had  come 
to  just  above  the  Post  and  had  captured  and  taken  away 
a  whole  party  of  Indians  ;  that  they  had  threatened  to 
come  again  during  the  next  dry  season  and  proceed  as 
far  as  Masseroeny  to  capture  a  party  of  Caribs  there,  and 
that  they  would  then  sail  down  the  Masseroeny  and  again 
up  the  Cuyuni  and  visit  the  Post  on  their  way.  I  imme- 
diately sent  him  back  again  (after  having  provided  him 
with  gunpowder  and  other  things),  and  charged  him  to  use 
the  oars  as  much  as  possible,  and  to  find  out  through  the 
medium  of  the  Indians  the  time  about  which  they  would 
commence  their  expedition  and  to  inform  me  of  the  same, 
when,  in  order  that  they  may  have  a  fitting  reception,  I 
will  send  a  commando  to  Mr  van  der  Heyde  upon  "  Old 
Duynenburg "  (with  whom  I  have  already  spoken  on  the 
matter  and  arranged  what  measures  are  to  be  taken),  past 
which  plantation  they  must  go. 

From  the  Register  YY.  HH.  will  see  that  at  the  end  of 
1768  there  were  thirty-four  plantations  more  than  in  1767, 
which,  together  with  the  newly  allotted  grounds  not  yet 
enumerated  there,  will  make  about  fifty,  and  over  a 
thousand  slaves  more.  Talking  the  matter  over  this 
morning  with  Commandant  Bakker  and  reckoning  that 
at  most  only  six  hundred  permitted  slaves  had  come 
in,  he  said  that  it  was  evident  that  the  cold  weather  had 
made  people's  consciences  less  elastic,  and  that  the  return 
was  therefore  more  correct. 


Sg6  STORM  VAN  's  gravesande's 

P.R.O.   474/195 

February  21,   1769. 

It  is  certainly  very  hard  for  me,  Noble  and  Right 
Honourable  Sirs,  that  I  must  so  long  remain  so  heavily 
laden,  that  I  cannot  obtain  my  discharge  and  that  there 
is  such  a  great  delay  in  filling  up  the  vacant  posts.  Those 
who  have  never  been  in  these  parts  cannot  believe  how 
troublesome  and  pressing  my  duties  are ;  I  cannot  enjoy 
the  least  rest,  for  there  is  nothing  of  any  importance  what- 
soever that  has  not  to  go  through  my  hands  or  at  least  to 
be  done  under  my  supervision.  Whatever  I  do  not  do 
myself  I  must  look  over,  and  if  necessary  correct,  where- 
fore it  is  not  surprising  if  I  often  forget  something,  which 
I  hope  and  flatter  myself  YY.  HH.  will  kindly  excuse  and 
not  take  amiss.  I  have  learnt  so  much  in  my  dealings  with 
former  secretaries  that  I  trust  nothing  more  and  desire  to 
see  and  know  everything. 

It  is  not  laziness,  Noble  and  Right  Honble.  Sirs,  that 
moves  me  to  urge  so  repeatedly  and  passivi  for  my  dis- 
charge, for  it  is  in  nowise  my  intention,  when  dismissed,  to 
withdraw  my  services,  if  needed,  from  the  Company  or  to 
lead  an  empty  life.  That  would  be  an  impossibility  for 
me,  and  I  am  so  used  to  being  occupied  that  if  I  am  but 
half  a  day  without  work  (which  seldom  happens)  I  hardly 
know  where  I  am,  and  did  I  not  take  up  a  book  should 
not  know  what  to  do  with  myself 

But  my  duties  are  too  many  for  one  man  to  perform, 
and  of  such  variety  that  extraordinary  care  is  required  to 
prevent  getting  into  confusion.  If  I  had  no  fixed  and 
regular  order  in  my  work,  no  fixed  time  and  hour  for  each 
sort,  and  not  constantly  a  memorandum  at  h^nd  upon 
which  immediately  to  note  everything  that  occurs  to  me 
I  should  never  get  through   it.     This  is  what   the   Com- 


mander^  is  lacking  in,  as  I  have  often  told  him.  With 
less  to  do  he  has  infinitely  more  trouble  to  do  it  than  I.  It 
is  all  very  well  to  be  experienced,  zealous  and  industrious, 
but  where  there  is  no  regular  order  these  qualities  are  of 
little  avail.  He  kills  himself  and  cannot  possibly  go  on  ; 
does  as  much  work  again  as  is  necessary,  as  at  present, 
when  he  is  engaged  in  going  round  the  whole  river 
Demerara  to  collect  the  poll-,  recognition-  and  sale-dues 
in  arrear.  This  is  a  very  tiring  business,  and  unnecessary. 
I  do  not  move  a  step  and  get  it  in  better  than  he  does  ; 
but  to  those  who  do  not  pay  I  send  the  bailiff  at  their 
expense.  This  they  know  and  are  careful.  Had  Rousselet 
done  the  I  often  advised  him,  his  estate  would  not 
be  in  such  confusion.  But  besides  that  he,  and  not  his 
wife,  ought  to  have  been  master,  for  the  poor  man  was 
really  but  a  cipher  in  his  own  house. 

I  have  taken  the  liberty  of  applying  once  more  to  His 
Serene  Highness  for  my  discharge. 

How  is  it  possible.  Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs, 
that  YY.  HH.  could  have  thought  of  putting  away  and  selling 
the  macroon  slaves .-'  YY.  HH.  can  certainly  not  have 
thought  this  matter  over,  for  not  only  would  it  be  very 
hard  to  hand  over  to  other  masters  slaves  who,  now  old 
and  decrepit,  have  worn  out  their  lives  in  the  Company's 
service,  but  be  further  pleased  to  consider,  YY.  HH.,  that 
most,  if  not  all  of  Your  Honours'  slaves,  both  at  the  Fort 
and  on  the  plantations,  have  amongst  those  macroons  their 
fathers,  mothers,  grandfathers  and  grandmothers,  and  that 

^  Jan  Cornells  van  den  Heuvel,  third  Commander  of  Demerara, 
entered  upon  his  duties  Feb.  12,  1766  (P.R.O.  472/202)  and  married 
the  same  year  Maria  Catbarina,  the  Director-General's  elder  daughter 
(see  p.  33)  and  widow  of  L.  L.  van  Bercheyck,  his  predecessor  in 
ofifice  ;  he  obtained  his  discharge,  at  his  own  request,  in  ly/i  (see 
p.  648). 


YY.  HH.  might  certainly  rely  upon  losing  at  least  three- 
fourths  of  Your  Honours'  slaves  by  such  action,  even  if  it 
were  of  no  worse  consequences.  Besides,  who  would  bid  a 
farthing  for  such  slaves  that  are  naught  else  than  a  burden  ? 
Personally,  I  would  not  have  them  as  a  gift,  excepting 
perhaps  about  four,  like  my  old  cook  Claertje,  who  was  the 
first  slave  I  possessed  and  who  is  a  very  good  midwife. 

The  matter  concerning  Tampoko  is  still  very  serious 
and  far  from  clear.  The  Caribs  who  were  with  him,  and 
who  were  examined  by  Mr  van  der  Heyde  and  sent  to  me, 
all  persist  in  saying  exactly  what  they  said  before,  without 
deviating  from  their  words  in  the  least.  The  Aruwaks, 
who  were  really  the  complainants,  and  three  of  whom  (one 
being  a  woman)  came  to  me  whilst  Tampoko  was  still  up 
the  river,  and  whom  I  had  expressly  ordered  to  come  down 
again  when  he  was  here,  have  not  reappeared,  and  though 
they  have  been  told  by  Mr  van  der  Heyde  that  they  must 
absolutely  come  down  to  be  confronted  with  Tampoko, 
they  have  stayed  away. 

The  Carib  Owl  who  rendered  such  great  services  at  the 
time  of  the  rebellion ^  is  one  of  those  who  was  with  Tam- 
poko, and  coming  down  the  river  after  his  death  and 
hearing  of  the  same  he  began  to  weep,  which  I  have  never 
seen  a  Carib  do  yet ;  he  said  Tampoko  was  quite  innocent 
of  the  charge  brought  against  him,  and  he  could  not  under- 
stand why  he  had  hanged  himself  unless  it  was  for  some 
other  reason.  Not  a  single  Acuway  has  appeared  to  make 
any  complaints 

The  nation  of  the  Caribs,  YY.  HH.,  are  looked  upon  as 
nobles  among  the  Indians.  It  is  a  very  good  thing  to  have 
them  as  allies  or  friends,  for  they  render  excellent  services, 
but  they  are  formidable  enemies,  capable  of  more  bravery 

^  See  p.  563.  2  See  p.  585. 


and  resistance  than  one  would  think.  When  their  principal 
or  great  Owls  come  to  me,  they  immediately  take  a  chair 
and  sit  down,  and  will  eat  and  drink  nothing  but  what 
I  have  myself,  and  they  call  me  by  no  other  name  than 
that  of  "  mate  "  or  "  brother."  A  good  way  up  the  river 
there  are  several  villages  of  that  nation  in  which  white 
people  have  never  been  seen.  These  are  well  populated, 
and  the  inhabitants  get  what  they  want  through  those  of 
their  nation  who  deal  with  us.  We  can  rely  upon  them  as 
friends  in  case  of  need.  My  brother-in-law,  van  Ber- 
cheyck,  who  is  not  afraid  of  trifles,  once  visited  a  village 
of  that  kind  up  the  Weyne,  but  he  told  me  that  he  was 
never  so  much  afraid  in  his  life  as  when  he  saw  200  Caribs 
surrounding  him  armed  with  their  bows  and  arrows,  and 
although  it  was  an  extraordinarily  profitable  journey,  and 
he  had  obtained  about  50  hammocks  and  two  slaves,  and 
had  been  invited  by  the  Chief  to  return  in  the  following 
year,  he  declared  to  me  that  he  would  not  undertake  it 
again  for  four  times  as  much. 

Much  trouble  has  been  taken  to  come  to  an  agreement 
with  Mr  Clarke's  delegates^  but  in  vain,  and  according  to 
what  he  wrote  me  I  imagine  that  he  will  be  far  from 
satisfied  with  the  arrangement  proposed.  I  do  not  think, 
however,  he  will  move  any  further  in  the  matter,  but  if  he 
does  it  cannot  be  disadvantageous  to  the  Colony,  and  that 
has  always  been  my  opinion.  That  gentleman  is  gradually 
getting  rid  of  all  his  possessions,  having  now  only  two 
plantations,  "  Het  Loo  "  and  "  De  Vriendschap  "  in  Deme- 
rara,  "  Hampton  Court,"  "The  Golden  Grove,"  "The  Bee- 
hive "  and  "  The  Garden  of  Eden  "  being  already  sold. 

^  Concerning  payment  of  his  claim  for  sending  assistance  at  the 
time  of  the  Berbice  revolt.     Cf.  pp.  43,  44  and  483. 


Never,  Your  Honours,  have  I  had  such  pressure  of 
business  as  now.  On  the  3rd  we  had  the  slave  auction 
and  before  and  after  that  auction  people  coming  in  for 
their  accounts ;  on  the  4th  Capt.  Cotton's  auction,  and 
during  that  sale  my  office  was  as  full  of  people  as  it  could 
hold,  so  that  the  whole  day  long  I  was  making  out  accounts, 
receiving  payment  and  giving  receipts.  It  was  impossible 
to  enter  anything  in  the  books  and  I  had  to  put  everything 
together  in  my  desk  and  stay  away  from  church  next  day 
in  order  to  book  it,  for  several  bills  having  been  drawn  and 
only  the  sums  noted,  without  any  why  or  wherefor,  I  did 
not  trust  my  memory  to  wait  any  longer.  Besides,  on  the 
5th  the  second  instalment  of  the  "Zeeberg"  was  due,  and 
this  too  I  paid  on  that  day. 

On  the  night  between  the  5th  and  6th  of  this  month, 
a  Creole  carpenter  named  Elias  belonging  to  YY.  HH.,  the 
negro  Kleyn  Jan,  my  two  hunters  and  a  female  Creole 
belonging  to  de  Scharde,  ran  away,  for  what  reason  I  can- 
not imagine,  because  the  two  hunters  have  never  suffered 
the  slightest  ill-treatment  and  did  just  what  they  liked, 
whilst  Elias,  having  been  ill,  had  not  worked  for  two  years, 
and  now  that  he  is  better  runs  away.  I  have  sent  informa- 
tion of  this  to  the  Post  at  Maroco  and  have  also  sent 
immediate  warning  to  Mr  van  der  Heyde,  because  I  feel 
certain  that  they  took  the  road  to  Cuyuni  in  order  to 
reach  the  Spanish  Missions  that  way. 

P.R.O.  474/200 

February  21,  1769. 

Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs, 

I  have  just  received  a  report  from  Mr  van  der 

Heyde  that  our  runaways  have  taken  the  road  to  Cuyuni  and 

are  therefore  lost.    The  Caribs  have  reported  to  that  gentle- 


man  that  the  Spaniards  have  established  a  Mission  not  far 
above  the  Post  in  that  river,  and  yet  another  in  a  creek 
a  Httle  higher  up,  flowing  into  the  Cuyuni,  both  of  which 
have  been  strongly  manned  ^ 

It  is  finished  now,  Your  Honours  ;  neither  Postholders 
nor  Posts  are  of  any  use  now.  The  slaves  can  now  proceed 
at  their  ease  to  the  Missions  without  fear  of  being  pursued, 
and  we  shall  in  a  short  time  have  entirely  lost  possession 
of  the  River  Cuyuni. 

Must  we  allow  all  this  to  go  on  before  our  eyes  .-'  The 
natural  result  of  this  must  infallibly  be  that  the  River 
Essequibo  will  gradually  be  ruined  and  abandoned.  If  we 
had  shown  our  teeth  when,  contrary  to  the  law  of  nations, 
they  attacked  and  destroyed  the  Post  in  Cuyuni,  and  when 
we  had  the  power  in  our  hands,  it  would  never  have  gone 
so  far  as  this,  but  all  action  was  then  forbidden  me.  The 
proverb  says,  "  Whoever  turns  himself  into  a  sheep  will  be 
eaten  by  the  wolfl" 

I  have  thought  it  well  to  give  YY.  HH.  notice  in  haste 
of  this  occurrence  so  untoward  for  the  Colony, 

Remaining  with  deep  respect  and  esteem. 

Your  Honours' 

most  humble  and  obedient  servant, 

L.  Storm  van  's  Gravesande. 

P.S. —  I  have  had  to  open  this  again,  because,  just  as 
the  letter  bag  was  being  closed,  I  received  a  report  that 
five  more  slaves  have  run  away.  I  fear  that  this  will  now 
go  on  like  wildfire. 

*  See  note  on  p.  90. 

^  Die  zig  selve  tot  een  schaep  inaekt  word  door  den  wolf  opgegeten 


P.R.O.   474/203 

March  3,  1769. 

To-day,  February  25,  "  De  Laurens  en  Maria"  has  not 
yet  arrived  and  we  are  beginning  to  be  uneasy  about  it, 
but  as  that  vessel  is  an  especially  bad  sailer  hopes  are 
entertained  that  she  will  still  turn  up. 

I  hope  to  utilize  the  time  between  now  and  the  Court 
meeting  in  putting  into  order  whatever  else  there  is  left,  for 
I  flatter  myself  that  my  humble  petition  for  discharge  will 
at  length  have  been  granted  and  that  I  shall  see  my  suc- 
cessor arrive  within  three  or  four  months. 

The  chief  part  of  the  work  is  now  done ;  the  Secretary's 
office  put  in  order,  the  accounts  looked  up  and  everything 
that  concerns  the  two  last  Secretaries  noted.  When  the 
books  and  accounts  demanded  of  Mr  Spoors'  heirs  have 
been  delivered,  the  matters  concerning  Mrs  Rousselet's 
estate  settled  (which  will  possibly  be  done  at  the  April 
meeting),  and  Your  Honours'  commands  communicated  to 
the  burgher-officers  little  or  nothing  more  than  the  usual 
course  of  business  will  be  left  for  my  successor  and  the 
new  secretary  to  do. 

But  YY.  HH.  cannot  imagine  what  trouble  and  worry 
it  has  cost  me  to  bring  matters  so  far ;  it  was  however  all 
cheerfully  done  and  I  was  even  pleased  to  have  an  oppor- 
tunity at  the  end  of  my  service  of  giving  YY.  HH.  proofs  of 
my  attachment  and  fidelity  to  the  Honourable  Company. 

In  my  second  letter  by  the  "  Vrouw  Anna,"  I  had  the 
honour  to  give  YY.  HH.  a  hasty  account  of  the  dangerous 
position  of  the  River  Cuyuni  ;  since  then  1  have  given 
express  commands  that  one  of  the  two  assistants  there 
should  proceed  up  the  river  as  far  as  possible,  or  as  far  as 
he  could  go  without  any  danger ;  that  he  should  make  a 
very  careful  inspection  of  the  situation  of  the  Spanish 
Missions,  and  that  he  should  get  the  Indians  to  procure 


him  an  exact  account  of  their  strength  and  further  par- 
ticulars. If  possible,  he  was  to  bring  down  one  or  more  of 
the  Indians  living  at  those  Missions,  and  I  also  gave  orders 
that  they  should  be  well  on  their  guard  at  the  Post  against 
surprise  parties  (which,  according  to  all  appearances,  will 
very  probably  be  undertaken  before  long),  and  that  they 
were  to  come  and  report  to  me  as  speedily  as  possible. 

The  Creole  Elias  is  one  of  the  four  slaves  belonging  to 
YY.  HH.  who  have  run  away  ;  he  is  acquainted  with  all  the 
roads  there,  because  those  who  are  half-free  have  all  lived 
up^  in  Cuyuni  for  many  years  past. 

At  the  old  Mission,  which  is  situated  about  two  or 
three  hours'  distance  from  the  banks  of  the  Cuyuni,  in  a 
creek  flowing  into  that  river,  there  are  now,  as  far  as  I  am 
aware,  the  following  slaves  belonging  to  the  Honourable 
Company : — 

The  Creole  Ariaen,  carried  off  as  a  prisoner  at  the 
former  raid  upon  the  Post,  a  competent  smith. 

The  Creole  Elias,  a  carpenter. 

The  Creole  Jambi. 

The  red  slaves  Pouw,  Jantje,  and  Coffy, 

and  the  negro,  Kleyn  Jan, 

together  with  a  female  slave  belonging  to  de  Scharde. 

What  slaves  belonging  to  colonists  may  be  there  is  still 
unknown  to  me,  nor  do  I  know  whether  the  three  belonging 
to  Bulskouw  and  the  two  belonging  to  the  widow  Langen- 
berg  who  ran  away  a  few  days  ago  have  gone  in  that 

But  this  is  certain,  that  the  road  for  the  runaways  is 
now  quite  open  and  free,  it  being  impossible  for  the  Post 
in  Cuyuni  to  stop  them,  there  being  a  number  of  inland 
paths  ;  nor  can  we  be  warned  in  any  way  by  Indians,  there 
being  no  more  of  these  in  that  river.     They  did  begin  to 

^  The    original    has    h'neden  =  ''^do\vn,"    but    we    find    that    term 
occasionally  used  in  this  way  as  a  synonym  of  ^oven  =  '^^up." 


settle  there  again  when  the  Post  was  re-established,  but  the 
raid  made  by  the  Spaniards  last  year,  when  a  large  party 
of  Indians  were  captured  and  taken  away,  has  filled  the 
rest  with  terror,  and  they  are  gradually  drawing  off. 

Mr  de  Rapper  was  fortunate  enough  to  capture  a  slave 
belonging  to  Zeagers,  and  two  belonging  to  J.  B.  Struys, 
who  had  deserted  and  fled  up  the  river,  and  whom  he  has 
restored  to  their  masters,  with  the  exception  of  one  belong- 
ing to  Struys,  who  hanged  himself  as  soon  as  he  was 

But  this  occurs  only  once  in  a  thousand  times,  and  was 
only  due,  I  believe,  to  their  ignorance  of  the  road. 

There  is  not  a  single  negro  belonging  to  the  Honour- 
able Company  who  is  not  perfectly  acquainted  with  the 
road,  Your  Honours'  plantation  of  "Duynenburg"  being 
situated  at  the  corner  of  Cuyuni. 

[To  J.  C.  van  den  Heuvel,  Commander  of  Demerara.] 

P.R.O.  474/214 

Zeelandia,  March  10,  1769. 
My  dear  Son, 

I   have   this    moment    received   a   report    from 

Mr  Buisson  that  the  Spaniards  are  carrying  off  the  Indians 

from  Maroco  and  have  made  themselves  masters  of  the 

Post.     What  will  come  of  this }     If  the  ships  are  not  yet 

gone,  inform  Their  Honours  of  this  and  send  them  this 

letter.     Order  the  lighthouse  keeper  and   the  plantations 

below  to   be  on  their   guard  ;    the  plantations  here  have 

already  been  warned  by  Buisson.     I  have  no  direct  report 

yet.     I  shall  send  a  letter  via  Barbadoes  or  Saint  Eustatius 

as  soon  as  I  have  a  direct  report. 

I  remain,  in  haste,  &c., 

Your  affectionate  father, 

L.  Storm  van  's  Gravesande. 


P.R.O.   474/215 

March  15,  1769. 

Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs, 

I  have  written,  by  special  messenger,  to  the 
Commander  in  Demerara,  and  ordered  him  to  warn  his 
lighthouse  service  and  all  the  inhabitants  below  to  be  well 
on  the  look-out,  and  at  the  same  time  that  if,  contrary  to 
expectation,  the  ships  the  "  Vrouw  Anna  "  or  "  Geertruida 
Christiana"  had  not  put  out  to  sea,  to  send  YV.  HH.  my 
letter  to  him,  as  the  time  and  circumstances  permitted  me 
to  write  not  even  to  YY.  HH.,  more  especially  as  the  bad 
news  received  was  transmitted  by  no  other  channel  than 
that  of  a  free  Indian,  from  whom  no  certain  or  sure  infor- 
mation is  obtainable. 

In  my  previous  despatches  I  had  the  honour  from  time 
to  time  to  inform  YY.  HH.  of  the  secret  doings  of  the 
Spaniards  and  especially  in  my  second  letter  by  the 
"  Vrouw  Anna,"  and  in  my  letter  by  the  "  Geertruida 
Christiana,"  I  wrote  circumstantially  concerning  the  fatal 
and,  for  the  Colony,  most  highly  perilous  news  of  the 
River  Cuyuni.  My  opinion  has  always  been  that  they 
would  gradually  acquire  a  foothold  in  Cuyuni,  and  try  to 
obtain  the  mastery  of  the  river,  as  they  now  practically 
have  done  at  the  end  of  the  past  year\ 

^  The  Directors'  reply,  dated  Oct.  g,  lydg,  ran  : — 
"But  we  are  at  the  same  time  of  opinion  that  that  river  is  not  in 
the  slightest  danger,  and  the  river  of  Essequibo  as  little,  through  the 
latest  enterprises  of  the  Spaniards,  which,  in  private  letters  from  a  itw 
individuals  in  the  Colony  to  persons  in  the  Province  of  Holland,  hav-e 
been  discussed  at  great  length  as  of  the  most  dangerous  consequences  : 
and  your  own  letters  of  the  3rd  and  15th  June  say  not  a  single  word 
about  the  Spaniards,  just  as  if  they  had  never  existed. 

"  In  order  nevertheless  to  place  ourselves  beyond  reproach  in  this 
respect,  there  shall  be  sent  by  the  ship  "de  Zwerver,"  skipper  D. 
Plutman,  the  25  recruits  promised  in  our  letter  of  the  24th  July  last,  or 
in  any  case  as  many  fit  persons  as  we  shall  be  able  to  get  ;  and,  to 
remedy  the  complaints  made  in  your  aforesaid  letter  of  the  12th  May 


But  I  should  as  soon  have  expected  heaven  to  fall,  as 
that  they,  in  so  high-handed  a  manner,  openly  (as  if  in 
open  warfare),  in  breach  of  the  law  of  nations,  in  breach 
of  all  Treaties  of  Alliance  with  His  Catholic  Majesty, 
should  attack  us  from  another  side,  and  have  the  audacity 
to  go  to  work  as  if  they  were  Sovereigns  of  this  whole 

On  March  lo  I  received  two  consecutive  letters  from 
Councillor  M.  Buisson,  which  gave  me  information  that  an 
Indian  named  Adahoure,  from  Pomaroon,  had  come  to  his 
house  and  related  to  him  that  the  Spaniards,  with  two 
Capuchin  Fathers,  a  detachment  of  soldiers,  and  a  large 
party  of  armed  Waykiers^  were  capturing  and  taking  away 

about  the  lack  of  sufficient  muskets  in  the  Colony,  you  shall  receive 
200  muskets,  200  cartridge-boxes,  200  cutlasses,  and  further  ammuni- 
tion, &c.,  specified  in  Resolution  inclosed  sub  lit.  C,  to  which  we 
refer,  inasmuch  as  it  states  the  purpose  for  which  we  send  those  arms 
and  ammunition,  and  likewise  instructions  as  to  the  care  which  we 
wish  to  be  taken  thereof;  not  doubting  but  you  will  have  this  duly 

"  But  at  this  opportunity  we  cannot  omit  inquiring  what  becomes 
and  has  become  of  the  muskets,  &c.,  of  all  those  soldiers  who  during 
these  last  few  years  have  deserted,  been  discharged,  or  died  ;  also, 
what  has  become  of  the  50  muskets  and  cutlasses  which  we  sent  you 
in  1762,  and  of  which  you  will  find  mention  in  our  letter  of  the  29th 
November  of  that  year. 

"We  at  least  are  not  aware  that  they  have  ever  been  accounted  for 
to  the  Company,  which,  however,  should  be  done  every  year  ;  for 
which  reason  we  also  trust  that  they  are  still  at  hand. 

"  For  the  rest,  we  shall  try  to  send  later  a  few  more  Protestant 
or  Lutheran  recruits ;  and  other  means  of  help  we  do  not  know,  but, 
to  speak  frankly,  we  can  for  the  present  see  no  such  great  necessity 

1  The  only  hypothetical  identification  to  be  made  in  this  case  is 
with  the  Guaicas  mentioned  in  a  Spanish  document  of  //Jc?  {Bras. 
Arb.  Brit.  Ann.  i.  p.  66),  the  Uaicas  spoken  of  by  Ribeiro  de  Sampaio 
{ib.  i.  p.  132),  the  Oaycas  alluded  to  by  Gama  Lobo  {ib.  i.  p.  192)  and 
the  Uaycas  of  De  Souza  (whose  work,  written  in  1822^  was  published 
in  the  Revista  Trimensal  (Ser.  ii.  torn.  3)  in  1848).  Each  writer 
speaks  of  these  as  dwelling  on  the  R.  Branco  or  its  tributaries,  but 
occasional  migrations  were  not  at  all  rare. 


as  prisoners  all  the  free  Indians  between  Barima  and 
Pomaroon,  and  that  they  had  actually  overpowered  the 
Company's  trading  place  Marocco,  and  that  they  were  now 
there,  but  that  he  had  as  yet  no  further  knowledge  of  the 
circumstances.  On  the  nth  came  the  assistant  from 
Marocco  with  a  letter  from  the  Postholder.  From  his 
written  Report,  copy  whereof  is  here  annexed,  vv.  HH.  will 
perceive  to  what  pitch  the  insolence  of  our  neighbours  goes. 

YY.  HH.  can  now  see  what  consequences  indulgence  and 
patience  have ;  this  causes  me  no  surprise.  I  have  long 
foreseen  and  expected  it :  however,  I  could  not  presume 
that  they  would  have  dared  to  undertake  so  bold  a  deed. 

The  Postholder  has  behaved  himself  very  well ;  he  did 
not  run  away,  though  they  tried  hard  to  make  him  do  so, 
but  remained  firm  at  his  post,  and  asked  for  a  certificate 
from  the  Capuchin  Fathers,  which  they  have  given  him, 
much  to  my  surprise,  as  hereby  all  denials  and  evasions 
were  cut  off 

Copy  of  this  also  goes  annexed  hereto. 

They  have  captured  and  taken  away  all  our  people  that 
were  on  the  sea-coast.  The  salter  of  "  Luyxbergen  "  has 
luckily  escaped  them,  but  his  Indians,  his  vessels,  two  large 
canoes  and  three  single  canoes,  which  he  had  got  by  barter, 
they  have  taken  away.  He  of  "Duynenberg"  returned 
early  in  the  morning. 

The  alarm  in  the  river  is  great.  If  they  come  to 
Pomaroon,  as  they  have  threatened,  they  can  in  three 
hours  reach  Essequibo  overland,  and  can  ruin  our  lower- 
most plantations. 

May  I  ask  once  more  whether  all  this  must  be  borne 
quietly,  and  whether  Your  Honours'  patience  has  not  yet 
come  to  an  end  ?  With  me  it  is  Patientia  lesa  tandem 
furor  fit^. 

^  Furor  Jit  laesa  saepius  patietitia.     Publilius  Syrus,  203. 


What  can  I  do  with  such  a  small  garrison  ?  The 
burghers  are  not  yet  ready  for  service — the  letters  to  the 
burgher  officers  calling  them  together  on  the  last  day  of 
March  have  been  sent  off — the  general  meeting  is  at  hand, 
and  there  is  periculum  in  mora — three  clerks  are  continually 
at  work  writing  commissions,  instructions,  and  orders,  but 
everything  is  so  spread  about  that  it  will  take  twelve  or 
fourteen  days  before  everyone  can  be  warned. 

With  the  exception  of  the  rebellion  of  Berbice  this  is 
one  of  the  most  critical  matters  I  have  been  in  during  my 
long  years  of  service.  Had  I  the  power  and  were  my 
hands  free  I  should  not  feel  embarrassed,  and  would  be 
quite  willing  to  risk  my  grey  head  in  the  affair. 

With  this  same  opportunity  I  have  the  honour  to  send 
His  Highness  a  circumstantial  report,  and  will  send  copies 
by  way  of  Surinam  or  Saint  Eustatius\  This  I  hope  to  be 
able  to  dispatch  over  Barbadoes. 

^  Upon  receipt  thereof  the  Prince  wrote  as  follows  : — 

To  the  Representative  and  Directors  of  the  Chartered  West  India 
Company,  in  the  Presidial  Chamber,  Zeeland. 

Honourable  Sirs, 

We  have  duly  received  your  missive  of  the  26th  of  last 
month,  whereby  you  transmitted  a  letter  addressed  to  Us  by  the 
Director-General  in  Essequibo,  Mr  L.  Storm  van  's  Gravesande, 
concerning  certain  enterprises  of  the  Spaniards  from  Orinoco  against 
two  of  the  Company's  Posts  in  the  aforesaid  Colony.... 

From  the  letter  of  the  aforesaid  Director-General  We  have  learned 
with  much  regret  the  danger  to  which  the  Colony  of  Essequibo  is 
exposed,  with  its  slender  means  of  defence,  through  the  hostilities  of 
the  Spaniards  ;  and  as  We  judge  the  preservation  of  the  American 
possessions  in  general,  and  that  of  the  Colony  aforesaid  in  particular, 
of  the  most  extreme  moment  for  the  Republic,  We  therefore  fully 
approve  your  praiseworthy  intention  of  addressing  yourselves  re- 
garding this  matter  to  Their  High  Mightinesses,  and  of  making  to 
that  high  authority  such  request  and  urgent  appeal  as  is  indicated  in 
your  letter  ;  and  it  is  Our  opinion  that  this  should  be  done,  the 
earlier  the  better,  and  without  loss  of  time... and  We  will  further  not 


My  express,  has  just  come  back  from  Demerary.  The 
Commander  informs  me  that  Captain  VV.  Dryber  had 
closed  his  letter-bag  and  set  sail  four  hours  ago ;  that  he 
had  immediately  followed  him  and  overtaken  him  at 
Looft's  place,  and  that  he  had  written  YY.  HH.  and  had 
sent  my  letter,  for  which  he  has  taken  a  receipt  from  the 
aforesaid  Captain,  so  that  I  hope  YY.  HH.  will  already  have 
had  a  general  report  before  the  receipt  of  this. 

I  have  at  present  not  a  moment's  rest,  what  with  the 
colonists,  the  letters,  and  the  Indians,  and  in  addition  to 
this,  all  the  accounts  which  have  to  be  made  up  by  the  3rd 
of  April.  Your  Honours,  I  do  not  know  how  to  get 
through  it  all. 

I  hope  and  do  not  doubt  that  YY.  HH.  will  use  every 
effort  with  Their  High  Mightinesses  to  bring  about  the 
lasting  preservation  of  Your  Honours'  territory  and  juris- 

When  ready  to  conclude  this  [letter],  the  Assistant 
Postholder,  Schreuder,  arrived  from  the  Post  Arinda  up 
the  Essequibo,  bringing  with  him  the  Common  Chief  or 
Great  Owl  of  the  Caribs  up  in  Essequibo,  and  reporting  to 
me  that  the  Spaniards  of  Oronoque  have  sent  the  Chief  of 
the  Cerekons^  (a  tribe  dwelling  in  Oronoque),  named  Mari- 
purma,  with  his  people,  in  order  to  rob  or  slay  the  Caribs  ; 
that  they  had   met   the   Postholder  Jansse   in   Rupununy 

omit  efficaciously  to  second  with  Our  favourable  support  your  request 
and  urgent  appeal  before  Their  High  Mightinesses. 

Wherewith  We  commend  you  to  God's  Holy  keeping. 

Your  well-wishing  friend, 

W.,  Prince  of  Orange. 
Soestdijk,  July  7,  1769. 

*  This  is  the  only  reference  made  by  Storm  to  this  tribe.  They 
may  have  been  the  "  Semicorals,"  alluded  to  by  John  Scott  (see  p.  176) 
just  a  century  earlier,  clearly  the  "  Serekongs,"  mentioned  by  Richard 
Schomburgk  as  inhabiting  the  sources  of  the  Massaruni  in  1842 
{Reisen  in  Britisch  Guiana^  ii.  pp.  237  and  253). 

V.  S.    II.  39 


returning  from  the  Crystal  Mountain,  and  had  slain  him 
with  all  the  Caribs  which  were  with  him,  so  that  we  are 
now  embarrassed  on  all  sides. 

The  Chief  of  the  Caribs  has  come  to  request  from  me 
permission  to  attack  and  capture  this  Maripurma,  not 
having  dared  to  do  this  because  he  is  below  the  Post  near 
the  Acuways,  whom  he  is  also  annoying  and  molesting 
very  much. 

I  have  answered  him  he  may  freely  do  so,  because  a 
murderer  ought  to  be  followed  up  anywhere,  on  the  express 
condition  that  he  is  not  to  do  the  least  harm  to  the 
Acuways,  which  he  promised,  saying  he  was  assured  the 
Acuways  would  rather  help  than  hinder  him. 

The  barque  to  Barbadoes  being  on  the  point  of  sailing, 
and  being  obliged  to  send  a  copy  of  this  as  well  as  of  the 
letter  to  His  Highness  to  Demerary  to-morrow,  where  a 
boat  is  lying  ready  to  go  to  Surinam,  I  am  obliged  to  close 
with  expressions  of  respect,  &c. 

L.  Storm  van  's  Gravesande. 

P.R.O.  474/222 

April  4,  1769. 


March  16. — The  chief  of  the  Caribs,  who  is  now  here, 
goes  up  the  river  to-day.  He  has  promised  me  to  attack 
the  murderers  of  the  Postholder,  and  to  hold  all  his  people 
in  readiness  in  case  we  might  have  need  of  them.  Com- 
mandant Backer  told  him  this  morning  that  he  would  like 
to  come  up  the  river,  and  asked  him  whether  he  would 
then  let  him  be  master.  He  answered,  "  No,  I  am  master 
of  the  Caribs.  You  can  be  master  of  the  whites  and  of  the 
other  nations,  and  then  we  can  together  become  masters  of 
everything."     I  let  him  see  one  of  the  silver  ring-collars 


which  I  still  have,  and  promised  to  give  it  to  him,  and  to 
give  him  some  clothes  (of  which  they  are  very  fond)  if  he 
behaved  well. 

But,  YY.  HH.,  allow  me  to  ask  what  is  now  to  be  done 
to  get  food  for  Your  Honours'  slaves  ?  The  salting  is  now 
entirely  stopped,  not  alone  in  the  mouth  of  the  Orinocque, 
where  we  had  carried  on  the  fishery  from  time  immemorial, 
but  there  are  neither  canoes  nor  corrials  to  be  got  for  the 
plantations  or  the  Fort  along  the  whole  of  the  sea-coast 
and  we  are  shut  in  on  all  sides.  I  must  now,  nolens  volens 
buy  from  the  English,  or  allow  Your  Honours'  slaves  to  go 
without  rations,  and  what  the  results  of  that  would  be  YY. 
HH.  can  easily  imagine ;  and  if  I  buy  I  shall  have  to  draw 
upon  YY.  HH.  I  already  owe  the  North  Americans  more 
than  a  thousand  guilders,  and  have  made  this  a  charge 
upon  the  product  of  the  sales,  having,  so  to  say,  got  in  little 
or  none  of  the  cash.  YY.  HH.  are  quite  right  in  recom- 
mending me  to  be  economical  and  to  draw  little  or  nothing; 
but  to  allow  the  slaves  to  suffer  want  would  be  a  very 
wrong  kind  of  economy,  and  have  ruinous  results.  There 
being  nothing  on  the  plantations  and  the  out-runners 
having  come  back  empty-handed  after  exposing  themselves 
to  the  greatest  danger  and  losing  their  men  and  boats,  I 
must  to-day  send  for  cod  from  Barbados,  since  I  hear  that 
they  are  still  at  a  moderate  price.  There  is  no  more  flour 
in  the  factory,  the  last  having  been  distributed  on  the  i8th 
of  March,  and  there  is  still  enough  meat  for  three  distribu- 
tions. How  matters  stand  in  Demerary  I  hope  to  hear 
this  week  from  the  Commander,  who  has  written  me  that 
he  is  coming  up.  I  have  just  written  to  him  by  Mr  Grant 
to  buy  six  or  eight  casks  of  flour  for  the  factory  at  the  sale 
which  is  to  be  held  in  Demerary  on  the  21st, 



P.R.O.  474/229 

Demerara,  May  12,  1769. 

What  a  pity  it  would  be  if  such  a  flourishing  Colony 
(such  as  this  is  now  growing)  were  to  be  ruined  by  rogues 
and  pirates,  as  must  inevitably  be  the  case  if  no  powerful 
measures  are  adopted  to  resist  the  pirates  from  Orinoco 
and  make  them  abandon  their  expeditions ! 

According  to  the  last  reports  from  the  Postholder  and 
from  the  Caribs,  they  are  still  all  in  Barima,  having  sent 
their  prisoners  to  Orinocque,  and  they  threaten  to  come 
again  at  an  early  date,  and  not  only  carry  off  all  the 
Indians  from  Pomeroon,  but  even  attack  and  plunder  our 

It  is  not  enough  for  them  to  protect  our  runaway  slaves 
and  to  refuse  to  give  them  up,  but  they  arm  these  very 
slaves  and  use  them  to  attack  and  plunder  us,  for  it  is 
known  with  certainty,  YY.  HH.,  that  the  runaway  slaves 
from  "  Aegtekerke  "  were  with  them,  and  that  it  was  they 
who  most  urged  them  on. 

Yesterday  evening  I  received  a  despatch  from  Richter, 
the  manager,  informing  me  that  an  Owl  with  twelve  Caribs 
had  come  to  the  Fort  from  Barima,  and  that  he  had 
considered  it  best  to  send  him  immediately  to  me,  so  that 
I  might  hear  his  report  myself. 

The  said  Owl  being  narrowly  examined  by  me,  through 
the  medium  of  a  very  good  interpreter,  told  me  that  the 
Spaniards  in  Barima,  having  been  reinforced  by  another 
vessel,  had  at  last  attacked  the  Caribs  themselves,  captured 
several  of  the  same,  carried  them  off,  burnt  their  houses  and 
ruined  their  plantations  ;  that  they  continued  to  make  raids 
all  around  and  along  the  sea-coast,  and  that  they  were 
making  preparations  to  come  to  Pomeroon,  and  that  they 
said  that  when  they  had  finished  there  they  would  come  to 


Essequibo  and  attack  the  plantations  and  even  the  Fort 

I  regard  the  latter  as  a  vain  Spanish  boast,  but  they 
are  quite  capable  of  doing  all  the  rest. 

Things  have  now  actually  reached  such  a  stage  that  we 
can  return  violence  with  violence,  but  is  it  not  a  sad  thing, 
YY.  HH.,  that  we  have  such  a  weak  garrison  and  not  six 
men  among  them  upon  whom  we  can  place  the  least 
reliance?  To  send  a  small  detachment  of  twelve  or  six- 
teen men  down  would  really  be  to  risqiier  le  tojit  pojir  le 
tout,  for  if  they  were  all  disloyal,  as  is  only  to  be  expected 
from  Frenchmen  and  Catholics,  and  went  over  to  the 
Spaniards,  all  would  be  lost,  because  not  the  least  reliance 
is  to  be  placed  upon  the  citizens. 

So  that,  since  the  outlook  is  daily  becoming  blacker 
for  the  Colony,  it  is  high  time  to  make  some  provision, 
and  as  there  is  great  danger  of  total  ruin  it  is  highly 
necessary  that  powerful  and  speedy  measures  should  be 
adopted  to  prevent  the  same. 

I  asked  the  Carib  Owl  this  morning  whether  the  Caribs 
were  no  longer  men,  and  whether  they  had  no  hands  with 
which  to  defend  themselves,  whereupon  he  replied, "  Indeed, 
they  have  ;  but  the  Spaniards  have  guns,  and  we  only 
bows  and  arrows.  Give  us  muskets,  powder,  and  shot,  and 
we  will  show  you  what  we  are."  Even  had  I  been  inclined 
I  could  not  have  done  so,  having  no  further  supply  of  these 
than  just  sufficient  for  the  garrison \ 

The  Postholder  of  Arinda,  Jansse,  who,  according  to 
report,  had  been  killed,  has  fortunately  escaped,  and  has 
arrived  at  the  Fort. 

He  is  the  first  of  the  Postholders  who  has  carried  out 
my  orders  and  been  to  the  Crystal  Mine  up  in  Ripenowini. 

^  See  Directors'  reply  Oct.  p,  iy6g  (pp.  605,  606). 


The  assistant  Bont  writes  me  that  he  has  brought  some 
large  pieces  of  crystal  with  him  ;  that  he  has  told  him  that 
he  has  been  to  the  place  where  the  Brazilian  diamonds  are 
found ;  that  the  Indians  would  on  no  account  allow  him  to 
dig  or  to  search  there,  and  that  the  place  is  close  to  the 
Crystal  Mine.  This  corresponds  with  what  was  told  me  by 
Mr  del  Torres  de  Bandeyra,  the  second  person  in  Brazil, 
who  some  years  ago  stayed  in  Essequibo  at  my  house  about 
three  weeks  ;  who,  being  introduced  by  me  to  Mr  Clarke, 
departed  by  his  aid  to  England  and  thence  to  Lisbon, 
whence  I  received  a  letter  of  thanks  from  him,  mentioning 
also  that  having  settled  his  affairs  satisfactorily,  he  was 
about  to  depart  for  Brazil  in  his  previous  capacity^ 

This  gentleman  told  me  that  there  was  not  a  single 
Portuguese  who  knew  where  the  diamond  mine  was ;  that 
it  having  been  their  intention  to  send  out  one  of  their 
viceroys  to  discover  the  same,  the  Indians  had  threatened 
that  if  a  Portuguese  went  in  that  direction  the  whole 
nation  would  immediately  break  up  and  "  trek "  further 
inland,  by  which  they  would  lose  the  whole  of  this  advan- 
tage, &c.  Whereupon  the  expedition  was  not  only  aban- 
doned, but  exploration  was  strictly  forbidden. 

I  have  written  to  Essequibo  and  charged  the  Post- 
holder  to  come  to  me  here  in  Demerary  as  soon  as  he  had 
rested  a  bit,  in  order  that  I  may  examine  him  narrowly 
concerning  this  discovery,  this  being  a  matter  of  great 
importance  which  ought  not  to  be  overlooked. 

By  this  we  have  unexpectedly  and  undesignedly  become 
acquainted  with  a  place  of  which  the  possessors  of  those 
precious  stones  have  hitherto  had  no  knowledge  them- 

I  shall  postpone  my  further  remarks  concerning  this 
until  I  have  spoken  to  and  examined  the  Postholder. 

^  Cf.  pp.  414  and  464. 


The  infirmity  from  which  I  have  been  suffering  since 
January  3  has  not  yet  left  me  and  I  find  myself  getting 
weaker  daily,  so  that  work  is  a  burden  and  trouble  to  me, 
for  I  can  only  turn  to  it  at  intervals.  It  is  therefore  getting 
high  time  for  me  to  be  released  from  it  all,  else  I  fear,  not 
without  good  reason,  that  I  shall,  nolens  volens,  have  to  give 
it  up  altogether,  for  ad  ivipossibile  nemo  tenetur. 

Yesterday  I  received  a  letter  per  express  from  Com- 
mandant Backer,  which  I  take  the  liberty  of  inclosing. 

In  this  YV.  HH.  will  find  the  report  from  Mr  van  der 
Heyde  concerning  Cuyuni.  If  the  news  be  true  (which  I 
can  scarcely  believe)  then  things  are  going  badly,  and  there 
remains  no  other  alternative  but  to  adopt  measures  of 
violence  or  reprisal.  The  depredations  of  the  Spanish  from 
Barima  to  Pomeroon  continuing  daily  we  must  acknow- 
ledge that  they  are  capable  of  anything  and  that  we  must 
expect  all  kinds  of  violent  and  piratical  acts  from  them. 
The  poor  colonists  on  the  west  coast  below  Essequibo  are  in 
a  terrible  state  of  alarm  and  are  on  the  look-out  night  and 
day.  If  the  regulations  were  strictly  and  literally  observed 
there  would  not  be  such  great  fear  of  those  pirates  in  the 
river,  but  everything  is  done  in  such  a  slow  and  lazy 
manner  that  I  really  lose  all  patience.  Here  is  a  matter  in 
which  they  are  threatened  with  total  ruin  ;  one  would  think 
that  ought  to  wake  them  up. 

I  have  written  to  the  Commandant  to  have  recourse  to 
every  possible  aid  in  investigating  this  ;  and  as  soon  as  I 
have  trustworthy  information  about  it  I  shall  (please  God!) 
have  the  honour  to  report  to  YY.  HH.  as  speedily  as  possible 
by  the  first  opportunity  that  presents  itself,  whether  via 
Barbadoes,  St  Eustace,  &c. 


P.R.O.   474/241 

June  3,  1769. 

There  has  not  been  a  single  Postholder  at  Arinda  who 
has  not  been  ordered  by  me  to  go  to  the  Cr}'stal  Mine 
(here  called  the  Calikko  Mountain)  and  to  find  out  all 
particulars  concerning  it.  Not  one  of  them  has  done  so, 
they  having  always  put  forth  various  pretexts — at  one  time 
that  there  was  high  water,  at  another  that  the  natives  were 
at  war,  and  at  yet  another  something  else,  but  the  true 
cause  was  their  ungrounded  fear  of  the  savage  tribes  living 
in  those  parts. 

Jansse  having  also  received  this  order  in  his  instructions 
commenced  his  journey  as  soon  as  the  water  up  in  the  river 
had  come  to  a  standstill  and  proceeded  up  the  River 
Ripenowini,  accompanied  by  a  good  interpreter,  who  under- 
stood the  language  of  the  Macoussis  well. 

It  took  him  quite  two  months  to  get  there^.     YY.  HH. 

1  The  course  of  Jansse's  journey  is  indicated  on  map  No.  5  in  the 
Atlas  to  the  British  Case  in  the  Arbitration  with  Brazil:  it  is  also 
discussed  in  the  text  of  that  Case  (p.  35).  He  clearly  took  the  route 
followed  by  Dutch  traders  ever  since  the  early  years  of  the  century 
and  notably  by  Horstman  (see  pp.  167-174).  The  path  has  often 
since  been  followed  by  British  explorers  and  officials  and  we  can 
easily  go  with  him  in  imagination  from  the  post  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Rupununi,  up  that  river  in  low  water,  over  sandbanks  and  other 
obstacles,  till  he  reached  the  savannahs  near  Pirara:  here  he  would 
meet  the  Macusis  who  still  live  on  the  upper  Rupununi  and  Takutu, 
and  very  quickly  get  into  relation  with  their  neighbours  the  Wapisanas 
who  lived  and  still  live  immediately  West  and  South  of  the  Macusis. 
The  Mahu  on  both  sides  of  which  they  are  said  to  live  is  that  part  of 
the  Takutu  beyond  its  junction  with  the  Ireng  or  Mahu  proper:  up  to 
Schomburgk's  time  that  reach  was  usually  confused  with  the  Mahu, 
and  is  said  to  look  more  like  a  continuation  of  it :  as  to  its  connexion 
with  the  southern  rivers  the  information  given  to  Storm  was  quite 
accurate.  Clearly  the  rocks  and  cliffs  to  which  the  Wapisanas  retired 
were  then,  as  now,  the  Canaku  mountains.  See  also  observations  on 
p.  79  and  the  route  marked  in  colour  on  our  Map. 


must  not  believe  that  the  journey  is  such  a  long  one,  but 
when  with  Indians  the  longest  day's  journey  is  four  [Dutch] 
miles,  and  then  every  three  or  four  days  they  have  a  rest 
day,  and  at  every  tribe  one  comes  to  one  is  obliged  to  stop 
for  a  few  days.  A  drought  of  six  months  has  made  the 
waters  fall  so  low  up  there  that  in  many  places  he  could 
not  get  his  boat  along,  but  had  to  drag  it. 

On  arriving  at  the  Macoussis  he  hired  an  interpreter  who 
spoke  the  language  of  the  Wapissannes,  which  tribe  lives 
near  the  Crystal  Mine  on  both  sides  of  the  River  Maho.  It 
is  the  same  tribe  which  a  few  years  ago  (fifteen  or  sixteen 
years  if  I  remember  rightly)  killed  Louis  Marcan,  with  two 
other  whitest  I  had  prophesied  this  to  him  before  his 
departure,  that  Frenchman  being  much  too  hasty  and 
excitable  to  be  able  to  deal  with  wild  Indians. 

The  river,  called  the  Maho  on  d'Anville's  Map,  is 
called  Mejou  here  by  the  Indians.  There  is  one  of  the 
same  name  up  in  Cuyuni ;  whether  it  is  the  same  river  or 
another  I  do  not  know-.  It  flows  into  the  Rio  Branco,  the 
latter  into  the  Rio  Negro,  which  again  has  communication 
with  the  Amazon  and  Orinoco.  According  to  the  old 
descriptions  and  traditions,  the  Maho  must  have  its  source 
in  the  famous  Lake  of  Parima,  if  such  a  lake  exists.  The 
river  being  quite  as  broad  and  deep  as  Demerary,  according 
to  the  description  of  the  Postholder,  it  is  not  easy  to 
understand  whence  it  gets  its  waters,  since  it  cannot  extend 
very  far  inland,  because  the  Rio  Negro  cuts  through  the 
whole  country  from  the  Amazon  to  the  Orinoco. 

The  Postholder  coming  to  the  Wapissannes,  who  had 
not  seen  a  white  man  since  the  affair  with  Marcan,  and  who 
were   thus   in   want   of  all  European  things,  was  received 

1  This  was  in  ly^j  ;  see  p.  302. 

'^  For  the  identity  of  the  "Mejou"  in  Cuyuni  see  notes  on  pp.  90 
and  307.  The  one  visited  by  Jansse  is  mentioned  by  Storm  in  1^64 
(see  p.  462). 


exceptionally  well,  and  coming  to  their  Chief  and  seeing 
about  ten  muskets  there,  but  no  powder  or  shot,  he  pre- 
sented him  with  a  bottle  of  powder  and  some  small  shot, 
by  which  he  at  once  gained  his  entire  friendship. 

This  tribe  lives  in  the  savannahs  by  day,  but  at  night 
they  retire  to  inaccessible  rocks  and  cliffs,  where  they  have 
their  houses  and  caves,  all  the  approaches  to  which,  however 
steep,  are  still  defended  by  palisades  through  fear  of  the 
powerful  tribe  of  the  Manoas  or  Magnauws,  with  whom 
they  are  always  at  war. 

He  also  found  there  the  tribe  of  the  Parhavianes  who 
were  still  living  up  in  Essequibo  in  my  time,  and  who, 
being  too  greatly  molested  by  the  Caribs,  removed  thither. 

This  place  being  his  destination  he  stopped  there  for  a 
few  weeks  and  carefully  investigated  everything.  When  he 
wished  to  dig  up  the  crystal  which  grows  there  in  many 
places  in  a  red  dry  soil,  the  natives  would  not  allow  him  to 
do  so,  saying  that  they  would  give  him  crystal  enough  ;  he 
did  bring  some  with  him,  but  only  small  pieces,  with  the 
exception  of  one  as  large  as  half  a  fist. 

They  said  to  him,  "  You  are  looking  for  something  else 
than  crystal,  but  that  you  will  not  find  here,  but  with  our 
neighbours  across  the  Maho,  who  sell  those  stones  to  the 
Portuguese."  He  replied,  "  I  will  willingly  pay  for  them, 
too  ;  I  want  nothing  for  nothing,  and  shall  go  there."  This 
they  prevented  him  from  doing,  saying,  "  They  are  a 
wicked  tribe,  they  will  kill  you  ;  but  we  will  manage  to  get 
some  of  those  stones  for  you." 

The  Postholder  thinks  with  me  that  this  opposition 
only  springs  from  trade  jealousy,  they  being  afraid  that 
they  would  lose  that  trade  and  that  it  would  all  go  to  their 
neighbours,  or  that  they  only  pretended  it  was  so,  and  that 
they  knew  the  mines  themselves,  especially  since  they 
strictly  forbade  him  to  search  or  to  dig  ;  there  was  nothing 
to  be  done  here  by  force,  so  that  he  was  obliged  to  be 


satisfied  with  noting  everything  narrowly  and  with  wander- 
ing about  the  place,  which  they  allowed  him  to  do,  but 
always  with  a  few  young  Wapissannes  by  his  side.  The 
land  there  consists  mostly  of  high  mountains  and  rocks, 
bare,  but  wooded  here  and  there  with  small  shrubs,  and 
great  savannahs. 

In  those  savannahs  he  saw  large  tracts,  quite  bare, 
without  the  least  bit  of  grass,  upon  which  tracts  there  lay 
every  morning  in  the  dry  season  (as  it  was  when  he  was 
there)  something  white,  like  a  hoar-frost  or  snow  ;  this  the 
Indians  gathered  in  the  morning,  mixed  with  water  and 
strained,  getting  from  it  by  subsequent  evaporation  a  fine 
white  salt  which  they  used  themselves  and  bartered  with 
their  neighbours.  This  is  undoubtedly  the  pure,  natural 
nitrum  or  saltpetre^ 

He  went  a  little  lower  into  great  woods  of  cinnamon 
trees,  some  of  the  bark  of  which  he  brought  with  him,  but 
it  was  taken  from  old  trees  and  the  inner  and  outer  bark 
being  all  in  one  was  sharp  and  unpleasant.  A  single  piece, 
taken  from  a  young  tree,  although  of  both  barks,  was  as 
good  in  smell  and  flavour  as  any  from  Ceylon  and  much 
better  than  that  we  generally  get  here. 

This  having  been  only  an  attempt  and  the  way  being 
now  opened,  because  he  may  now  come  there  welcome  and 
free,  which  is  a  good  beginning,  I  have  given  him  full  and 
circumstantial  written  instructions,  and  also  verbal  ones  as 
far  as  possible  : 

1°.     How  the  emeralds  were  found  in  the  Crystal  Mines 

1  In  i8g3  Mr  C.  A.  Lloyd  collected  some  of  the  soil  from  the 
depressions  in  the  Pirara  savannah  ;  it  is  a  black  sandy  humus  of 
a  saltish  taste  with  small  visible  crystals.  Professor  J.  B.  Harrison, 
who  analysed  a  sample  of  the  earth,  states  that  it  contains  chlorides 
of  sodium  and  magnesium  and  sulphates  of  calcium  and  magnesium 
and  is  similar  in  respect  to  its  salts  to  the  subsoils  near  the  coast. 
{Timehri,  June^  i8gj.) 


up  in  Orinoco  according  to  the  unanimous  testimony  of  the 
Spaniards  and  the  writers  on  precious  stones. 

2°.  The  rough  appearance,  weight,  and  characteristics 
of  diamonds  as  they  were  explained  to  me  in  the  year  1750 
by  Mr  Blank  in  Amsterdam  upon  the  order  of  His  late 
Serene  Highness  of  glorious  memory. 

3°.  An  order  to  bring  away  stones  in  which  there 
appeared  to  be  minerals,  because  although  I  am  aware  that 
few  gold  mines  are  exploited  with  any  profit  it  is  still 
certain  that  there  are  veins  of  gold  in  the  mountains,  and 
that  gold  is  found  in  dust  and  in  grains  in  the  creeks  and 
water-falls  that  run  down  from  them,  and  that  it  is  easily 
collected,  though  this  is  not  so  with  silver  mines.  Besides 
this,  I  have  seen  some  collars  of  the  Indian  Owls  which 
make  me  believe  that  platina  or  white  gold  is  found  in 
those  regions. 

4°-  To  collect  the  second  bark  of  cinnamon  trees  three 
or  four  years  old  when  they  are  in  full  sap,  and  how  to  dry 
them,  &c. 

5°.  To  bring  some  fresh  Acuway  nuts,  with  all  their 

6°.     To  bring  a  sample  of  the  Indian  salt. 

And,  further,  a  few  instructions  how  to  behave,  and  to 
try  and  obtain,  in  a  friendly  manner,  permission  from  the 
Wapissannes  to  cross  the  Maho,  and  go  to  the  neighbouring 

He  has  again  departed  from  here,  and  as  soon  as  the 
water,  which  on  account  of  the  continual  rains  is  extra  high, 
begins  to  fall  a  little,  he  will  again  go  up  the  river  and 
immediately  recommence  his  journey  up  the  Ripenowini. 
I  hope  from  the  bottom  of  my  heart  that  this  may  be 
successful  and  of  great  profit  to  the  Honourable  Company. 

I  have  promised  him  that  if  he  happens  to  make 
discoveries  of  any  importance,  he  will  be  generously  re- 
warded by  YY.  HH. 


To-day  (May  13)  it  is  exactly  thirty-one  years  since  I 
arrived  in  this  Colony  and  next  October  (if  I  live)  it  will 
be  thirty-two  years  since  I  had  the  honour  of  taking  the 
oath  as  Secretary  in  Your  Honours'  Assembly — a  very  long 
time  when  looking  forward,  but  like  a  dream  when  past. 
I  take  the  liberty  of  submitting  to  Your  Honours'  con- 
sideration and  judgment  whether  the  time  has  not  yet  come 
for  me  to  enjoy  a  little  rest. 

The  Houbabboe  Company  being  now  engaged  in 
regulating  and  putting  all  into  order  will  apply  to  the 
Court  of  Policy  at  its  next  meeting.  They  have  compiled 
a  chart  of  Houbabboe  Creek  which  I  saw  this  morning ; 
from  this  I  perceive  that  if  the  undertaking  succeeds,  all  the 
plantations  lying  below  that  creek  and  all  those  on  the  sea- 
coast  will  have  their  value  raised  by  fully  a  half 

P.R.O.  474/245 

June  15,  1769. 

The  planters  do  not  provide  artizan  slaves ^  and  those  of 
the  Honble.  Co.  are  so  few  in  number  and  so  advanced  in  age 
that  they  are  unable  to  perform  half  the  work  required  to 
be  done  on  Flag  Island. 

When  I  undertook  Fort  Zeelandia  things  were  quite 
different.  There  were  then  fully  over  twenty  artizan  slaves, 
including  the  Creoles,  and  four  slaves  from  each  of  the  four 
sugar  plantations  always  at  the  Fort  ;  with  these  something 
could  be  done. 

When  it  pleased  YY.  HH.  to  make  that  great  reduction- 
and  to  give  up  the  brick-works  (upon  whose  advice  I  do 

1  For  works  undertaken  by  the  administration. 

2  In  1731.     See  pp.  37,  410  and  412. 


not  know  or  at  least  am  not  sure)  YY.  HH.  no  doubt  thought 
it  would  be  a  great  advantage  to  the  Company.  The 
contrary  becomes  daily  more  perceptible  and  I  should  not 
like  to  go  into  figures  to  prove  what  loss  the  Company  has 
suffered  by  it,  for  it  would  surprise  one,  but  I  defy  anyone 
to  show  that  it  has  profited  the  Company  twenty-five 
guilders.  Not  half  a  hogshead  more  of  sugar  has  been 
produced  and  what  loss  the  lack  of  bricks  has  caused  may 
easily  be  imagined — "  Luyxbergen "  alone  has  suffered 

P.R.O.  474/248 

July  31,  1769. 

Having  written  thus  far  the  letter-bag  of  "  De  Vliegende 
Visch "  was  brought  me  from  Demerara  and  therein  I 
found  three  of  Your  Honours'  esteemed  letters,  all  of 
May  I.  I  am  neither  strong  enough  nor  able  to  answer 
them  circumstantially  and  shall  only  reply,  if  I  possibly 
can,  to  a  few  points  contained  therein. 

I  have  long  feared  and  foreseen  that  I  should  finally 
succumb  under  my  burden,  wherefore  in  all  my  letters  to 
YY.  HH.  I  begged  passim  for  the  favour  of  my  discharge, 
for  it  is  impossible  for  one  person  to  do  alone  what  I  am 
obliged  to  do.  Although  acting  ad  interim  as  sales-master 
brings  me  in  a  fair  amount  and  it  is  generally  held  that 
money  sweetens  labour  this  is  not  so  with  me.  Never 
having  been  mercenary,  and  satisfied  with  my  daily  bread 
(for  which  alone  we  pray)  that  brings  me  no  relief. 

Moreover,  YY.  HH.  would  not  believe  what  trouble  I 
have  and  what  work  it  gives  me  to  collect  the  sales  monies. 
When  "  De  Gertruyda  Christina  "  sailed  I  had  not  received 
half  and  when  I  paid  Mr  Boter  the  last  instalment  of  "  De 
Digna  Johanna"   I   showed   him   that    I   had   still   twenty 


thousand  guilders  due  to  me.  Most  of  it  has  come  in,  it  is 
true,  but  when  pay-day  arrives  the  sales-master  is  in  great 
difficulties.  I  am  still  six  or  seven  thousand  guilders  short 
for  the  vessel  taking  this  letter  ;  for  "  Zeeburg,"  whose  last 
instalment  I  paid  when  due,  I  have  eight  thousand  guilders 
owing  to  me  in  Demerara  alone,  without  reckoning  Esse- 
quibo  and  all  the  smaller  sales.  All  this,  added  to  the 
number  of  protested  bills\  makes  my  head  swim,  especially 
as  I  have  no  capital  in  Europe,  and  had  I  not  been  careful 
to  abstain  from  buying  in  the  first  three  slave-sales  in  order 
to  have  my  salary  in  hand  I  could  never  have  managed. 
So  I  shall  be  glad  when  I  am  relieved  of  this  and  of  all 

Then  again  Your  Honours'  displeasure  if  I  stay  in 
Demerara  but  a  fortnight  longer  is  very  hard  for  me,  as 
I  feel  very  much  better  and  am  much  better  cared  for 
there  than  here ;  but  that  is  also  past,  and  I  hope  I  shall 
soon  be  free  at  last.  Possibly  I  shall  get  my  discharge 
from  the  Almighty  before  that  from  YY.  HH.,  and  from 
that  there  is  no  appeal.  I  do  not  deceive  myself;  I  am 
daily  getting  weaker  and  more  despondent,  especially  at 
finding  I  cannot  do  my  work  as  usual  and  that  everything 
o-ives  me  double  trouble. 

P.R.O.  474/264 

September  23,  1769, 

Prevented  by  indisposition,  I  was  not  present  at  the 
sale^,  but  heard  from  those  who  were  that  Mrs  Rousselet 
expressed    herself    in    very    bold    and    impertinent    terms, 

^  Largely  in  payment  of  smuggled  slaves  ;  cf.  pp.  299,  300,  642, 
652,  653  and  662. 

2  Of  part  of  the  estate  belonging  to  Nicolas  Rousselet  de  la  Jarie, 
the  late  Secretary  (see  p.  546). 


falling  foul  both  of  the  Court  and  of  myself.  Personally, 
I  do  not  let  this  trouble  me,  but  think  of  Pope  Alexander's 
reply  on  being  told  that  Queen  Christina  had  spoken  very 
ill  of  him,  and  which  consisted  of  only  these  two  words  : 
e  donna — it  is  a  woman. 

Land  in  Demerara  is  rising  in  value  daily  and  now 
stands  at  30  to  36  guilders  an  acre.  What  a  difference 
— ten  years  ago  it  was  fetching  two  or  three  guilders. 

P.R.O.  475/4 

November  30,  1769. 

The  Spaniards  continue  to  cruise  along  the  coast,  so 
that  there  is  no  chance  of  getting  anything  salted  for  the 
plantations,  which  does  both  the  Honourable  Company  and 
the  planters  a  great  deal  of  harm. 

The  Postholder  of  Maykouny  has  reported  that  a  very 
large  number  of  Caribs  had  come  there  and  had  asked  him 
for  permission  to  come  and  live  in  that  river.  All  the 
Postholders  having  orders  to  keep  on  friendly  terms  with 
that  nation  and  to  favour  them  as  much  as  possible,  he 
immediately  accorded  them  that  permission,  whereupon 
they  laid  out  some  plantations  and  have  commenced  to 
make  their  houses. 

He  says  that  the  Caribs  were  nearly  all  dressed,  and 
even  had  priestly  garments  and  ornaments  with  them. 
This  made  me  suppose  that  they  had  been  ill-treated  by 
the  Spaniards  to  such  an  extent  that  they  had  at  last 
adopted  measures  of  reprisal  and  had  raided  some  of  the 
Missions.  We  have  as  yet  not  had  the  slightest  tidings 
of  this,  all  communications  with  Orinoco  being  still  cut  off. 


Should  my  supposition  be  found  correct,  the  Spaniards 
are  not  too  good  to  put  the  blame  of  this  matter  upon  our 
shoulders,  their  conscience  telling  them  what  they  had 

I  should  really  shudder  (as  I  always  have  done)  to 
have  recourse  to  such  barbarous  and  un-Christian  measures. 
I  heartily  wish  that  we  could  obtain  full  redress  for  the 
insults  we  have  received  and  still  continue  to  receive,  but 
by  honourable  measures  befitting  Christian  people ;  and 
therefore,  did  my  strength  permit  it,  I  would  be  quite 
willing  to  risk  my  grey  head  in  this  once  more,  for  the 
actions  of  that  proud  nation  are  really  unbearable,  and  the 
THore  so  because  they  presuppose  a  considerable  measure  of 
contempt,  since  the  Spaniards  in  Orinoco  must  be  fully 
convinced  that  if  we  chose  to  use  our  power  with  our 
Indians  we  could  make  the  whole  of  Orinoco  too  hot  for 

Had  the  insults  offered  to  our  Post  of  Cuyuni  been 
punished  as  they  deserved  the  latter  ones  would  most 
probably  never  have  been  committed,  but  what  is  done  is 

Meanwhile  our  fisheries  are  ruined,  and  we  have  lost 
all  our  runaway  slaves.  The  slaves  cannot  live  and  work 
without  rations,  and  three  pounds  of  fish  once  a  fortnight 
is  really  not  much.  This  has  now  to  be  bought  from  the 
English.  On  the  i8th  I  had  to  buy  six  barrels  of  cod; 
and  if  the  English  were  not  to  come  here,  the  Colony 
would  be  unfortunate  indeed  ;  this  is  very  costly,  too,  both 
for  the  Company  and  the  planters. 

v.  s.  II.  40 


P.R.O.  475/12 

December  21,  1769. 

Were  I  not  so  full  of  ailments  and  did  my  strength  but 
permit  I  would  come  to  Europe  in  the  spring  after  leaving 
everything  here  well  regulated,  but  I  dare  not  flatter 
myself  it  can  be,  for  really.  Noble  and  Right  Honble.  Sirs, 
I  become  quite  despondent,  and  am  so  fully  convinced  of 
Your  Honours'  justice  and  reason  that  I  know  YY.  HH. 
will  not  think  me  in  the  wrong.  Is  this  dispute^  concern- 
ing the  Colony  never  coming  to  an  end  ?  Must  I,  old  and 
worn-out,  still  suffer  by  it  ? 

My  feelings  overcome  me  as  I  write  and  I  must  stop, 
concluding  with  the  assurance  that  to  the  end  I  shall 
remain  with  all  possible  respect  and  esteem 

Your  Honours'  most  humble  and  obedient  servant. 

P.R.O.  475/18 

March  25,  1770. 

I  will  now  answer  Your  Honours'  esteemed  letter.... 
The  first  thing  that  I  come  to  is  a  paragraph  concerning 
the  Spanish  outrage,  and  upon  this  I  shall  not  dilate 
further,  but  simply  refer  to  my  last  letter,  and  patiently 
await  the  results  of  Your  Honours'  well-based  remonstrances 
to  Their  High  Mightinesses.  In  the  meantime,  I  shall 
not  fail  to  do  all  I  possibly  can  to  prevent  a  continuance 
of  those  outrages,  and  for  which  I  trust  that  the  guns 
shipped  by  YY.  HH.  in  the  "  Jan  en  Daniel,"  as  I  have  seen 
from  the  invoices,  will  come  in  handy,  and  that  they  will 

1  See  pp.  143-145 


be  put  to  good  use  on  the  arrival  of  the  reinforcements  for 
the  garrison.  YY.  HH.  need  not  fear  that  I  shall  expose 
myself  needlessly.  I  intend  to  take  up  a  quiet  attitude ; 
but  if  we  are  attacked,  it  being  free  to  defend  ourselves, 
I  shall  know  what  it  behoves  me  to  do. 

I  did  not  send  the  list  of  the  course  of  exchange  in 


St  Eustatius  because  I  received  a  similar  one,  printed,  from 
Surinam,  and  that  I  had  the  honour  of  forwarding.  But  is 
it  not  comical,  YY.  HH.,  that  after  so  much  talk  and  such 
tremendous  efforts  for  a  change,  matters  have  after  all  been 
left  /;/  statu  g?io  and  the  course  of  exchange,  with  a  few 
unimportant  exceptions,  upon  its  old  footing  ?  Mala  ubi 
consnetudiiie  recepta  vim  legis  adispicanttir  no7i  facile  possiint 
aboleri  qiiam  ttimvis  damnoso  sint  says  Valerius  Maximus 
very  aptly. 

Your  Honours' suggestion  that  I  should  split  up  my  letters 
into  several  smaller  ones  is  a  very  useful  one  and  might, 
if  carried  out,  prove  most  convenient,  but  kindly  consider, 
YY.  HH.,  how  difficult  it  would  be  for  me  (especially  now, 
at  the  end  of  my  term  of  office)  suddenly  to  alter  my 
custom — recens  iiibiita  servat  odorem  testa  diu^.  Secondly, 
if  I  were  to  write  a  separate  letter  concerning  each  specific 
subject,  YY.  HH.  would  have  a  great  deal  more  to  read  than 
at  present,  since,  in  order  to  avoid  being  voluminous  I 
express  myself  as  briefly  as  possible,  whilst  in  the  other 
event  I  should  certainly  write  more  fully  and  circumstan- 
tially, for  when  I  once  begin  to  argue  in  my  letters  I 
cannot  stop  myself  and  must  adduce  all  that  is  pertinent 
to  the  subject. 

I  have  now  to  answer  what  is  to  me  a  most  painful 
paragraph  concerning  my  discharge. 

^  Cf.  p.  520. 

40 — 2 


Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs,  what  have  I  person- 
ally to  do  with  the  dispute  between  the  respective 
Chambers^  ?  Beyond  the  desire,  which  springs  from  my 
obligations  and  my  bounden  and  legitimate  gratitude 
towards  the  Zeeland  Chamber,  and  the  conviction,  based, 
as  I  believe,  upon  unshakeable  grounds,  that  it  would  be 
profitable  and  advantageous  for  this  Colony  to  remain 
under  Zeeland — nothing  further. 

Will  these  differences  concerning  the  free  navigation 
never  be  decided  or  ended  qiiovis  modof  Must  I  then 
never  be  discharged  ?  Having  served  fully  thirty-two 
years  must  I  be  kept  at  work  against  my  will  and  in  spite 
of  my  incapacity  to  perform  it  ? 

Having  now  answered  Your  Honours'  letter  articulatiin 
I  will  pass  to  other  matters.  I  cannot,  however,  refrain 
from  referring  once  more  to  the  infamous  inventors  and 
tale-bearers  in  this  Colony,  and  especially  in  Demerara. 
From  various  private  letters  that  came  by  this  and  earlier 
vessels  I  learnt  with  astonishment  how  I  am  suspected  by 
the  Chief  Shareholders  and  possibly,  I  fear,  by  some  of 
Your  Honours'  body,  of  being  inimical  to  the  interests  of 
Zeeland  and  in  favour  of  free  navigation.  My  behaviour 
when  I  was  in  Europe  in  the  years  1750  and  175 1  should 
have  convinced  everyone  luce  meridiana  clarior  of  the 
contrary,  and  were  the  Right  Honourable  Burgomaster 
Tibaut-  still  alive  striking  proofs  hereof  could  be  produced. 
Time  does  not  permit  me  to  look  for  the  letters  I  received 
from  His  Honour  at  Amsterdam  and  the  Hague,  otherwise 
I  would  enclose  them  herewith.  An  uninterrupted  service 
of  more  than  32  years  should,  I  flatter  myself,  have  made 
me  better  known. 

1  See  pp.  143-145- 

2  Johan  Willem  Thibaut  (born  /  March,  1701,  died  4  Nov.,  ijsg) 
was  burgomaster  of  Middelburg  and  a  director  of  the  Zeeland  Chamber 
of  the  West  India  Company. 


Incapable  of  concealing  my  honest  opinions,  I  would,  had 
I  felt  that  free  navigation  were  beneficial  to  the  Colony, 
already  long  since  have  openly  declared  my  sentiments  to 
YY.  HH.  I  am  of  old  Holland^  stock  and  was  born  at 
's  Hertogenbosch,  but  have  always  been  goed  rond  goed 
Zeeiavsch'^  and  afraid  of  no  man  ;  when  in  the  army, 
I  treated  my  superiors  with  no  more  than  the  necessary 
deference  and  by  that  conduct  won  their  esteem,  as  I  could 
prove  by  letters  from  Generaal  van  Pallandt^*,  my  colonel, 
and  other  chiefs.  Being  in  fact  too  upright  and  outspoken 
has  sometimes  been  prejudicial  to  me  and  also  the  reason 
why  I  no  longer  receive  a  single  line  from  some  gentlemen 
whom  I  flattered  myself  to  be  my  friends — Veritas  odium 
parit^  is  a  very  old  saying. 

My  family  here  is  in  perfect  agreement  with  me  in 
thinking  that  people  must  be  mad  not  to  know  how 
prejudicial  it  would  be  to  the  plantations  if,  as  they  wish, 
we  were  to  be  under  Holland  instead  of  Zeeland,  and  I  have 
heard  the  Commandant^  speak  very  earnestly  and  zealously 
in  pubhc  to  that  effect ;  I  do  not  know  my  son's"  opinion, 
but  he  left  the  Colony  when  still  in  his  youth  and  before 
having  any  knowledge  of  the  state  of  affairs. 

I  have  the  honour  to  have  near  blood  relations  in  the 
assemblies  of  more  than  one  province,  and  the  good  fortune 
to  possess  friends  of  some  repute — do  YY.  HH.  imagine  that 
if  there  were  the  least  ground  for  the  suspicion  referred  to 

*  As  distinctive  from  the  other  six  United  Provinces,  and,  in  this 
case,  especially  from  Zeeland. 

2  "  Frank  as  a  Zeelander,"  see  p.  429.  It  is  difficult,  in  a  close 
translation,  to  reproduce  the  fulness  of  Storm's  period  : — Ik  ben  van 
eeft  oiide  HoHandsche  Fainielje  oorspronkelijk^  een  geboore  Bossenaar, 
niaar  altoos  goed  rond  goed  Zeeuwsch  geweest^  voor  nietnatid  bevreesd. 

^  See  p.  645. 

*  Obsequium  amicos^  Veritas  odium  parit.     Terence,  A)id.  I.  i.  41. 

^  Johannes    Bakker,    Commandant   of  the   militia    in   Essequibo, 
married  Storm's  daughter,  Alpheda  Louisa,  in  jydb. 
'"  Jeremias,  his  only  surviving  son. 


I,  who  am  not  a  lazy  writer,  would  never  have  touched  that 
string  in  my  correspondence  ?  But  herein  my  conscience  is 
quite  at  rest,  and  believe  me,  YY,  HH.,  I  would  not  have  the 
least  hesitation  in  writing  to  H.  S.  H.  circumstantially 
concerning  the  matter,  for  Recte  faciendo  neminem  thncas  is 
my  motto. 

Have  I  then  no  reason,  nay,  double  reason  to  beg  so 
persistently  for  my  discharge  ?  I  know  now  that  H.  S.  H.  is 
inclined  to  aid  me^  and  I  trust  it  may  be  as  soon  as 
possible,  God  grant  that  in  my  place  there  may  come  one 
who  is  above  suspicion,  more  competent  and  able  than  I  to 
give  H.  S.  H.  and  YY.  HH.  perfect  satisfaction.     Amen. 

1  have  now  written  enough  concerning  this  sad  business. 
I  could  say  a  good  deal  more  but  I  have  neither  time  nor 
inclination  to  do  so  and  shall  conclude  with  this  verse  of 
Racine  which  expresses  my  feelings  exactly  and  to  the 

"  Celid  qui  met  tin  frein  a  la  fiireur  des  flots 
Salt  aussi  des  mechants  arreter  les  coniplots, 
Soumis  avec  respect  a  sa  volonte  sainte 
Je  crains  Dieti,  chere  amie,  et  n'ai  nulle  autre  crainte'^r 

To-day,  January  12^,  Your  Honours'  several  and  highly 
esteemed  letters  to  the  Court  of  Policy  were  read,  where- 
upon Mr  Tuite,  who,  with  his  son,  arrived  here  yesterday, 
was  immediately  allotted  500  acres  of  land  in  Coelesiraboe^ 

^  This  knowledge  was  probably  based  upon  something  later  than 
the  assurance  given  him  in  writing  by  the  Prince  in  iy66  (cf.  p.  551). 

2  The  correct  text  of  the  last  line  reads: — "Je  crains  Dieu,  cher 
Abner,  et  n'ai  point  d'autre  crainte."     Athalie,  Act  i.,  Sc.  i. 

^  The  date  at  heading  is  that  of  actual  despatch. 

*  This  was  manifestly  the  same  creek  in  which  according  to 
documents  quoted  by  Rodway,  who  writes  it  Coeleriseraboe  {Hist,  of 
British  Guiana^  i.  120),  the  first  grant  of  land  in  Demerara  was  made 
in  1746.     Cf.  also  p.  217. 


Creek  and  handed  the  title-deeds  for  the  same ;  the  Court 
will  have  the  honour  to  reply.  Concerning  Codin  and  the 
burgher-officers  I  have  already  had  the  honour  to  report 
above  ;  the  Court  will  write  more  circumstantially  and  it 
has  been  resolved  that  if  Roman  Catholics  be  found  among 
them  (which  I  doubt)  such  are  to  be  illico  discharged. 
With  regard  to  the  English  Your  Honours'  remarks  are 
well-based,  but  if  YY.  HH.  were  well  acquainted  with  the 
planters  in  Demerara  YY.  HH.  would  be  convinced  that  we 
had  to  make  a  virtue  of  necessity  and  have  nominated  the 
staider  planters.  Neither  the  Commander  nor  I  have  much 
inclination  for  English,  but  what  are  we  to  do  if  there  is  a 
dearth  of  eligible  men,  and  I  have  seen  in  the  minutes  that 
at  one  time  there  were  even  Roman  Catholic  Councillors  of 
Policy,  which  ought  certainly  not  to  be,  but  also  then  for 
want  of  better. 

Having  considered  the  matter  very  carefully  I  cannot 
see  how  the  English  burghers  who  are  there  in  such 
numbers  can  well  be  excluded  altogether  especially  when, 
having  been  long  years  resident  in  the  Colony  and  having- 
property  there,  they  are  genuine  citizens.  YY.  HH.  inquire 
whether  in  the  English  colonies  Dutchmen  are  admitted  to 
the  administration ;  the  answer  is  yes,  if  they  are 
naturalized.  And  do  we  not  see  Dutch  families  like  the 
Bentincks,  the  Keppels  and  others  even  in  the  House  of 
Lords  .''  But,  as  I  have  already  said,  it  is  in  my  opinion 
better  to  keep  them  out  of  the  government  provided  no 
partiality  be  shown,  which  might  have  evil  results. 

What  increases  my  vexation  is  that  I  now  see  that  the 
inhabitants  of  Demerara  are  acting  openly  and  with  a  high 
hand,  contrary  to  law  and  order,  in  that  they  are  buying 
slaves  from  the  English  publicly  and  without  the  least 
reserved     This  is  carried  so  far  that  one  of  them  named 

^  See  remarks  on  pp.  299,  300 


Jan  Blondel  made  bold  to  say  to  Capt.  Pieter  Stap,  who  at 
length  arrived  before  this  river  in  February  :  "  What  have 
you  come  here  for  ?  We  don't  want  you  ;  we  can  get  slaves 
enough  from  the  English.  Here  is  a  boy  who  cost  me  only 
two  hundred  guilders." 

As  this  practice  is  becoming  common  I  am  at  my  wits' 
end  and  know  not  what  to  do.  Mild  measures  are  useless 
and  violent  ones  I  dare  not  employ  in  a  case  which  is  so 
general,  nor  am  I  in  a  fit  state  to  do  so. 

P.R.O.  475/42 


April  3,  1770. 

During  my  stay  in  Demerara  I  shall  entrust  the 
command  and  the  superintendence  of  Your  Honours' 
plantations  to  Commandant  Backer^  who  is  much  more 
fitted  for  the  latter  duty  than  I  ;  being  young,  strong  and 
fairly  well  experienced  he  will  manage  matters  better. 
Things  do  not  go  as  I  could  wish  and  order  must  be  kept 
with  a  strong  hand  ;  this  I  cannot  do — my  weak  condition 
prevents  it,  and  when  I  came  to  high  words  some  four 
weeks  ago  with  the  manager  of  "  Duynenburg "  I  had  to 
pay  for  it  later. 

P.R.O.  475/50 

Demerara,  June  5,  1770. 

The  second  despatch,  referring  to  the  Honble.  Co.'s 
missing  books,  has  greatly  surprised  me.  I  have  given  it 
to  the  Commander  to  take  to  Essequibo,  asking  him  to 
communicate  its  contents  to  Mr  Trotz  and  to  inform  the 
latter  that  I  shall  not  allow  him  to  depart  for  Europe  before 

1  See  Note  5,  p.  629. 


he  has  fulfilled  Your  Honours'  requirements^ ;  in  the  event 
of  receiving  an  unsatisfactory  reply  the  Commander  is  to 
submit  Your  Honours'  despatch  to  the  Court  on  the  26th 
and  invoke  its  authority  in  my  name. 

I  have  carefully  perused  the  memorandum  from  Mr 
Moulion,  the  chief  bookkeeper,  appended  to  the  said 
despatch,  and  am  surprised  that  that  gentleman  did  not 
add  that  it  is  the  Director- General's  duty  to  make  up 
the  books  himself  in  the  event  of  the  absence,  sickness  or 
negligence  of  the  clerks.  When  I  was  bookkeeper-  from 
the  year  1738  to  1742  I  never  failed  to  send  over  all  the 
books  each  year  and  although  I  had  never  learnt  book- 
keeping (as  I  had  the  honour  to  inform  Your  Honours' 
Chamber  in  October,  1737)  the  books  were  found  to  be  in 
good  and  proper  order  by  the  then  Chief  Bookkeeper, 
Mr  Satijn. 

During  the  late  Mr  Spoors'  long  service,  from  1742  to 
the  time  of  his  discharge,  I  never  received  any  complaints. 
I  do  know  that  during  the  last  years  of  his  career  he  some- 
times let  the  work  get  into  arrears,  for  the  books  had  to  be 
brought  to  me  ;  I  did  not  fail  to  speak  to  him  about  it  and 
seriously  to  admonish  him  to  send  them  over,  when  I 
always  got  the  answer,  "  It  will  be  done  in  good  time  and, 
after  all,  it  is  I  who  am  answerable  for  it." 

Notwithstanding  that  some  books  and  accounts  were 
still  wanting  Mr  Spoors  obtained  from  W".  HH.  his  discharge, 
a  seat  in  Court,  double  rations  and  the  slaves  which  he  had 

1  George  Hendrik  Trotz  was  a  Councillor  of  Justice  in  Essequibo 
and  (according  to  the  Registers)  owner  of  two  plantations  in  Demerara; 
he  was  a  son-in-law  of  Adriaan  .Spoors,  the  former  Secretary,  and  it 
was  probably  in  his  capacity  as  executor  or  heir  to  Spoors'  estate  that 
the  above  inhibition  was  laid  upon  him  by  the  Director-General.  He 
succeeded  Storm  in  the  Directorship  in  777.?. 

2  It  will  be  remembered  that  Storm  was  appointed  Secretary  and 
Bookkeeper  (see  p.  32.     Cf.  also  Netscher,  Op.  cit.  p.  108). 


always  had.  May  I  not  with  reason  ask  why  YY.  HH.  (who 
are  so  hard  upon  me  after  a  service  of  fully  thirty-two 
years)  did  not  before  granting  that  gentleman  his  discharge 
so  honourably  and  profitably,  compel  him  to  discharge  his 
duty  and  to  send  in  the  missing  books  instead  of  requiring 
me  to  do  the  impossible  ? 

The  late  Mr  Rousselet  having  received  no  notes  or 
figures  concerning  the  above-mentioned  books  and  having 
nothing  to  go  by  declared  it  to  be  impossible  to  make  them 
up.  I  had  the  honour  to  inform  YY.  HH.  of  this ;  Mr 
Spoors  was  still  alive,  but  all  the  efforts  of  Mr  Rousselet 
and  myself  were  in  vain.... 

After  Mr  Rousselet's  death  I  took  up  the  work  as  far  as 
I  possibly  could,  although  it  was  outside  my  department, 
entered  up  and  sent  over  the  pay  and  taxation  books  in 
good  time,  prepared  the  various  lists,  accounts,  registers,  &c., 
looked  carefully  into  everything,  tried  to  get  in  the  bad 
debts,  and,  from  the  receipts  exhibited  to  me,  drew  up  lists 
of  what  Messrs  Spoors  and  Rousselet  owed  the  Company, 
so  that  YY.  HH.  at  length  did  me  the  honour  to  write  that 
it  was  surprising  how  I  could  do  all  that  work.  But,  YY.  HH., 
I  was  killing  myself,  working  myself  into  the  grave  in  spite 
of  the  warnings  of  my  children  and  others  that  I  was  doing 
myself  no  good. 

I  find,  alas !  that  those  warnings  were  not  without 
reason.  Since  January,  1769, 1  have  been  constantly  ill  and 
debilitated ;  this  year  I  have  been  at  Death's  door,  and  still 
continually  beset  with  fever  and  pains  in  my  back.  I 
expect  to  be  soon  released  from  all  my  burdens  and 
worries,  but  the  Lord's  will  be  done  and  I  submit  to  it  with 

But  my  honour  (wherein  I  am  so  grievously  attacked, 
as  will  be  subsequently  made  clear)  being  dear  to  me,  I 
cannot  refrain  (as  long  as  the  Lord  shall  grant  me  strength 
and  support  me)  from  defending  the  same  (for  which  no  one 


will  blame  me)  at  all  times  and  in  all  places  where  necessary, 
and  justifying  myself  before  YY.  HH.,  before  Their  High 
Mightinesses  and  before  His  Serene  Highness.  That 
justification  will  give  me  no  difficulty  if  the  Lord  but  grant 
me,  as  hitherto,  the  power. 

Hie  tibi  ninrtis  aJieneics  est 

Nil  eo7iscire  sibi  nulla  pallescere  eulpa^. 

I  cannot,  however,  pass  without  remark  Your  Honours' 
comparison^  of  the  Spanish  rhodomontades  with  a  snow- 
ball which  gets  bigger  in  its  transmission  to  Europe,  an 
observation  which  does  me  great  honour  but  which,  like  so 
many  others,   I   shall   pocket   until   time  and   opportunity 

^  Horace,  Ep.  I.  i.  61.  The  correct  reading  is  Hie  iniirus  aheneus 

2  The  Directors,  on  Feb.  j,  ijjo^  had  written  as  follows  : — 

"As  regards  the  Spanish  rhodomontades  of  which  you  speak  in 
this  letter  of  yours,  of  their  desire  to  come  and  take  possession  of  all 
the  territory  extending  to  the  bank  of  Oene,  which  is  situated  on 
the  west  coast  of  Essequibo  and  below  which  there  are  several  planta- 
tions, under  pretext  that  it  belongs  to  His  Catholic  Majesty,  we  believe 
that  all  those  threats  of  the  Spaniards  increase  in  size,  just  like  a 
rolling  snow-ball,  in  proportion  to  the  distance  of  their  transmission 
hither,  and  that  all  their  pretended  enterprises  against  the  Colony  will 
disappear  in  smoke  unless  the  Republic  should  become  involved  in  a 
war  with  the  Crown  of  Spain  on  some  other  side,  of  which,  however, 
there  is  as  yet  little  probability  ;  and  it  really  is  not  necessary  to  be  a 
very  profound  thinker  in  order  to  divine  for  what  purpose  the  wanton 
acts  of  perhaps  some  few  Spaniards  had  to  be  depicted  and  spread 
about  as  enterprises  very  dangerous  to  a  Colony  in  a  proper  state  of 

"We  have  repeatedly  expressed  to  you  our  ideas  on  this  subject, 
and  we  are  more  and  more  confirmed  in  those  ideas  which  from  the 
beginning  we  formed  about  this  whole  matter. 

"  Nevertheless,  it  remains  true,  felix  et prudeiis.,  qui  tempore  paeis 
de  bello  eogitet;  and  therefore  you  have  done  very  well  in  taking  this 
opportunity  to  bring  the  whole  corps  of  the  militia  of  both  rivers  upon 
a  better  and  more  adequate  footing  ;  the  task  will  now  be  to  keep  it 
upon  that  good  footing,  which  we  commend  to  your  good  care  while 
that  shall  last." 


serve ;  it  is  but  a  fresh  proof  what  great  influence  base 
written  and  verbal  denunciations  have  had.  Unhappy,  yea, 
thrice  unhappy  the  chief  who  is  subjected  to  them. 

YY.  HH.  are  pleased  to  say  that  this^  has  been  made  as 
clear  as  day  by  copies  of  bills  of  exchange  given  to  English 
captains  bearing  the  words  "  value  received  in  slaves." 
I  beg  YY.  HH.  not  to  take  it  amiss  if  I  ask  why  no  copies 
of  such  bills  have  been  sent  me ;  I  would  then  have  ample 
proof  in  hand  and  could  proceed  against  the  drawers 
without  difficulty.  I  should  then  be  holding  the  thread  and 
the  next  thing  would  be  to  follow  it  up ;  for  these  men 
must  be  made  to  smart,  to  inform  against  others  and  so 
reveal  the  whole  business. 

In  Your  Honours'  letter  I  find  yet  another  sentence 
which  would  appear  on  the  surface  to  be  meant  for  me. 
YY.  HH.  are  pleased  to  say  that  despotic  treatment,  etc., 
will  have  to  be  stopped.  Is  anyone  in  the  world  a  greater 
enemy  of  despotic  treatment  than  I  ?  Did  not  His  Late 
Serene  Highness  of  laudable  memory,  upon  my  departure, 
and  did  not  Your  Honours'  Assembly  frequently  reproach 
me  for  my  goodness  and  great  leniency  in  these  very  words, 
*'  Too  good  is  mad  "  .'' 

But,  Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs,  I  will  pass  by 
and  make  an  end  of  all  this.  I  see  and  learn  from  Your 
Honours'  letters  how  greatly  YY,  HH.  are  displeased  with 
me — for  no  reason,  I  may  conscientiously  add.  After  a 
faithful  service  of  more  than  thirty-two  years,  after  all  my 
zeal    and    industry   for   the    Honble.    Company   and    the 

1  The  importation  of  slaves  into  the  Colony  by  other  than  Zeeland 
traders.  This  smuggling,  unavoidable,  as  shown  in  Storm's  letter 
of  December  p,  iy6j  (see  p.  561),  was  evidently  at  the  bottom  of  the 
Directors'  ill-feeling  betrayed  in  earlier  portions  of  their  despatch. 
Cf.  remarks  on  pp.  299,  300. 


Colony,  after  toiling,  moiling  and  worrying  myself  to  death 
in  order  to  put  everything  right  that  the  former  secretaries 
had  neglected,  after  going  beyond  my  province  in  making 
up  the  books,  compiling  the  Registers,  examining  accounts, 
lists  and  receipts  to  ascertain  what  monies  received  by 
Messrs  Spoors  and  Rousselet  were  due  to  the  Company — 
after  having,  in  a  word,  done  everything  in  my  power,  my 
duty  and  more  than  my  duty,  is  this  my  reward  ?  O  tem- 
pora,  O  mores!  Had  I,  could  I  have,  expected  this? 
Never,  Your  Honours.... 

\_After  reporting  a  variety  of  business  matters  Storm 
proceeds  as  folloivs  .•] 

It  was  my  desire  to  write  much  more  and  in  greater 
detail,  but  strength  fails  me\  broken,  as  I  am,  by  grief  and 
vexations.  These  assail  me  from  all  sides,  although  I  heed 
but  little  any  that  come  not  from  YY.  HH.,  for  the  others 
are  easy  to  deal  with  ;  their  authors  stand  forth  and  I  have 
to  fight  no  shadows,  as  is  not  the  case  with  Your  Honours' 
charges ^ 

Cicero  in  his  Paradoxa  aptly  says  : 

Sed  nihil  est  tam  incredibile  qnod  non  dicendo  fiat  proba- 
bile,  nihil  tam  horridum,  ta)n  incidtiim  quod  non  splcndescat 
oratione  et  tamquam  excolatur^. 

The  opening  note  of  the  final  episode  in  Storm's  administra- 
tion is  heard  in  the  first  ivords  of  the  tzvo  folloiving 

The  colonists'  harsh  treatment  of  their  slaves,  added  to  the 
dearth  of  rations,  forced  the  blacks  to  desertion,  and  to 

^  In  the  earlier  portion  of  this  despatch  Storm  mentions  having 
been  obliged  to  preside  at  a  Court  Meeting  whilst  lying  in  his 

2  See  pp.  633  and  636.  ^  Prooemiutn,  §  3. 


prevent  this  the  aid  of  the  Indians  had  to  be  invoked, 
since  the  garrison,  in  spite  of  Storm's  repeated  entreaties, 
was  always  too  zveak. 
It  is  interesting  and  inspiring  to  observe  how,  notzvithstanding 
his  infirmities.  Storm  rose  to  the  occasion  when,  nearly 
two  years  later^,  desertion  developed  into  revolt  and  how, 
with  a  soldier  s  soul,  he  ended  his  career — fighting. 

I'.R.O.  475/88 

Demerara,  November  24,  1770. 

As  cases  of  desertion  are  now  becoming  so  frequent 
I  find  myself  obliged  to  seek  some  remedy  for  this  state  of 
things,  and  therefore  wrote  to  the  Postholder  of  Arinda  on 
the  3rd  of  September  to  ask  the  Carib  Owls  in  my  name 
to  send  a  detachment  of  fifty  men  of  their  nation  here  to 
keep  a  watchful  eye  upon  the  plantations.  If  they  accede 
to  this  request  I  hope  to  make  a  clean  sweep.  I  have 
offered  a  reward  of  250  guilders  to  whomsoever  shall  bring 
back  alive  the  negro  Tower  Hill,  who  is  still  at  large,  and 
.100  guilders  to  whomsoever  shall  bring  him  back  dead. 

In  the  English  islands  no  one  may  upon  his  own 
authority  give  a  slave  more  than  forty  lashes  and  so,  to 
keep  on  the  safe  side,  no  one  ever  gives  more  than  thirty- 
nine  ;  it  is  true  that  this  may  be  done  two  days  running, 
but  what  is  that  compared  with  what  goes  on  here  ? 

We  have  no  laws<,concerning  the  matter  (at  least  none 
is  known  to  me)  and  when  I  remonstrate  I  am  told  that 
everyone  is  master  of  his  own  slaves  and  that  as  long  as  he 
does  not  kill  them  (i.e.  if  they  but  come  from  the  stocks 
alive)  it  is  no  business  of  the  Fiscal's. 

At   the    last    committee   meeting  one  of  the   burgher 

1  In  August,  1772.     See  pp.  664  ei  seq. 


officers  reported  that  an  English  barque  from  St  Chris- 
topher, belonging  to  A.  SomersalP,  had  brought  37  slaves, 
whereupon  I  sent  a  guard  aboard  the  vessel  and  had  the 
merchant  arrested  and  brought  before  the  Court. 

YY.  HH.  would  scarcely  believe  what  a  commotion  this 
has  caused  in  the  River  and  how  they  are  running  about  to 
collect  all  sorts  of  evidence.  Mr  Heyliger  was  down  at 
John  Bermingham's  place  deliberating  with  him  for  three 

A  certain  gentleman  came  here  to  grease  my  palm, 
offering  me  six  thousand  guilders^ ;  this  I  refused. 

P.R.O.  475/103 

Demerara,  January,  1771. 

Great  embarrassment  is  caused  by  the  long  delayed 
arrival  of  the  vessels  ;  there  is  a  dearth  of  everything.  All 
the  warehouses  (both  those  of  the  Honble.  Co.  and  those  of 
private  planters)  are  empty  and  were  it  not  for  some 
North  Americans  who  have  run  in  it  would  be  a  bad  look- 
out. I  have  to  have  my  hand  constantly  in  my  pocket  and 
buy  from  the  English  both  for  the  plantations  and  for  the 
warehouse,  to  which  I  object  very  much,  as  this  is  not 
profitable  for  the  Honble.  Company.  For  YY.  HH.  can 
well  imagine  that  our  needs  being  general  and  such  not 
unknown  to  those  fine  gentlemen  they  put  up  the  price. 

It  is  indeed  more  than  high  time,  YY.  HH.,  that  strong 

^  In  //d/,  too,  there  had  been  trouble  about  some  slaves  belonging 
to  this  planter  (see  pp.  559  et  scq.). 

2  This  might  have  been  a  somewhat  tempting  ofifer  to  a  less 
conscientious  man  for  passing  a  few  urgently  needed  slaves  when 
it  is  borne  in  mind  that  the  Directors  presented  Storm's  daughter 
with  600  guilders  in  full  compensation  after  her  husband  had  laid  down 
his  life  in  the  Company's  service  (see  pp.  452-454). 


measures  were  taken  to  check  the  smuggling  trade  in  slaves, 
for  matters  are  going  too  far.... Not  a  week  passes  without 
foreign  slaves  coming  in,  so  I  hear.  Only  last  week  two 
barques  were  off  the  river  and  Capt.  Steevense  told  me  that 
he  not  only  saw  them  but  that  he  had  been  on  board  of 
them  and  had  seen  the  slaves. 

I  fear  this  will  have  the  most  fatal  consequences  for  the 
Colony,  for  in  addition  to  the  loss  in  dues  sustained  by  the 
Company  and  the  blow  dealt  to  the  Zeeland  trade  it  will 
indubitably  lead  to  the  ruin  of  many  colonists,  even  if  no 
worse  results  ensue\ 

I  can  do  nothing  more,  except  with  the  pen,  and  that 
but  very  defectively  and  almost  illegibly^.  I  am  pretty 
deaf  and  can  only  hear  when  people  speak  very  loudly, 
wherefore  my  presence  in  Court  is  not  of  the  least  use, 
whilst  it  is  moreover  very  troublesome  for  the  members 
present  to  repeat  all  that  is  said  in  a  loud  and  distinct 
voice.  My  memory,  too,  is  beginning  to  fail  me  and  I 
myself  am  getting  weaker  daily.  If  I  am  well  for  a  day 
there  follows  a  week's  indisposition  and  as  I  write  I  am 
much  incommoded  by  my  old  complaint — the  dropping  of 
my  uvula. 

P.R.O.  475/108 

Demerara,  March  8,  1771. 

The  Postholder  of  Arinda  having  been  ill  and  confined 
to  his  bed  for  four  months  has  come  down  with  over  fifty 
Caribs,  and  on  the  ist  of  this  month  went  into  the  woods 

'  Cf.  remarks  on  pp.  299,  300. 

2  For  some  twelve  months  prior  to  this  the  despatches  are,  indeed 
(with  the  exception  of  a  few  very  short  ones),  not  in  Storm's  hand- 
writing, though  signed  by  him. 


behind  the  plantations  with  those  men  to  look  for  the  run- 
aways. I  hope  this  expedition  will  be  successful,  because 
if  they  succeed  this  will  certainly  intimidate  the  negroes 
from  running  away  in  future  when  they  find  that  they  are 
not  safe  even  in  the  thickest  bushes.  I  have  had  a  good 
deal  of  trouble  with  the  Carib  Owls  (one  of  whom  was  the 
leader  of  the  expedition  against  the  rebels  in  Berbice), 
because  they  spoke  only  of  killing,  and  with  a  great  deal  of 
trouble  and  promises  of  double  payment  I  got  them  to 
undertake  to  catch  the  runaways  and  bring  them  back  alive. 

The  body  of  a  free  Indian  has  been  found  floating  in 
the  Upper  Demerara  bearing  distinctly  the  marks  of  blows 
and  of  the  ropes  by  which  the  hands  and  feet  had  been 
tied.  Every  possible  inquiry  is  being  made  to  discover  the 
author  of  the  crime,  but  I  fear  it  will  be  very  difficult,  for 
the  insolent  drunkards  living  up  there  will  not  lightly 
inform  against  each  other  ;  it  is  therefore  no  wonder  that 
most  of  the  Indians  have  departed  and  gone  to  the  Coren- 
tin,  there  being  scarcely  any  left  up  the  river. 

People  have  done  themselves  considerable  harm  by 
this  treatment,  for  in  addition  to  the  great  advantages 
gained  from  their  work  (as  hired  labourers)  little  would 
have  been  heard  of  negroes  deserting  had  the  Indians  been 
well  and  kindly  dealt  with.  No  negro  can  get  further 
than  three  hours'  march  behind  our  plantation  "  Soestdijk  " 
without  being  caught  and  brought  back  by  the  Indians  ; 
only  recently  five  were  so  restored. 

V.  s.   n.  41 


P.R.O.   475/110 

Demerara,  March  23,  1771. 

I  have  at  last  discovered  why  I  get  no  complaints 
concerning  the  bills  of  exchange  protested  by  the  English  ; 
the  latter  make  little  fuss  but  get  the  drawers  to  give  them 
fresh  bills  increased  by  the  accommodation  charges,  etc. 
In  this  way  the  planters  will  be  irretrievably  ruined,  for  if 
this  happen  but  some  three  times  the  original  amount  is 
already  doubled.  The  smuggling,  however,  goes  on  as 
hard  as  ever ;  my  son,  who  had  been  down  stream 
yesterday  to  collect  some  money,  told  me  that  barques 
were  constantly  seen  out  at  sea  tacking  to  and  fro  before 
the  river  mouths 

P.R.O.  475/116 

Demerara,  March  30,  1771. 

Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs, 

The  great  dearth  and  the  absolutely  empty 
state  of  the  Company's  warehouse  have  compelled  me  to 
purchase  from  Captain  Kent  what  is  necessary.  It  is 
fortunate  that  some  North  Americans  put  in,  otherwise  I 
should  have  been  at  my  wits'  end.  I  have  therefore  been 
obliged  to  take  from  him  for  the  warehouse  and  for  the 
Company's  plantations  that  for  which  I  have  the  honour  to 
enclose  his  own  account ;  to  balance  this  I  have  drawn 
upon  YY.  HH.  for  f  1509,  which  bill  I  doubt  not  YY.  HH. 
will  be  good  enough  to  honour.  By  the  next  vessel  I  hope 
to  send  YY.  HH.  an  account  of  the  further  outlay  incurred 
by  me. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be  with  deep  respect  and  esteem, 

Your  Honours'  most  humble  and  obedient  servant, 

L.  Storm  van  's  Gravesande. 

'  Cf.  remarks  on  pp.  299,  300. 


P.R.O.   475/119 

June  21,  1771. 

It  was  my  firm  intention  to  be  in  Essequibo  long  before 
ApriP  but  r homme  propose  et  Dieu  dispose.  For  six  weeks 
I  was  uninterruptedly  and  without  the  sHghtest  intermission 
beset  by  acute  fever  and  by  such  pain  in  my  loins  that  I 
could  only  walk  doubled  up  and  with  the  aid  of  a  stick  ;  in 
addition  to  this,  my  eldest  daughter  lay  between  life  and 
death  for  28  days.  I  could  not  therefore  be  expected  to 
undertake  the  journey,  especially  as  the  surgeon  of  the 
plantation  and  Doctor  St  Felix,  a  very  skilful  man  in  the 
employ  of  Baron  van  Grovestins,  told  me  I  would  probably 
endanger  my  life  by  going  upon  the  water ;  all  this  was 
fully  known  to  the  Councillors^  In  spite  of  all  this,  the 
fever  having  abated  but  not  yet  quite  gone,  I  resolved, 
contrary  to  all  advice,  to  set  out,  since  my  presence  was 
absolutely  required  in  Essequibo.  I  had,  too,  the  Lord  be 
praised,  an  extremely  good  journey,  having  left  "Soestdijk" 
at  a  quarter  before  three  in  the  morning^  and  arriving  at 
Fort  Zeelandia  before  three  in  the  afternoon. 

Had  we  the  good  fortune  to  have  but  one  or  two 
sensible,  impartial  and  unprejudiced  members  of  Your 
Honours'  body  here  they  would  soon  be  convinced  that  as 
matters  go  on  here  it  is  perfectly  impossible  for  an  honour- 
able, honest  and  conscientious  man  to  fill  my  post  to  his 
own  satisfaction. 

*  It  will  be  noted  that  Storm's  despatches  had  since  June^  ^770,  all 
been  written  from  Demerara. 

^  On  the  preceding  page  Storm  had  reported  that  the  Court  had 
refused  to  sit  on  April  8  in  his  absence,  though,  as  he  points  out,  the 
presidency  should  and  could  very  properly  have  been  taken  by  the 
senior  Councillor  present. 

^  Three  hours  before  sunrise. 

41 — 2 


Since  the  question  of  free  navigation  to  this  Colony  is 
now  settled^  and  my  hands  are  untied  I  would  not  neglect 
to  take  the  liberty  of  writing  to  His  Serene  Highness — not 
a  short  epistle  but  a  volume — concerning  the  state  of  affairs 
here,  which  up  to  now  I  have  carefully  avoided  doing,  but 
alas !  though  the  spirit  is  willing,  strength  fails  me. 

The  importation  of  foreign  slaves  does  not  stop.  I 
have  often  had  the  honour  of  writing  about  this  and  of 
suggesting  the  only  possible  means  of  preventing  it 
efficaciously.  Such  is  impossible  for  the  Commander  or 
myself,  as  matters  stand  now  ;  when  I  hear  of  it,  it  is  either 
too  late  or  proper  and  sufficient  proofs  are  wanting^ 

[As  a  sequence  to  some  remarks  bewailing  the  loss,  to 
the  Court  and  to  the  Colo7iy,  of  three  of  his  best  Councillors 
Storm  goes  on  to  say:] 

Take  it  not  amiss,  YY.  HH.,  I  pray,  if  I,  not  daring  to 
hope  for  a  much  longer  life,  speak  outright,  and  permit 
me,  Your  Honours'  oldest  servant  (so  I  believe)  to  pour  out 
his  heart,  possibly  (the  Lord  knows)  for  the  last  time. 

I  have  the  good  fortune.  Noble  and  Right  Honourable 
Sirs,  to  come  of  a  family  which  has  sat,  from  father  to  son, 
in  the  councils  of  the  city  of  Delft  since  the  year  1300,  as 
well  as  for  a  long  time  in  those  of  Gouda,  where  the  last 
Gerard  Storm,  Heer  van  Hoogeveen,  died  as  burgomaster 
in  the  year  175  i^ 

Having  always  acted  in  keeping  with  the  traditional 
Dutch  outspokenness  (ever,  too,  the  boast  of  the  Zeelanders, 
whence  the  saying  Goed  rond  goed  Zeeuwsch*),  having 
always  during  my  full  seventeen  years  of  military  service 
gone  straightforwardly  to  work  and  never  been  afraid  to 

^  See  pp.  143-145.  2  Cf.  remarks  on  pp.  299,  300. 

^  For  a  full  account  of  Storm's  forbears  see  pp.  28-31. 
*  See  p.  429. 


tell  my  chiefs  the  truth  outright  and,  though  with  due 
respect,  without  circumlocution,  I  thereby  gained  their 
esteem  and  have  still  by  me  the  letter  wherein  my  old 
Colonel,  Generaal  van  Pallandt\  then  82  years  of  age,  did 
me  the  honour  to  write  (upon  my  informing  His  Excellency 
of  my  intention  to  go  to  Essequibo  and  thanking  him  for 
all  the  benefits  conferred  on  me)  that  he  was  very  pleased 
indeed  to  hear  of  my  advancement  but  that  he  was  at  the 
same  time  sorry  to  lose  one  of  his  best  officers. 

His  Late  Serene  Highness^,  of  laudable  memory,  having 
been  good  enough  to  take  the  trouble  to  read  all  my  letters 
to  YY.  HH.,  also  did  me  the  honour  to  say^  "  You  are  still 
the  old  Storm  van  's  Gravesande — Jan  RegUiyt^'''  (alluding 
to  the  affair  concerning  H.  s.  H.  which  I  had  had  20  years 
before  with  my  stepmother's  father.  Burgomaster  van 
Bronkhorst^  in  Utrecht,  where  H.  S.  H.  was  then  studying, 
and  which  cost  me  my  promotion^),  adding,  "  had  you 
stayed  here  you  would  now  be  one  of  our  generals." 

What  is  the  Colony  now  compared  with  what  it  was 
twenty  years  ago  ?  What  has  become  of  the  unity  and 
sincerity  of  those  days  .'  As  long  as  I  was  Secretary,  and 
long  after,  YY.  HH.  never  wrote  a  single  letter  to  anyone 
but  the  Commander  and  never  even  answered  one  of  mine 

1  Johan  Werner  van  Pallandt,  Heer  van  Eerde  en  Beerse,  a 
general  of  infantry  and  some  time  Governor  of  Tournai  and  Breda. 
He  died  Oct.  14,  1741.  Van  der  Aa  {Biographisch  Woordenboek) 
does  not  give  the  date  of  his  birth,  which  may,  however,  be  fixed 
by  Storm's  statement,  which  refers  to  his  own  appointment  in  1737. 

2  WilHam  IV,  Prince  of  Orange  (cf.  p.  37). 

3  This  must  have  been  in  1730  or  //J/,  during  Storm's  visit  home. 
(Cf.  p.  278.) 

*  "  Straightforward  John." 

s  From  Rietstap  {Heraldieke  Bibliotheek,  187J,  p.  132)  we  learn 
that  Storm's  father  married  for  the  second  time  on  July  27,  1713, 
Ernestine  Henriette,  a  daughter  of  Adriaan  van  Bronkhorst,  burgo- 
master of  Utrecht. 

"  In  17 JO  or  17 Ji. 


except  addressed  to  the  Commander  and  Secretary^  I  may- 
boast  that  although  in  those  days  I  got  no  direct  reply  to 
my  letters  no  proposal  that  I  took  the  liberty  to  make  was 
ever  rejected. 

Demerara  was  begun  under  my  administration.  What 
trouble  did  I  not  take,  what  fatigue  did  I  not  endure  to 
make  it  prosper,  and  what  opposition  did  I  not  have  to 
fight !  This  is  well  known  to  YY.  HH.  and  even  better  than 
to  me.  Now  that  it  comprises  not  far  from  200  plantations 
what  reward  have  I  for  my  labour .''  The  base  ingratitude 
of  many  of  the  planters,  misled  and  incited  by  enemies  who 
really  deserve  naught  but  my  contempt  and  that  of  all 
honest  men.  But,  YY.  HH.,  in  spite  of  that,  I  can  safely  rely 
upon  all  the  inhabitants.  Let  them  be  asked,  man  for  man, 
whether  I  have  wronged,  oppressed  or  mulcted  them ;  it 
will  be  my  shame  if  but  one  can  say  and  prove  it — except, 
perhaps,  two  or  three  of  my  bitterest  enemies  who  might 
say  so,  but  to  prove  it  would  be  another  matter. 

Economy  is  laudable  and  most  necessary ;  that  is 
perfectly  true,  but  what  is  called  economy  is  not  always  so 
and  in  order  to  ingratiate  themselves  with  YY.  HH.  people 
have  dished  up  many  untruths  that  are  now  beginning  to 
bear  evil  consequences ;  for  instance,  the  brick  factory  and 
many  other  things  which  I  pass  over  from  expediency  and 
because  what  is  done  cannot  be  undone.  But  I,  a  weak  old 
man,  must  now  bear  the  burden — not  the  blame,  which 
cannot  be  imputed  to  me,  as  I  can  prove  clear  as  daylight 
by  Your  Honours'  and  my  own  letters  and  the  course  I 
pursued — but  the  burden  of  gradually  putting  things  into 
order  again. 

'  An  example  of  the  practice  Storm  alludes  to  may  be  seen  on 
p.   196. 


The  Court  of  Policy  sat  on  the  25th  of  May,  when 
about  sixty  Petitions  were  presented  for  grants  of  land. 
No  decision  could  be  come  to  concerning  the  majority  of 
these,  because  the  Court  did  not  know  how  far  it  was 
possible  to  accede  to  them  ;  they  have,  however,  been  placed 
in  the  hands  of  one  of  the  surveyors,  who  is  to  report  to  the 
Court,  whereupon  some  decision  will  be  arrived  at. 

At  this  meeting  were  also  read  the  several  letters  from 
YY.  HH.,  in  which  orders  are  given  to  grant  tracts  of  land 
in  the  creek  of  Maheyka,  which  surprises  us  very  much. 

It  is  some  time  now  since  the  Court  of  Policy  came  to 
the  resolve  not  to  make  any  grants  of  land  in  the  creek 
Maheyka  until  the  sea-coast  on  the  east  side  of  Demerary 
was  populated. 

Maheyka  being  situated  full  seven  hours  from  Demerary, 
the  Court  thought  that  if  land  were  granted  there,  the 
planters  would  be  too  far  beyond  the  reach  of  the  Govern- 
ment, and  would  be  able  to  do  as  they  liked  without  the 
least  fear  of  being  pursued,  which  could  only  lead  to  very 
bad  results,  and  this  is  the  reason  of  the  Resolution  which 
Your  Honours  will  find  in  the  last  Protocols  of  the  Court 
of  Policy  sent  over. 

After  a  long  account  concerning  Court  business,  the  large 
number  of  protested  bills  of  exchange  and  the  imminent 
failure  of  many  planters,  Storm  proceeds  as  follows. 

Be  pleased  to  consider,  YY.  HH.,  in  what  condition  I 
must  be,  not  only  through  sitting  so  long  in  Court  in  this 
chaos  of  business,  but  having  besides,  from  the  moment  I 
leave  my  room  at  half- past  five  in  the  morning  until  the 
evening,  to  listen  to  so  many  people  who  come  to  talk  to 
me  of  their  affairs  ;  I  am,  needless  to  say,  quite  dazed  and 
hardly    know    what    to    do    or    where    to    begin.     I    must 


succumb,  for  I  cannot  go  on.     It  seems  as  if  the  saying  of 

the    Emperor   Vespasian  (to   compare   great  things  with 

small)  were  about  to  fit  me — Decet  imperatorein  stantem 

P.R.O.  475/123 

June  21,  I77I^ 

Although  now  fully  thirty-three  years  in  this  Colony 
(with  the  exception  of  1750  and  175 1,  when  I  was  in 
Europe)  I  have  never  experienced  such  a  time  as  the 
present.  Everything  seems  to  be  in  a  turmoil  and  there  is 
not  a  mement's  rest.  Court-meeting  after  meeting,  and 
these  so  tedious  and  wearisome  as  to  be  unendurable. 

The  ofifices  of  secretary,  bookkeeper,  receiver  of  dues 
and  taxes  and  sales-master  having  now  been  vacant  for 
four  years,  everything  rests  upon  my  weak  shoulders ;  to 
this  is  now  added  the  Commandership  of  Demerara^, 
which,  although  filled,  like  the  secretaryship,  ad  interim, 
still  really  falls  on  me  since  I  am  absolutely  compelled  to 
superintend  everything,  else  little  or  naught  would  be 
properly  done. 

*  Very  frequently  several  letters  were  despatched  by  the  same 
vessel  (cf.  date  on  p.  643). 

2  In  his  earlier  despatch  of  the  same  date  Storm  stated  (it  has  not 
been  deemed  necessary  to  give  the  extract)  that  in  accordance  with 
the  Directors'  instructions  dated  December  24.,  1770,  he  had  (on  April 
J,  ////,  see  P.R.O.  475/1 11)  discharged  van  den  Heuvel  to  the  great 
joy  of  the  latter,  though  this  joy  had  been  almost  immediately 
tempered  by  the  loss  of  the  ex-Commander's  wife,  Storm's  eldest 
daughter  (see  p.  49). 


P.R.O.  475/132 

July  12,  1771. 

It  is  now  eighteen  months  ago  since  we  received  the 
last  goods  for  the  slaves,  etc.,  by  "  De  Swerver,"  Capt. 
Plutman,  which  arrived  here  at  the  beginning  of  January, 
1770.  This  discourages  both  the  employees  and  slaves  and 
I  am  compelled  to  listen  to  complaints  and  entreaties  on 
the  one  hand  and  to  put  up  with  the  derision  of  the 
planters  on  the  other. 

Where  are  the  times  when  a  managership  being  vacant 
there  were  ten  or  twelve  applicants  ?  Now  I  almost  have 
to  look  for  one,  when  needed,  myself,  but  I  will  not  dilate 
upon  that  now. 

Where  are  the  old  times,  YY.  HH.,  when  the  Company's 
higher  officials  and  the  Managers  annually  received  every- 
thing (and  more  than  they  could  use)  for  their  households 
— tin  plates,  dishes,  serviettes,  tablecloths,  candlesticks, 
earthenware,    etc.  ?      I   remember  getting  all   this  myself 

Concerning  the  state  of  the  Colony  and  some  dealings 
in  relation  therewith  it  is  best  for  me  to  be  silent;  what 
should  I  gain  by  creating  more  enemies  for  the  short  time 
that  in  all  probability  I  have  still  to  live? 

Obsequiuin  aniicos,  Veritas  odium  parit^. 

So  long  as  private  or  self-interest  has  absolute  rule  and 
the  Company's  and  Colony's  welfare  is  not  considered 
nothing  good  is  to  be  expected.  The  Lord  knows  how 
sincere  were  my  intentions  and  all  my  weak  endeavours, 
even  in  the  face  of  strong  opposition,  to  promote  the  welfare 
and  interests  of  the  Honble.  Co.  and  the  growth  of  the 
Colony.  In  despair  I  must  at  length  give  it  up  ;  old,  weak 
and  always  ill,  I  cannot  go  on.  How  will  things  go.  Your 
Honours,  when  it  pleases  the  Almighty  to  take  me  to  Him? 

'  Terence,  Atid.  I.  i.  41. 


Commander    van    den     Heuvel    is    out    of    the    service, 

Changuion^  is  in  Europe,  and  Commandant  Backer  (next 

in  seniority  to  the  Commander)  quite  unvviUing,  I  think,  to 

take   command   ad   interim,   having   already    resigned    as 

Councillor  of  Justice  and   valuer  and  only  remaining  in 

service  out  of  compassion  with  and  in  order  to  help  me. 

Sat  patricB  Priamoqiie  datum  :   si  Pergama  dextra 

Defendi  possent,  etiam  hac  defensa  fuissent^. 

Ah,  could  I  but  say  at  the  end  of  my  days  : 

Ah,  cachons  nous,  passous  avec  les  sages 
Le  soir  serein  d'lm  jour  mele  dorages, 
Et  derobons  a  Cceil  de  I'envienx 
Le  peic  de  temps  que  me  laissent  les  dieux. 

P.R.O.  475/138 

August  27,  1 77 1. 

It  grieves  me  very  much  that  not  being  in  a  fit  state 

properly  to  discharge  my  duties  I  am  still  compelled  nolens 

volens  to  remain  at  the  head  of  affairs,  and  that  by  doing 

as  much  as  possible  I  do  more  than  I  really  can  and  so 

kill  myself     Would  that  YV.  HH.  might  follow  the  doctrine 

of  Horace,  who  says  : 

Solve  senescentem  mature  sanus  equum,  ne 

Peccet  ad  extrenium  ridendus  et  ilia  ducat^, 

as  I  have  followed  that  of  Virgil, 

Hunc  quoque,  ubi  aut  fnorbo  gravis,  aut  jam  segnior  annis, 

Deficit,  abde  domo*. 

'  From  this  and  Storm's  remark  on  p.  648,  Changuion  would 
appear  to  have  been  appointed  Commander  ad  interim  of  Demerara  ; 
Netscher  does  not  include  his  name  in  his  list  of  Commanders,  but 
has  a  gap  in  the  post  from  Dec.  lyyo  to  July  lyys  {Op.  cit.  p.  328). 

2  Virgil,  jEh.  ii.  291. 

3  Horace,  Ep.  I.  i.  9.  *  Virgil,  Georg.  iii.  96. 


I  ought  to  be  in  Demerara,  but  cannot.  The  critical 
events  that  are  occurring  there  are  causing  the  loss  of  van 
den  Heuvel  to  be  deplored  and  that,  too,  openly,  by  the 
very  people  who  were  opposed  to  him.  I  feel  his  loss  most, 
but  what  is  to  be  done?  Non  omnia possumiis  onines.  So 
it  will  also  be  when  I  am  gone.  I  am  quite  convinced  they 
will  often  say,  "  Would  that  our  old  Governor  were  still 
with  us!" 

van  den  Heuvel  has  his  faults,  but  who  has  not.  Your 
Honours  ? 

Nam  vitiis  nemo  sine  nascitur,  optimus  ille  est 
Qui  minimis  urgetm-'^. 

He  did  his  duty  as  far  as  lay  in  his  power  and  would 
possibly  have  done  more  had  not  he,  like  me,  lost  courage 
through  the  opposition  and  all  the  intrigues  of  our  foes,  who 
have  caused  me  so  much  undeserved  pain.... 

Tidings   come   from    Amsterdam    that   a   considerable 

number  of  protested  bills  will  be  sent  back  by  the  next 

vessel.     What  will  happen  then  ?     I  see  no  way  out  of  it. 

I    have    still    several   by    me   for    which    I    cannot    obtain 

payment    without    ruining    the    drawers.      Others    having 

patience  with  the  latter  I  cannot  bring  myself  to  be  harder 

than  they,  especially  since  amongst  these  there  are  several 

who  are  themselves  in  difficulties. 


Besides  the  current  sales,  payment  for  which  is  not  yet 
due,  I  have  much  more  than  thirty  thousand  guilders  owing 
to  me,  and  this  frequently  causes  me  difficulty.  But 
patience !  I  hope  it  will  come  in  gradually,  if  not  to  me, 
then  to  my  children. 

^   Horace,  Satirae,  I.  iii.  68. 

2  For  the  intervening  passage  see  the  second  extract  on  p.  55. 


Leaving  this  matter  I  will  proceed  with  my  report  as 
far  as  possible. 

On  Your  Honours'  plantations  everything  is,  thank 
God,  going  on  well.  If  only  we  could  get  more  cattle  and 
a  reinforcement  of  slaves  for  "  Achterkerke  "  and  "  Luyx- 
bergen " !  I  dare  not  do  as  I  would  herein,  however 
necessary  it  be,  since  economy  has  been  so  impressed  upon 

There  is  now  great  lack  of  everything  both  at  the  Fort 
and  on  Your  Honours'  plantations,  it  being  nineteen 
months  since  we  received  the  last  provisions  and  trading- 
wares.  I  have  not  even  a  flag  to  hoist  over  the  Fort ;  at 
the  last  execution  I  had  to  borrow  one  from  Capt.  Deneke 
and  on  the  7th,  the  anniversary  of  H.  R.  H.'s^  birthday,  one 
from  van  Kakom,  whose  vessel  is  the  only  one  now  lying 
before  the  Fort. 

I  have  now  a  deal  of  worry  concerning  protested  bills — 
one  application  after  another  for  execution.  All  those 
emanating  from  strangers  I  refuse  and  refer  to  the  Court, 
but  that  will  not  last  very  long  and  at  the  next  meeting  a 
number  of  petitions  on  this  matter  will  be  presented  ;  at  the 
last  meeting  execution  was  granted  in  two  cases  at  the 
instance  of  colonists.  The  Court  acts  with  great  reluctance 
in  this  business  and  for  very  good  reasons,  for  were  it  more 
precipitate  the  Colony  would  be  quite  ruined  ;  the  downfall 
of  one  would  drag  many  others  after  it — it  is  quite  a 
concatenation.  For  instance,  P.  Halley  holds  protested 
bills  drawn  by  J.  Daly,  John  Bermingham  has  some  drawn 
by  P.  Halley,  the  latter  again  some  drawn  by  Vincent 
Barre ;  if  execution  is  granted  against  P.  Halley,  he  must 

'  Princess   Fredrica    Sophia    Wilhelmina,    consort  of  William  V, 
Prince  of  Orange,  born  August  7,  1747. 


apply  for  the  same  against  J.  Daly  and  V.  Barre.  It  is 
impossible  for  me  to  give  YY.  HH.  a  good  and  sufficient 
idea  of  all  this,  but  in  the  end  it  will  have  to  bend  or  break; 
if  no  change  comes  things  will  be  in  a  wretched  state.  If 
there  be  no  credit  there  will  be  no  buyers,  therefore  the 
drawers  as  well  as  the  holders  of  bills  will  be  ruined.  I 
foresaw  and  foretold  all  this  clearly  and  plainly,  but  mine 
was  the  fate  of  Cassandra,  who  was  given  the  power  to 
prophesy  but  destined  never  to  be  believed. 

I  am  being  greatly  worried  by  a  person  from  St 
Christopher  who  has  a  large  number  of  protested  bills  and 
is  applying  for  execution.  I  referred  him  to  the  Court  but 
it  being  too  long  for  him  to  wait  until  October  7,  the  date 
of  the  ordinary  meeting,  he  asked  for  a  special  meeting, 
whereupon  I  told  him  this  would  cost  him  500  guilders,  to 
be  deposited  beforehand  in  the  Secretary's  office.  He  said, 
"  I  must  have  my  money,  even  if  I  have  to  pay  1 500 
guilders."  But  things  have  remained  at  that  and  he  has 
made  no  further  application.  What  the  Councillors  will 
decree  in  this  matter  is  still  unknown  to  me,  but  personally 
I  am  absolutely  opposed  to  a  grant  of  execution ;  all  his 
bills  are  the  result  of  illicit  trade  in  smuggled  slaves'. 
Moreover  I  am  told  that  he  sold  good,  bad  and  indifferent, 
all  at  a  handsome  profit.  These  fine  gentlemen  must  be 
taught  a  lesson  and  this  would  be  the  most  efficacious 
means  of  checking  them  in  that  illicit  trade.  I  shall  delay 
the  special  meeting  as  long  as  I  can,  but  if  he  persists  in 
having  it  I  must  convoke  it,  though  I  hope  it  will  be  of  no 
use  to  him.  It  is  my  opinion,  salzw  ineliori,  that  if  any 
complaints  were  made  to  Their  High  Mightinesses  con- 
cerning the  matter  (though  I  do  not  expect  it)  justification 
would  be  found  for  not  allowing  the  Colony  to  be  ruined 

^  Cf.  remarks  on  pp.  299,  300. 


and  overturned  for  the  sake  of  an  illicit  trade  carried  on  in 
violation  of  the  Company's  Charter  and  Your  Honours'  oft 
repeated  orders,  and  rendered  more  odious  by  the  practice 
of  bills  being  renewed  two  and  even  three  times  (possibly 
oftener)  with  an  increment  of  25  per  cent. 

The  throwing  open  of  Pomeroon  would  certainly  result 
in  the  downfall  of  Essequibo  and  Demerary,  and  the 
opening  would  only  be  to  the  advantage  of  the  English, 
who  would  come  there  in  crowds  for  the  fine  timber  that  is 
there,  and  not  for  the  purpose  of  laying  out  proper  planta- 
tions. The  Company  would  therefore  derive  no  profit  from 
this,  but  it  would  be  absolutely  harmful,  and  if  that  river 
were  at  any  time  thrown  open,  with  a  strict  provision  that 
no  timber  might  be  exported,  we  should  have  very  few  or 
possibly  no  applications  for  land  there\ 

P.R.O.  475/149 

September  15,  1771. 

Now,  Your  Honours,  we  are  not  only  without  provisions 
(that  would  be  the  least)  but  without  trading  wares,  linen 
or  tools  for  the  slaves  ;  there  is  not  a  nail  left  to  fasten 
anything  with  or  to  nail  up  the  sugar  casks — we  are 
without  a  thing.  How  can  this  go  on,  YY.  HH.  ?  To  buy 
would  be  contrary  to  the  economy  so  impressed  upon  me, 
for  I  should  have  to  pay  an  increase  of  at  least  50  if  not 
100  Vo  upon  everything. 

*  See  p.  352. 


P.R.O.  475/166 

November  12,  1771. 

I  now  come  to  that  clause  in  Your  Honours'  letter 
which  has  grieved  me  to  my  soul.  Is  this  the  reward,  YY. 
HH.,  for  my  thirty-four  years'  service — to  be  told  I  am  a 
rogue  ?  This  is  not  in  Your  Honours'  letter  totidem  verbis 
but  totidem  sensu. 

I  call  Omniscient  God  to  witness  that  I  have  done  all  in 
my  power  to  further  the  interests  of  the  Company  and 
Colony.  I  may  have  made  mistakes — errare  humamim — 
but  have  never  wittingly  cheated  the  Company  or  the 
Colony  out  of  a  farthing... 

That  Your  Honours'  slaves  have  been  for  long  periods 
without  rations  is  perfectly  true — often  for  six  months  in 
the  year,  with  intervals — and  the  number  of  Your  Honours' 
slaves  who  get  or  ought  to  get  rations  is  600  without 
counting  children.  Three  pounds  of  fish  every  fortnight 
for  these  600  slaves  amounts  to  48,000  lbs.,  and  this  does 
not  suffice,  for  the  children  must  have  at  least  their  bit  too. 
Whenever  was,  not  48,000  lbs.,  but  even  the  half  of  that 
purchased  in  one  year,  including  the  stockfish  which  YY. 
HH.  send  }  Where  then.  Your  Honours,  is  the  bad  and 
unjustifiable  management,  how  can  there  be  suspicions 
concerning  honesty,  attention  and  economy  .-' 

I  imagine — possibly  I  am  mistaken  but  would  gladly 
be  put  right — I  imagine  that  the  Honble.  Co.  is  bound  to 
keep  me  in  household  supplies  in  a  proper  (by  no  means 
luxurious)  manner ;  how  often,  through  lack  of  everything, 
have  I  not  to  pay  for  my  beer,  oil,  vinegar,  soap,  candles, 
etc.,  out  of  my  own  pocket?  Have  I  debited  YY.  HH.  with 
this.-*  It  would  amount  to  a  pretty  considerable  sum  if 
I  were  to  reckon  it  all  up,  and  I  can  assure  YY.  HH.  that  if 
the  salesmastership  had  not  supported  me  I  should  be  up 


to  my  ears  in  debt.     I  even  have  to  provide  the  guard  in 
the  Fort  with  candles  of  my  own. 

Your  Honours  have,  it  seems  to  me,  taken  not  the  least 
notice  of  what  I  wrote  concerning  the  horses  and  mules 
required  for  the  Company's  plantations,  for  YY.  HH.  stick 
strictly  to  the  old  text.  Whilst  on  this  subject  I  will  make 
bold  to  dilate  briefly  upon  the  said  plantations. 

All  the  mills  there  are  in  perfectly  good  order,  cane 
so  abundant  that  if  any  mills  in  the  neighbourhood  offered 
to  fetch  and  crush  half  of  it  I  should  not  hesitate  to  let 
them  do  so,  it  being  quite  impossible  for  the  managers  to 
get  through  it. 

If  they  had  the  animals  they  could  be  constantly 
crushing  and  yield  as  much  sugar  as  any  plantation  of  the 
same  size  in  the  Colony,  but  there  would  have  to  be  no 
lack  of  anything.  The  manager  of  "  Achterkerk  "  has  been 
obliged  to  let  these  two  excellent  equinoctial  spring  tides 
pass  without  crushing  because  he  has  not  a  drop  of  oil  and 
there  is  none  to  be  got  in  the  whole  Colony  ;  the  manager 
of  "  Duynenburg"  got  A.  Zeagers  to  lend  him  a  canful — 
for  the  rest  there  is  a  dearth  of  everything. 

If  YY.  HH.  will  be  good  enough  to  give  the  plantations 
a  chance  to  do  so,  the  plantations  will  yield  as  well  as  any 
in  the  Colony.  Now  necessity  compels  me  to  purchase 
horses  and  mules  or  allow  the  cane  to  rot.  I  hope  Capt. 
Holmes,  of  whom  I  have  ordered  20  horses,  will  soon  come 
in,  and  I  shall  also  buy  mules,  even  up  to  300  guilders 
a  piece,  which  until  now  I  have  not  dared  to  do. 

On  one  of  the  plantations  things  might,  it  is  true,  be 
better,  and  concerning  this  I  administered  some  sharp 
reproofs  only  last  week,  but  what  am  I  to  do,  YY.  HH.  ? 
Other  good  managers  are  not  to  be  got ;  a  manager  on  a 
good  private  plantation  earns  at  least  600  guilders  a  year, 
van  den  Heuvel  gives  his  manager  1000  guilders  and  there 


are  others  who  earn  even  more ;  what  competent  man  will 
then  enter  the  Company's  service  ?  They  are  as  averse 
now  as  they  were  formerly  glad  to  do  so 

The  increase  in  the  salary  of  the  Commander  ad  intei'Un 
of  Demerara  was  made,  as  usual  in  such  cases,  subject  to 
Your  Honours'  approval ;  I  communicated  Your  Honours' 
orders  to  him  and  received  the  following  reply. 

"  I  am  obliged  to  Your  Excellency  for  the  intimation 
of  what  Their  Honours  write.  I  could  never  have  imagined 
that  TT.  HH.  would  have  disapproved  of  the  increase 
granted  me  by  Your  Excellency,  especially  as  I  undertook 
the  office  against  my  will.  I  might  regard  it  as  a  means  of 
taking  my  discharge,  for  what  have  I  left  after  paying  my 
clerk  25  guilders  a  month.''  Not  more  than  3^  guilders — 
a  fine  salary  for  one  who  has  to  be  in  command  and  to 
discharge  an  assistant's  duties  too  !  " 

P.R.O.  476/1 

November  30,  1771. 

Lack  of  provisions  has  never  been  greater ;  no  North 
Americans  come,  the  protested  bills  having  frightened  them 
away.  I  think  that  if  one  ran  in  now  she  would  be  able  to 
sell  her  salt  fish  at  sixpence  a  pound. 

On  November  2,  ration  day,  I  was  in  the  greatest 
difficulty,  for  there  was  not  an  atom  of  meal  in  the  ware- 
house, none  coming  in  now  from  the  English.  To  my 
great  good  fortune  there  were  a  few  casks  in  J.  Vlees- 
houwer's  warehouse,  half  spoilt  and  full  of  ants,  and  these  I 
was  obliged  to  take  at  14  doits^  a  pound  together  with 
15  casks  from  J.  Patterson. 

^  A  doit  was  equal  to  about  an  eighth  of  an  English  penny. 
V.  S.    II.  42 


After  Capt.  Stuurlinck's  letter-bag  was  closed  it  came 
to  my  ears  that  a  petition  signed  by  a  very  large  number 
of  planters  had  been  sent  over  to  H.  S.  H.  in  order  to 
procure  free  navigation  for  Amsterdam  ships.  This  was 
carefully  concealed  from  me  for  some  weeks  after  despatch 
the  signatories  not  trusting  me  and  fearing  that  I  would 
have  tried  to  oppose  it  as  much  as  possible.  Is  it  not 
strange,  YY.  HH.,  that  in  Zeeland  I  am  suspected  of  being 
in  favour  of  Amsterdam  and  here  of  quite  the  opposite ^''... 

The  lack  of  credit,  the  protested  bills,  etc.  drive  many 
to  despair  and  they  imagine  that  by  some  such  change 
credit  will  be  restored  and  they  themselves  set  up  again. 

Turba  per  extremas  semper  BaccJiata  vagatur 
Et  niedias  nescit  carpere  tiita  vias-. 

When  I  had  written  as  far  as  this  Capt.  Ledyard  arrived 
in  Demerara  from  North  America  bringing  all  kinds  of 
provisions,  twelve  horses  and  six  mules.  I  should  certainly 
have  bought  some  25  casks  of  flour  from  him  for  the 
rations  had  he  not  told  me  that  a  three-masted  vessel  had 
anchored  before  Demerara;  feeling  certain  that  this  was 
Capt.  Different  I  let  him  go  and  ordered  only  ten  casks  of 
flour  and  four  of  cod,  taking  it  for  granted  that  Different 
would  have  brought  at  least  some  meal.  But  his  letter- 
bag  arriving  two  days  later  I  found  to  my  great  astonish- 
ment on  reading  Your  Honours'  most  esteemed  letter  that 
this  vessel  had  again  brought  nothing  for  the  Company. 
What  is  to  happen,  Your  Honours  .'*  For  myself  it  does 
not  matter;  I  buy  what  I  want  and  pay  for  it  out  of  my 
pocket.  But  the  other  officials,  the  slaves,  the  plantations 
— what  is  to  become  of  them?  If  it  please  YY.  HH.  to  let 
the  plantations  fall  rapidly  back  I  wash  my  hands  of  the 
matter  and  leave  it  to  Providence. 

^  See  pp.  143-145.  2  See  p.  569,  Note  i. 


P.R.O.  476/23 

May  15,  1772, 

Since  my  term  of  office  is  approaching  its  end  I  con- 
sider myself  compelled  to  lay  before  YY.  HH.  what  is  in  my 
mind  without  circumlocution,  as  has  always  been  my  wont. 

If  everything  were  properly  regulated  and  put  into  due 
order  the  Colony  would,  under  the  Lord's  blessing,  soon 
equal  if  not  surpass  Surinam.  There  is  no  colony  in  the 
West  Indies  where  there  is  so  much  work  and  industry. 
When  one  returns  to  Demerara  after  a  year's  absence  one 
is  astonished  at  the  progress  that  has  been  made. 

The  pioneers,  who  worked  vigorously,  allow  themselves 
to  be  misled  by  clever  rogues  now  that  the  worst  part  is 
over.     So  it  is 

Sic  vos  lion  vobis  nidificatis  aves 
Sic  vos  nan  vobis  niellificatis  apes^. 

I  do  not  know  whether  it  is  true,  but  I  have  been  told 
that  some  Jews  have  applied  to  yy.  HH.  for  permission 
to  settle  here.  If  this  be  so  and  they  get  permission 
I  would  put  them  all  above  the  first  fall  in  Essequibo, 
called  the  Mangue  Falll  They  would  be  a  bit  out  of  the 
way  there  and  have  excellent  land^.  Some  years  ago 
Moses  Isaakse  de  Vries,  a  Jew  from  Surinam,  laid  out  a 
plantation  there  and  brought  down  to  A,  Pieterse,  the 
manager  of  Oosterbeek,  cane  fifteen  feet  long,  as  thick  as  a 
man's  arm  and  yielding  excellent  sugar ;  only  one  piece  of 

1  See  p.  355. 

^  The  narrows  of  the  Essequibo  just  below  the  first  fall  are  known 
{teste  Sir  E.  F.  im  Thurn)  as  the  Monkey  Jump.  Which  is  the  earlier 
form — mangue  or  monkey — cannot  be  determined. 

^  See  Note  2,  p.  211. 

42 — 2 


cane  at  a  time  could  be  put  through  the  mill.  Pieterse, 
a  Creole  and  formerly  himself  a  planter,  told  me  he  had 
never  seen  anything  like  it.  He  desired  to  go  up  there 
himself  to  lay  out  a  plantation,  but  refrained  from  doing  so 
at  the  entreaty  of  his  relatives  and  went  to  Demerara 
instead,  where  he  laid  out  the  first  plantation,  now  called 
St  Jan.  Moses  Isaakse  de  Vries  having  died,  the  beginning 
made  up  there  has  not  yet  been  carried  further. 

P.R.O.  476/149 

July  14,  1772. 

Many  applicants  allow  their  land  to  lie  idle  and  do  not 
bother  about  it ;  others  who  seem  to  desire  to  keep  it  refuse 
to  pay  the  surveyors  on  delivery  of  the  chart,  though  they 
do  not  fail  to  complain  to  YV.  HH.  if  their  land  is  declared 
to  be  forfeited  and  transferred  to  others. 

It  is  urgently  necessary,  YY.  HH.,  both  for  the  interests 
of  the  Honble.  Co.  and  for  the  welfare  and  progress  of  the 
Colony  that  the  law  be  strictly  adhered  to  which  enacts 
that  allotted  lands  must  be  worked  within  a  year  and  six 
weeks  on  pain  of  being  declared  forfeited,  except  in  a  few 
special  cases  when  the  Court  for  good  reasons  grants 
dispensation   for  a  single  occasion  and  a  stipulated   time. 

It  is  related  here  that  a  new  Governor  has  arrived  in 
Orinoco.  Should  that  be  true,  I  hope  that  he  will  not  be 
such  a  Turk  as  his  predecessor.  With  the  latter  there  was 
not  the  least  chance  of  getting  anything  out  of  Orinoco, 
and  he  even  forbade  the  usual  salting  in  the  mouth  of  the 
river,  and  set  a  strong  watch  to  prevent  it.  If  the  present 
one  shows  a  little  more  tractability,  as  the  former  ones  did, 
I    will  soon   take  advantage    of  it ;    there   must    now    be 


abundance  of  cattle  there.  The  Enghsh  no  longer  bring 
either  horses  or  mules  and  very  little  provisions,  the  cause 
of  this  being  the  protested  bills. 

The  English  who  bring  provisions  absolutely  refuse  to 
deliver  anything  without  payment  in  cash  or  kind,  bills  they 
will  not  take.     What  will  the  result  of  this  be  ? 

Mr  Gedney  Clarke  has  sold  all  his  property  in  our 
Colony  to  one  J.  Hassley,  whose  property  in  Tabago  he  has 

//  is  pleasant  to  observe  that  one  of  Storm  s  last  official  acts 
Jiere  chronicled  was  in  protection  of  the  free  Indian  and 
the  slave. 

P.R.O.  476/150 

August  27,  1772. 

Principiis  obsta  sero  medicina  paratur^.  In  spite  of  my 
efforts  and  warnings  I  have  up  to  now  been  able  to  do 
little  in  the  way  of  bettering  the  treatment  meted  out  to 
free  Indians  and  of  stopping  the  ill-treatment  of  slaves. 
The  sad  condition  of  Surinam  has  at  length  opened  the 
colonists'  eyes  and  important  resolutions  relating  thereto 
have  been  passed,  as  YY.  HH.  will  see  from  the  proclama- 

F.  W.  Gerds,  accused  by  a  free  Arawak,  who  exhibited 
in  Court  the  marks  of  a  whipping,  was  brought  from  his 
plantation,  and  after  having  been  confined  in  the  lock-up 
for  24  hours  was  heavily  fined  and  ordered  to  give  the 
Indian  fifty  guilders'  worth  of  goods  ;  after  this  the  doors 

^  Ovid,  Rem.  Ainor.  91. 


were  thrown  open  and  the  public  was  admitted,  whereupon 
the  accused  was,  in  the  hearing  of  all  present,  very  severely 
reprimanded  both  for  his  ill  conduct  towards  the  Indians  and 
for  his  barbarous  treatment  of  his  slaves,  being  told  that  the 
next  time  such  a  charge  was  again  proved  against  him  he 
would  be  punished  not  by  a  fine,  but  corporally. 

The  dearth  of  provisions  in  the  Upper  Demerara  is 
grievous,  especially  for  the  slaves.  Wisdom  has  been  the 
dupe  of  cupidity^  In  order  to  obtain  big  yields  only  coffee 
and  other  produce  was  planted,  no  thought  being  given  to 
the  laying  out  of  provision  gardens,  nor  were  the  slaves 
allowed  their  customary  Saturdays  off^.  Even  when  the 
English  bring  things,  they  will  not  give  them  without 
immediate  payment ;  they  will  not  take  bills  any  more  and 
no  contracts  exist.  If  therefore  the  colonists  wish  to  keep 
themselves  and  their  slaves  from  starving  they  are  obliged 
to  pay  in  kind.     Hunger  is  a  sharp  sword*.  Your  Honours. 

Planters  who  are  well  stocked  are  unwilling  to  sell, 
because  they  can  get  no  payment ;  bills  are  not  accepted, 
since,  however  well  backed,  they  cannot  be  cashed.  I  have 
a  whole  drawerful  that  I  have  been  obliged  to  take  in 
payment  of  small  sales,  and  I  would  give  the  lot  for  half 
the  amount  in  cash. 

Very  many  plantations  having  been  laid  out  on  the 
west  coast  of  this  river,  Bouwman,  the  surveyor,  who 
measured  all  those  plantations,  has  at  my  request  made  a 
chart  of  that  coast  as  far  as  Pomeroon  and  the  Post  of 
Maroco.     From  the  actual  mouth  of  the  Essequibo  to  the 

^  De  gierigheid  heeft  de  wijsheid  bedrogen. 

2  On  which  days  they  had  been  wont  to  cultivate  their  own  pro- 
vision (cassava)  gardens. 

^  Monger  is  een  scherp  sweerd. 


creek  Hamalte^  there  are  twenty-seven  plantations;  from 
there  to  Mana  Caboera  there  are  about  six  thousand  roods, 
and  from  Mana  Caboera  to  the  mouth  of  Bowaron  Ollira 
there  are  nine  thousand  roods  (taken  up),  so  that  we  are 
beginning  to  get  close  to  Pomeroon  and  shall  therefore  have 
to  cease  making  fresh  grants  of  ground  in  that  direction. 

What  astonished  me  most,  YY.  HH.,  was  to  see  in  these 
exact  plans  the  situation  of  the  Post  in  Maroco ;  I  could 
never  have  imagined  that  it  lay  so  far  up  the  creek  from  the 
sea-coast.  It  lies  upon  and  fully  commands  the  inland  road 
through  the  itabos'^,  which  is  used  by  the  inhabitants  and 
the  Spaniards  as  the  safest,  but  it  is  absolutely  useless  as 
far  as  regards  the  runaway  slaves,  who  pass  along  the  coast 
by  water,  that  being  just  beyond  the  reach  of  the  Post. 

From  this  we  see  how  little  reliance  is  to  be  placed  upon 
all  the  verbal  reports  of  the  Postholders,  the  latter  having 
their  own  reasons  for  keeping  up  the  deception,  and  I 
therefore  believe  that  the  visit  of  the  surveyor  was  not  very 
agreeable  to  them. 

Bouwman  has  sent  me  the  new  sketch,  but  I  will  make 
a  neat  copy  of  it,  which  I  hope  to  have  the  honour  of 
sending  YY.  HH. 

In  the  best  chart  of  South  America  by  M.  d'Anville,  the 
Post  of  Maroco  is  also  wrongly  placed  in  accordance  with 
the  aforesaid  inaccurate  information. 

It  grieved  me  to  my  soul  to  learn  of  Your  Honours' 
displeasure  concerning  my  letter  by  "  D'Anna  Catharina," 
Capt.  Stuurlink;  it  never  was  and  never  shall  be  my  inten- 
tion to  be  wanting  in  the  respect  I  owe  YY.  HH.     If  I  have 

^  This  creek  is  apparently  not  marked  on  any  map,  either  con- 
temporary or  later. 

^  Itabo  is  an  Indian  name  for  a  waterway  connecting  two  rivers,  or 
two  points  on  the  same  river,  generally  made  by  the  passage  of  boats 
through  intervening  swampy  ground.     Cf.  pp.  322  and  468. 

664  STORM  VAN  's  gravesande's 

expressed  myself  somewhat  too  emphatically  upon  some 
points  I  humbly  apologize  for  it.  But,  YY.  HH.,  an  old  tree 
cannot  be  transplanted  without  danger  nor  yet  bent.  YY. 
HH.  are  aware  that  as  long  as  I  have  had  the  honour  to 
serve  YY.  HH.  it  has  always  been  my  wont  to  come  straight- 
forwardly to  the  point,  without  circumlocution,  frank  as  a 
Zeelander.  I  have  often  been  fairly  emphatic  in  my  letters 
and  such  was  never  taken  amiss  by  YY.  HH. ;  on  the 
contrary,  when  I  apologized  for  it  YY.  HH.  on  two  occasions 
were  good  enough  to  reply  that  far  from  taking  it  amiss 
YY.  HH.  desired  me  to  continue  to  be  so  outspoken,  but 
tempora  mutantur  nos  et  mutavmr  in  illis^. 

^At  II  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  the  13th  of  this 
month  I  received  a  letter  from  the  Captain- Lieutenant 
Bode,  containing  the  bad  news  that  during  the  previous 
night  the  slaves  of  P.  C.  Hoofd  had  revolted  and  killed 
their  owner  and  his  wife,  and  asking  me  for  immediate 

I  then  sent  Major  van  der  Heyde  there  to  take  com- 
mand, principally  because  he  understands  the  Carib  language, 
to  which  nation  I  had  sent  warning  on  all  sides.  Before 
his  arrival  two  men  named  Clinton  Williams  and  William 
Williams,  with  three  companions,  had  taken  possession  of 
E.  M.  Bermingham's  house,  which  is  a  fairly  strong  one, 
and  defended  it  for  thirty-six  hours  against  the  rebels,  all 
the  rest  (of  the  colonists)  having  fled  to  Mr  Struys  in 

At  length,  more  than  two  hundred  of  the  Caraibans 

1  See  p.  572  (Note  3). 

^  The  reader  is  referred  to  the  remarks  on  pp.  637  and  638,  and 
attention  is  also  called,  in  explanation  of  Storm's  extraordinary  activity 
in  this  revolt,  to  the  extract  on  p.  50. 


being  assembled  under  van  der  Heyde,  it  was  resolved 
to  make  a  general  attack  upon  the  24th,  and  notice  of  this 
was  sent  to  Messrs  Looff,  Boddaert,  and  Trotz  in  Demerary, 
who  take  the  command  down  there  in  turns. 

The  attack  was  made,  and  my  son,  sent  here  by  Mr 
Trotz,  passed  there  at  6  o'clock  in  the  morning  and  told 
me  that  the  firing  had  been  hellish. 

Eight  Caribs,  who  killed  four  rebels,  have  come  here  for 
payment;  it  is  their  custom  that  those  who  have  killed 
a  man  go  away  and  do  not  fight  again  for  some  time. 

The  Owl  has  reported  to  us  that  his  people  were  yester- 
day engaged  in  trying  to  discover  the  place  where  the 
rebels  were  concealed,  and  that  to-day,  the  26th,  another 
attack  would  be  made. 

On  the  west  coast  of  this  river  the  slaves  belonging  to 
Mr  Bakker  have  also  risen,  and  after  having  killed  their 
own  and  A.  Zeagers'  manager  have  retired  into  the  bush. 

I  have  never  seen  any  Acuways  come  to  our  assistance 
with  arms.  They  are  good  friends,  but  nothing  further. 
Last  week,  however,  five  of  them  came  down  and  went  to 
van  der  Heyde,  saying  that  their  tribe  would  come  down 
the  Demerary  to  aid  us.  I  have  sent  information  of  this  to 
the  Court  in  Demerary. 

Things  are  in  a  sad  state  at  present,  and  the  Colony 
has  been  on  the  brink  of  total  ruin.  I  hope  the  Almighty 
will  be  with  us;  with  Him  alone  rests  the  issue.  Our 
resources  cannot  be  weaker;  there  is  as  good  as  no  garrison 
and  the  burghers  are  in  disagreement  and  will  not  obey. 
They  take  no  heed  of  the  fact  that  herein  lies  their  salva- 
tion and  render  desperate  those  who  are  able  and  ordered 
to  command  them,  Mr  van  der  Heyde  having  earnestly 
begged  for  his  discharge.  What  would  have  happened 

666  STORM  VAN  's  gravesande's 

P.R.O.  476/151 

August  29,  1772. 

Noble  and  Right  Honourable  Sirs, 

The  very  dangerous  condition  of  the  Colony 
which  has  been  and  still  is  on  the  brink  of  total  ruin, 
compels  me  to  report  the  same  to  His  Serene  Highness 
as  speedily  as  possible,  which  despatch,  being  inclosed, 
I  take  the  liberty  of  humbly  requesting  YY.  HH.  to  forward 
to  him  at  once. 

On  the  night  between  the  12th  and  13th  of  this  month 
the  slaves  belonging  to  P.  C.  Hoofd  on  the  sea-coast 
revolted,  killing  their  master  and  his  wife  and  another 
planter,  and  setting  fire  to  the  houses  on  three  or  four 

Hoofd  having  received  two  cases  of  guns  and  ammuni- 
tion for  trading  purposes  all  those  scoundrels  are  well 
armed.  Slowly,  indeed,  exceedingly  slowly,  did  the  bur- 
ghers appear  upon  the  scene  after  repeated  signals  of  alarm. 
What  could  I  do  with  my  weak  garrison  of  43  or  44  men 
for  both  rivers.'* 

I  immediately  sent  a  sergeant,  a  corporal,  and  fifteen 
men  to  the  coast,  together  with  fifteen  well-armed  Creoles, 
and  on  the  following  day  I  sent  Councillor  Broodhaage  with 
another  fourteen  Creoles. 

And  immediately  sent  to  my  good  friends  the  Caribs 
on  all  sides  asking  them  to  come  to  our  help,  which  they 
did  not  fail  to  do,  for  they  came  down  from  all  parts,  and 
as  I  write  they  are  three  hundred  strong  on  the  coast  under 
Councillor  van  der  Heyde,  who  is  perfectly  acquainted 
with  their  language. 

The  Burgher-Captain  Baron  van  Grovestins^,  stationed 

^  It  is  difficult  to  determine,  after  this  lapse  of  time,  which  of  the 
two  brothers  this  was — cf.  Note  i  on  p.  281. 


on  van  Hoofd's  plantation,  was  twice  attacked  by  the 
rebels.  Capt.  Voogt,  who  relieved  him,  had  also  to  with- 
stand two  attacks.  Finally  it  was  resolved  to  make  a 
general  attack  on  the  25th  with  the  whites  there  and  200 
Caribs.  This  was  done,  the  rebels  being  driven  from  their 
position  and  about  ten  of  them  killed;  according  to  reports 
received  to-day  they  have  retreated  a  few  hours'  march.... 

There  has  also  been  a  revolt  on  the  west  coast  of  this 
river,  on  Mr  Bakker's  plantation,  the  manager  of  this  and 
the  adjoining  one  having  been  killed.  But  by  the  Lord's 
blessing  this  was  quickly  suppressed,  five  of  the  rebels 
being  captured  and  the  rest  dispersed  in  the  woods.  The 
neighbouring  slaves  having  remained  faithful  this  had  no 
further  consequences. 

Incessantly  occupied  in  reading,  writing,  and  dicta- 
ting it  is  impossible  for  me  to  report  more  circumstantially 
by  this  vessel;  I  am  quite  worn  out  and  can  hardly  go  on. 

P.R.O.  476/152 

September  24,  1772. 

P.  C.  Hoofd's  Indian  carpenter,  Adam,  recently  captured 
and  placed  in  safe  keeping  on  board  the  "Jan  Daniel,"  was 
with  the  rebels  from  beginning  to  end  and  on  being 
interrogated  confirmed  the  accusations  against  P.  Callart 
in  all  details.  He  says  it  was  the  plan  of  the  rebels,  after 
having  taken  possession  of  E.  Bermingham's  house  and 
plantation,  to  have  gone  to  the  lower  corner  of  Demerara, 
then  to  have  returned  and  attacked  J.  B.  Struys'  plantation 
and  thereupon  to  have  gone  to  the  upper  part  of  Demerara, 
where  they  thought  they  would  be  sufficiently  reinforced. 

The  brave  resistance  of  the  two  Williams  in  Berming- 
ham's house  and  the  loyalty  of  most  of  that  planter's  slaves 


(the  bomba^  being  moreover  a  real  brother  of  the  principal 
chief,  Holstein)  frustrated  their  intentions  and  afforded 
time  in  which  to  overcome  them. 

The  Colony  is  greatly  indebted  to  those  two  brave  men, 
the  more  so  because  they  had  the  traitor  Callart  in  their 
house;  according  to  the  declarations  of  the  prisoner  the 
latter  found  means  of  secretly  handing  guns  and  powder 
to  the  rebels  out  of  a  window,  in  spite  of  being  well  watched 
and  told  by  James  Williams  that  if  he  moved  towards 
them,  as  he  seemed  desirous  of  doing,  he  would  be  instantly 
shot  down. 

How  painful  it  is  for  me,  YY.  HH.,  to  find  in  my  old  age 
and  at  the  end  of  thirty-four  years  of  service,  and  espe- 
cially in  such  critical  circumstances,  that  in  spite  of  my 
unwearying  efforts  and  persistent  admonitions,  quarrels  and 
discord  have  reigned  not  only  among  the  burghers  but 
have  found  a  place  even  among  the  rulers  I 

The  Commander  ad  interim^  is  also  in  high  dudgeon, 
being  of  opinion  that  his  dignity  has  been  attacked.  The 
brave  van  der  Heyde,  to  whom  as  well  as  to  the  stout 
resistance  of  the  two  Williams  (under  the  Lord's  blessing 
and  with  His  merciful  support)  the  Colony  may  be  said  to 
owe  its  safety,  is  not  at  all  satisfied  with  what  is  being  said 
and  done  in  Demerara — in  a  word,  there  is  a  chaos  of 

Now,  Your  Honours,  we  have  convincing  proofs  that 
the  Colony  cannot  be  held  without  a  strong  garrison  of  at 
least  200  men  ;    50  soldiers  are  better  than  400  burghers. 

1  Native  foreman. 

2  Here  follow  details  of  a  childish  dispute  concerning  precedence 
which  stops  the  business  of  the  Courts. 

^  Changuion  (see  p.  650). 


but  they  must  be  well-trained  soldiers,  not  the  deliveries  of 

Had  I  been  able  to  send  60  or  70  soldiers,  well  officered 
I  think  that  tranquillity  would  soon  have  been  restored, 
especially  if  there  had  been  some  Caribs  with  them  to 
search  the  woods  well  and  hunt  the  rebels  out. 

This  was  Storvis  last  despatch,  and  its  tenoiir  may  be  taken 
as  cviblematic  of  his  ivhole  career — the  obedience,  energy, 
persistence  of  a  soldier  and  pioneer  marred  not  only  by 
the  cavils  and  petty  jealousies  of  the  traders  around  him 
but  by  the  smaller  aims  and  understanding  of  the  men 
at  home  so  ironically  misnamed  Directors.  The  appended^ 
resolution  from  their  Proceedings,  after  deliberation  upon 
Storm's  report  of  the  revolt,  may  also  be  regarded  as 
typical  of  the  policy  their  body  had  pursued  throughout 
in  administering  a  grozuing  and  oft-disturbed  colony. 
Toy  trumpets  for  Caribs  zvJio  had  distinguished  them- 
selves in  suppressing  a  dangerous  rising!  Even  Net- 
schcr,  that  grave  Jiistorian,  in  recording  somewhat 
similar  gifts  bestowed  some  three  months  later,  sarcas- 
tically remarks,  "  We  see  that  the  West  India  Co.  did 
not  ruin  itself  by  these  gifts  to  its  allies^  {Men  ziet  dat 
de  West-IndiscJie  Compagnie  zich  7iiet  ruineerde  met  die 
geschenkcn  aau  Jiare  bojidgenooten !     {Op.  cit.  p.  jpi.)) 

1  Extract  from  the  Resolutions  of  the  West  India  Company  at  the 
Meeting  held  at  Amsterdam,  April  6,  ///J  [Ven.  Arb.  Brit.  App.  iv. 
p.  108). 

''  Having  read  the  letters  of  the  late  Director-General,  Laurens 
Storm  van  's  Gravesande,  dated  Essequibo,  29th  August  and  12th 
September  of  last  year,  addressed  to  the  Principal  Chamber  in 
Amsterdam,  reporting  the  rising  which  took  place  there  on  the  12th 
and  13th  August, 

It  was  resolved  after  deliberation.  send  some  blue  drill,  combs, 
beads,  toy  trumpets  and  looking  glasses  to  be  presented  to  the  Caribs 
who  have  distinguished  themselves  in  suppressing  the  same." 





Aa    (A.   J.    van    der)    Biogi-aphisch 

IVoofdenboek,  30. 
Abarina.     A  W. I.Co.'s  negro;  sent 

up   Cuyuni  for   information,   1738, 

357:  17(^7^  555- 
Abary    Creek.     Quoted   as    eastern 

boundary,  1748,   239. 
Abomine,    a   negro,    saves    Storm's 

two  sons,  I747-,  230;  Storm  offers 

to  purchase,  ih. ;  presented  to  Storm 

with  wife  and  child,  1748.,  232. 
Acarabisi.     Schomburgk  reaches  its 

confluence  with  Cuyuni,  1841,  116. 
Acarai   Mts.     On  watershed  betw. 

Essequibo      and      Amazon,      112; 

reached  by  Schomburgk,  i8j7,  ib. 
Acosta     (Joseph     de)     On     bezoai 

stones,   in   History  of  the   Indies, 

264;  on  drugs,  263,   264. 
Adams       (Thomas)         Barbarously 

treated  in  Barima,   1766,   504. 
Adapitu    Fall.      Passed   by    Horst- 

man,  17 jg,   169,    172. 
Adriaensen    (Aert)    See   Groenewe- 

gen  (A.  A.). 
Agueverre    (F. )    Venezuelan    com- 
missioner  for    delimitation,    igoi- 

igo4,   138. 
Aguigua.     Site  of  first  Cuyuni  post, 

Ajuricaba.  Manao  chief,  25 ;  ally 
of  the  Dutch,  ib. ;  his  exploits,  ih. ; 
Dutch  influence  over,  ib. ;  silence  of 
Dutch  records,  ih. 

Akawoi  dyes,  461. 

Akawois.     Their  history,  175-177. 

Allamand  (Jean  Nicolas  Sebastien) 
His  career,  370,  371;  sends  Storm 
d'Anville'smap,  7759, 37°  '■>  probable 
medium  betw.  Storm  and  Hart- 
sinck,  460;  his  opinion  asked  on 
"pyramids,"  1766,  502;  Storm 
sends   him    lignum    qiiassicE,    506 : 

and   ancient   remains,    534.     Edits 
W.  J.  's  Gravesande's  works,  1774, 


Aloes.     In  abundance,  195. 

Alvarado  (Eugenio  d')  Colonel, 
Knight  of  St  James.  In  command 
of  Orinoco,  1734,  316;  contradicts 
reports  of  threatened  invasion,  ib. 

Amacura  R.  Fishing  grounds  ex- 
tend to,  168 J,  20;  police-station 
established  on,  1888,  130;  British 
and  Venezuelans  face  to  face  at,  ib. 

America.  Theoiies  of  pre-Colum- 
bian discovery,   533. 

Ampa.  Church  there  dilapidated, 
1730,  271 :  new  one  opened,  1733, 

Amu  R.  [Amurawa.]  Passed  by 
Horstman,    169,    172. 

Amucu  L.  Connecting  Rupununi 
and  Mahu  RR.,  76;  its  identity 
with  Manoa,  El  Dorado  and 
Parinia,  182-185;  Horstman 
crosses,    170,   174. 

Anderson  (Charles  Wilgress)  A  com- 
missioner for  delimitation,  igoi, 
138;  ascends  Roraima,    126. 

Anglo-French  War.  Causes 
dearth  in  Essequibo,   1760,   380. 

Annatto  dye.  Description  of,  289; 
W.I. Co.  trades  in,  1646,  ib.  ;  stoie 
on  the  Massaruni,  1700,  24;  Storm 
encourages  its  cultivation,  i7S3i 
289;  loss  of  the  trade,  176^,  412. 

Antigoa.  Planters  leave  for  Esse- 
quibo, 1744,   211. 

Anville  (Jean  Baptiste  Bourguignon 
d')  His  map  of  1748,  63  :  based 
on  Horstman's,  ib. :  shown  to  Storm, 
/7j/,  397  :  proves  Cuyuni  Dutch, 
1738,  357  :  sent  to  Storm  by  Alla- 
mand, 370 :  explained  by  Storm, 
7759,    371  :     invoked    re    Barima, 



389 :  Moruca  Post  inaccurately 
marked,  663.  His  information 
commended,  358  :   sources  thereof, 


Appun  (C.  F.)  Attempts  to  ascend 
Roraima,    126. 

Aracari.     See  Aricari. 

Aranjuez,  Cartel  of,  i7gi.  To  stop 
slave  desertion,   64,   65. 

Arassari  R.     See  Arissari. 

Arapata  Fall.  [Waraputa],  passed 
by  Horstman,    167,   172. 

Aratacca  Fall.  Passed  by  Horst- 
man,   168,   171. 

Araunama.  Arawak  name  for  the 
Essequibo,   374. 

Arawaks.     Their  history,   177-178. 

Aretanna.  A  Carib  chief.  Ex- 
amined in  Barima,  I7j6,  346 ; 
testifies  against  a  colonist,  347. 

Ariaen.  A  Creole  in  W.I. Co. 's 
service.  Carried  off  to  Spanish 
mission,  ly^S,  359  ;  still  there  in 
7765-,  4S9  :    in  7769,   603. 

Aricari,  village.  Horstman  arrives 
at,    171,    174. 

Arinda  Post.  Its  situation,  74,  431, 
461-466:  route  thither,  461;  its 
establishment,  1734,  26;  its  use, 
1763,  431,  462:  its  advantages, 
464,  465;  its  removal  planned, 
7750,  254:  1764,  ^^(),  476.  Post- 
holder  reports  active  volcano,  1748, 
249;  Jan  Stok's  enormities  near, 
7750,  250,  251;  slave  trade,  270; 
Akawois  near  pursue  fugitives,  1732-, 
287;  Assistant  reports  on  Spanish 
encroachments,  7756,  349;  lazy 
postholder  discharged,  776^",  412  : 
H.  Bakker  appointed,  1763,  ib.  : 
degraded,  776^1!,  470;  postholder's 
long  silence,  7765,  484 :  interesting 
report  from,  486;  swarming  with 
Caribs,  487 ;  postholder's  influence 
over  natives,  ib.\  postholder  and  as- 
sistant fall  out,  7766,  515;  orders 
for  arrest  of  postholder,  519.  Re- 
ported raid  upon,  7767,  552:  raid 
confirmed,  555:  then  denied,  557; 
postholder  dismissed,  ib.  :  Gerrit 
Jansse  (t/-v.)  appointed,  ib.  ;  re- 
assuring reports,  7761?,  574;  post- 
holder's  fear  of  savage  tribes,  616  ; 
last  records,   107. 

Arissari,  Mount.     Its  location,  575. 

Arissari  R.  Passed  by  Horstman, 
169, 172. 

Assembly  of  Nineteen.  Its  con- 
stitution, 143;  proposes  to  abandon 
Essequibo,  y6j2,  ib. 

Assembly  of  Ten.  Its  constitution, 
1 43;  invites  free  trade  with  Es- 
sequibo, 1750,  144;  indirectly 
appealed  to  by  Storm,  143 ;  re- 
organizes Essequibo  and  Demerara, 
777J,  104. 

Ataraipu.  Shown  to  be  Storm's 
"pyramid,"   78. 

Athing  (E.)  A  colonist.  His  ser- 
vices and  loss,  552. 

Atorai  dyes,  461. 

Atorais.     Full  account  of,  462. 

Austin  (Thomas)  Essequibo  and 
Demerara  planter,  1762,  399. 

Avechica.  On  the  Supama,  488 ; 
Spanish  mission  at,  ib. 

Baker  (Arthur  Wybrovv)  Captain. 
A  commissioner  for  delimitation, 

Bakker  ( Alpheda  Louisa)  See  Storm 
van  's  Gravesande  afterwards 

Bakker  (Hendrik)  Appointed  post- 
holder  at  Arinda,  776J,  412  ;  his 
journey  to   the   "pyramid,"   7766, 

500  :     brings   back   sketch   of  two, 

501  ;  his  bad  reputation,  515. 
Bakker    (Johannes)    Commandant  of 

militia.  His  instructions  in  Storm's 
absence,  7765,  486 ;  repairs  Fort 
Zeelandia,  531  ;  opinion  on  Com- 
pany dispute,  629 ;  resigns  offices, 
650  ;  his  death,  777.2,  49  ;  revolt  of 
his  slaves,  665,  667. 

Ballata.  Report  upon  the  industry, 

Balsam  copaiba.  A  product  of  the 
Colony,  263. 

Bandeyra.     See  Torres  de  Bandeyra. 

Bannink  (Hermanus)  Murdered  by 
Indians,  77^7,  231,  269. 

Barama  R.     Surveyed,  1867,  122. 

Baramanni.  Police-station  estab- 
lished at,  130. 

Barbados.  To  furnish  lime  for  new 
fort,  77^9,  198  ;  planters  leave  for 
Essequibo,  77^^,  211,  213  :  others 
discourage  rice-growing  there,  257  ; 
Cr.  Clarke,  of  B.,activein  Demerara, 
775^,  281  ;  Essequibo  supplied  with 
ammunition,  1734,  315,  326;  aid 
invited  for  Berbice,  7765",  421;  aid 
sent  to  Demerara,  422  ;  B.  volun- 
teers march  on  Berbice  rebels,  442  ; 
food  sent  to  Essequibo,  7765,  490. 

Barbados  tar,  265. 

Barima  R.  First  Dutch  official  visit, 
1663,  17  ;  Dutch  influence  consoli- 



dated, /67J,  19;  tiadition  of  a  Co.'s 
post  there,  239,  388 ;  considered 
Dutch  by  oldest  settlers,  388 ; 
influence  there  developed,  1673, 
19;  trade  with,  ibSo,  20;  official 
stationed  at,  1683,  ib ;  Indians 
attack  fugitive  slaves,  1744,  207  ; 
po.stholder  suggested,  64,  207  ; 
Storm's  policy  concerning,  82  ; 
reason  for  delay  in  establishing  post, 
1746,  i\.1 ;  quoted  as  western 
boundary,  1748,  239:  7759,  369: 
7766,  503  :  ijbji  528 ;  Swedish 
projects,  1753,  93,  293  :  arrival  of 
emissaries,  I7S4-,  307  ;  traders  and 
Caribs  leave  for  Waini,  325  ;  exam- 
ination in  B.  of  a  Carib  chief,  1736, 
346 ;  first  actual  settlement,  1760., 
82 ;  attack  by  Spanish,  98 ;  B. 
Caribs  render  aid  in  revolt,  1764, 
446  ;  barbarilies  practised  there, 
176b,  504  ;  settling  there  forbidden, 
ib.;  W.I. Co.  on  jurisdiction  there, 
504,  50-) ;  Warouw  immigration, 
548  ;  Spanish  molest  Caribs,  586  ; 
Spanish  raids  reported,  7769,  612  ; 
discovery  of  gold,  7c5'6'9,  131;  Indian 
captains  under  British  jurisdiction, 

Barima  Sand.  Police-stationopened 
at,  18S7,  130. 

Baxter,  Lieutenant-General.  Mi- 
grate-; from  Barbados  to  Essequibo, 
1744^  213. 

Beekman  (Samuel)  Commander  of 
Essequibo,   ibgo-1707,   22. 

Bellin  (Jacques  Nicolas).  His  De- 
sert  la  Gtiyane  criticized 
by  Storm,   448. 

Bentinck  (William)  Heer  van  Khoon 
en  Pendreeht,  Count  of  the  Holy 
Roman  Etnpire.  Account  of,  276, 
277;  receives  Storm,  7750,  37, 
385 ;  Storm  addresses  him  before 
sailing,  277;  letters  from  Gedney 
Clarke,  I7b3,  421,  422,  433;  letters 
to  Gedney  Clarke,  Jr.,  426,  427: 
I7b4,  444,  445  ;  remarks  on  Clarke's 
aid,  444 ;  Storm  begs  for  his  inter- 
cession, I7b8,  589-592. 

Berbice.  Number  of  W.I. Co.'s 
slaves  there,  1733,   328. 

Slave  revolt,  7765",  415-424: 
details,  420:  endangers  Essequibo, 
42  :  Storm's  policy,  88. 

Colony  totally  ruined,  426 ; 
Barbados  aid  invited,  421;  Indian 
aid,  424 ;  aid  from  St  Eustatius, 
426;  revolt  throws  back  Demerara, 
433;      colony's     sad     state,     434; 

V.  S.    II. 

Indians  attack  rebels,  438 ;  danger 
greater  than  ever,  446 ;  home  neg- 
lect, il). ;  Capt.  Smith  defeats 
rebels,  442 ;  satisfactory  turn  in 
affairs,  776^,  446.  "Bentinck 
papers"  concerning  revolt,  448. 

Captured  by  British,  1781,  105; 
taken  by  French,  1782,  ib.  ;  re- 
stored to  Dutch,  77c?j,  106;  con- 
stituted a  county  of  British  Guiana, 
J  S3 1,    1 08. 

Berbice  R.  Ascended  by  Schom- 
burgk,   183b,    112. 

Bercheyck     (  van).       Storm's 

brother-in-law,  visits  big  Carib 
village,  599. 

Bercheyck  (Laurens  Lodewijk  van). 
A  nephew  of  Storm's  wife,  335 ; 
provisionally  appointed  Command- 
ant, 775-j^,  310;  appointed  lieu- 
tenant-captain, 7755,  335;  his 
career,  ib.  ;  provisionally  appointed 
Commander  of  Demerara,  7767, 
387 ;  commended  by  Storm  to 
W.I. Co.,  lb.;  appointment  con- 
firmed, 396 ;  his  efficiency,  47 ; 
increase  in  his  salary  suggested, 
776^,  396 ;  asks  for  his  discharge, 
776J,  424 ;  guides  troops  in  upper 
river,  443 ;  his  conduct  approved 
by  W.I. Co.,  444;  his  death,  776^, 
452;  the  losses  he  suffered,  482. 

Bercheyck  afterwards  Storm  van 
's  Gravesande  (Lumea  Constantia 
van).  Born,  770<5',  32,  372;  marries 
Laurens  Storm  van  's  Gravesande, 
n^r,  32,  372;  dies,  7760,  372. 

Bercheyck  (Maria  Catharina  van). 
Sec  Storm  van  's  Gravesande  after- 
liiai-ds  Bercheyck. 

Bermingham  (E.  M.).  His  house 
defended  against  rebels,  777^,  664. 

Bermingham  (John).  Demerara 
planter,  776.?,  399  ;  accused  of  slave 
smuggling,  7767,  559:  fined,  561; 
active  in  foreign  slave  matter,  7770, 

Beudeker  (Christoffel)  Sehoiitonneel 

van  Zeeland,   17 17,    153. 
Beverlander   (Johannes)    W.I. Co.'s 

outlier    in    Essequibo,    76^6,    148; 

returns  home,   1632,  ib. 
Bezoar     Stones.     Description    of, 

Bibliotheque    Nationale,    Klaprot 

Collection.      Discoveiy   of    Horst- 

man's  narrative,    167. 
Bitumen.      Found   in    the   Colony, 

Blauwenberg.    See  Blue  Mountains. 




Blanco  (Guzman)  President  of  Vene- 
zuela, 128,  129. 

Blue  Mts.  Storm's  intention  to 
mine,  1739,  196,  197;  Spanish 
movement  towards  silver  mines, 
17^4,  305  ;  well-known  copper  mine 
there,  468. 

Boeij  (W.  C. )  Commissioner  for 
re-organization  of  the  Colony,  ijSg, 

Borssele  (Henric  van)  Lord  of  Veere, 


Borssele  (Wolffaert  van)  Lord  of 
Veere,  157,  158;  marries  Mary 
Stuart,  1444,  lb. ;  his  title  to 
earldom  of  Buchan,  ib. 

Boter  (C.)  His  losses  through  non- 
arrival  of  ships,  174s,  215  ;  blames 
Storm  for  Spanish  piracies,  1762, 
310;  his  method  of  cultivation 
praised,  176J,  428 ;  his  loss 
lamented,   520. 

Boundary.  Perennial  controversies, 
5  ;  its  extent  in  770^,  22  ;  disputes 
with  Spain,  89-102  ;  unknown  to 
the  west,  1746,  220,  225  ;  Storm 
anxious  for  its  definition,  1747,  229, 
7750,  267,  775^,  306  ;  W.I. Co.  en- 
quires respecting,  77^7,  229;  Abary 
and  Barima  quoted,  174S,  239: 
776^,  447  ;  defined  by  d'Anville, 
357  :  marked  on  his  map,  371  ; 
W.I. Co.  questions  Storm's  idea  of, 
i7Jg,  369  ;  Storm's  views  on,  1760- 
61,  98 ;  ideas  of  oldest  settlers  and 
Indians,  388  ;  Barima  as  western, 
503,  528  :  d'Anville's  map  invoked, 
7767,  389. 

"Schomburgk  line"  declared, 
1886,  128;  British  claim  of  greatest 
extent,  129;  Brazilian  and  Venezu- 
elan Commission  of  1S87,  ib. ;  Brit- 
ish and  Venezuelans  face  to  face, 
131  ;  issue  joined,  133  ;  intervention 
of  the  U.S.A.  i8gj,  134  ;  President 
Cleveland  suggests  arbitration,  ib.  ; 
Great  Britain  consents,  i8g6,  ib.  ; 
Treaty  signed,  7c5'97,  ib.\  Tribunal 
meets,  iSgg,  ib. :  its  constitution, 
ib. :  its  award,  135. 

Brazilians  make  claims  east  of 
Takutu  R.,  iSg6,  135  ;  settlement 
becomes  imperative,  igoo,  136; 
Treaty  signed,  igoi,  ib.  :  its  pro- 
visions, 137:  procedure,  ib.:  the 
award,  ib. ;  a  triumph  for  Schom- 
burgk's  line,  ib. 

Delimitation,  138-141  :  the 
commissioners,  138,  139.  F'inally 
fixed,  7906,  141. 

Bouwman  (  )  Compiles  a  chart 
of  coast,  1772,  663. 

Bowaron  Ollira,  663. 

Bowhill  (J.  A.  P.)  A  commissioner 
for  delimitation,  138. 

Boxhorn  (Marcus  Zuerius)  Chronijck 
vail  Zeelandt,  1644,  154-159. 

Boyd  of  Kilmarnock  (Johanna 
Charlotta)  Baroness.     29,  30. 

Bracey  (John)  A  settler  at  Dara- 
wow,  i860,  12  1;  removed  to 
Quimata,  1888,  130. 

Branco  R.     See  Rio  Branco. 

Bratt  (Edward).  Prospects  for  gold, 
7c?57,  120. 

Brazil.  Dutch  reverse,  i64g,  14 ; 
fugitives  from,  settle  on  the  Pome- 
roon,  7657,  ib.;  abandonment  of, 
ib.,  16. 

Its  boundary  commission,  1887, 
129;  arbitration,  5:  treaty  with, 
7907,  136. 

Brazilians.  Near  British  frontier, 
i8jS,  113  ;  raze  British  mission  at 
Pirara,  114;  turned  out  of  Pirara 
by  British  troops,  1841,  ib. 

British  Colonies.  N.  American 
example  adduced,  77JO,  256,  257; 
status  of  Dutch  in,  631. 

British  Guiana.  Its  debt  to  Storm, 
7,  66.  Constituted  July  21,  i8jt, 
108;  geological  survey,  1867,  121  ; 
declaration  of  "Schomburgk  line," 
1886,  128;  organization  of  North- 
western District,  ib.  ;  boundary 
proclamation  of  Dec.  31,  1887,  129. 

Bronkhorst  (Adriaan  van)  Burgo- 
master of  Utrecht.  Storm's  step- 
grandfather,  31,  645;  Storm's 
quarrel  M'ith,  ib. 

Bronkhorst  aftei-wards  Storm  van 's 
Gravesande  (Ernestine  Henriette 
van)  Storm's  stepmother,  645. 

Brosimum  Aubletii,   264. 

Brown  (Charles  Barrington)  Canoe 
and  Camp  Life  in  British  Guiana, 
78;  his  account  of  the  "pyramid," 
ib. ;  geological  survey  of  B.  Guiana, 
1867-71,  1 21-123;  explores  the 
Siparuni,  7c?7o,  123:  the  Potaro, 
ib. ;  discovers  Kaieteur  Fall,  ib. ; 
his  surveys  compared  with  Schom- 
burgk's,  ib. 
Brownrig  (John)    Essequibo  planter, 

776.?,  399. 
Bruijn  (Pieter  de)     Storm's  agent  in 

Zeeland,  413,  458,  481,  482,  526. 
Buisson    (Abraham)     Councillor  of 
Justice  in  Essequibo,    194:  objects 
to  Storm  sitting  as  such,  ib.;  his 



death,  iJSS^  344  !  his  loss  lamented, 

Buisson  (Mattliijs)  Sent  on  mission 
to  Orinoco,  509;  Spanish  opinion 
of,  lb. ;  reports  Spanish  raid  on 
Moruca  Post,  ijbg,  604. 

Burgher  Officers.  Appointed  in 
Demerara,  1733,  301.  Storm's 
proclamations  to,  i7S4i  3i9-3'25- 
Summoned  to  repel  Spanish  raids, 
7769,  608;  Roman  Catholics  to 
be  discharged,   1770,   631. 

Burr.      Its  derivation,  535. 

Burr  (George  Lincoln)  Professor,  of 
Cornell  University.  Attacks  Scott's 
credibility,  147;  his  views  on 
Pomeroon,    18. 

Bursera  acuminata,  263. 

Bursera  gummifera,  263. 

Byam,  Lieutenant- General,  Governor 
of  Surinam.  His  description  of 
the  Pomeroon,  ibbg,   18. 

Cabeliau(A.)i  His  Verclaringe  van 
de  voiage  van  America,  fjg7,  3. 
Passes  the  Essequibo,  9,  10;  his 
voyage  induces  colonization,   10. 

Calecco,  or  crystal.  Found  up  the 
Sibarona,  i7sg,  169,  173:  and  near 
to  the  Mahu,  7769,  618. 

Calecco  Mine  and  Mountain. 
Mentioned  in  r62j,  i  r ;  known  to 
early  traders,  13;  its  position,  74, 
226,  463 ;  its  location  discussed, 
74,  75  ;  described  by  miners,  77.^6, 
226;  Indians  near,  ill-treated  by 
Portuguese,  ib. ;  Jansse's  journey 
thither,  7769,  613,  616,  618;  ex- 
ploration forbidden  by  Indians, 

Callart  (P.)  Aids  rebels  against 
Dutch,  1772,  667,  668. 

Calloway  (Joseph)  Demerara 
planter,  776^,  399. 

Cameron  (Nicholas)  Prospects  for 
gold,  1837,    120. 

Campbell  (William  Hunter)  Pros- 
pects for  gold,   iSj7,    120. 

Canaku  Mountains,  74,  75;  British 
settling  near,  1S70,  121. 

Canijn  (Jacob)  W.I.Co.'s  outlier  in 
Essequibo,   1626,    148. 

Cantineaux  (Bartholomeus)  Ap- 
pointed manager  of  W.I.Co.'s 
plantation,   i7jj,   308. 

Capuchins.  Aid  in  raid  on  Moruca 
Post,  7769,  606. 

Carafia.  A  gum  found  in  Guiana, 

Caratal  district.  Discovery  of  gold, 
7<?J7,  ii9._ 

Carawadani.  Name  in  colony  for 
lignum  quassiie,    506. 

Carbin  (J.)  Discovers  "  Kijkoveral 
Diary,"   21. 

Cardamoms,   263. 

Caribs.  Their  doings  in  the  Colony, 

Caron  (Cornells)  A  Pomeroon  plan- 
ter, i66j,  17. 

Cartel  for  exchange  of  deserters. 
Proposal  for,  77^9,  244;  impedi- 
ments to,  7769,  592;  one  concluded 
at  Aranjuez,  7797,  64,  65. 

Carter  (Samuel)  Demerara  planter, 
776-',  399. 

Carthabo.  Government  removed  to, 
7771?,  26:  removed  from,  ca.  1738, 
ib, ;  Storm's  first  despatch  dated 
from,  ib. 

Cassava.  A  root  serving  as  bread 
for  slaves,  209,  210;  description  of, 

Cassia  fistula.  Found  in  Guiana, 

^  Abraham  Cabeliau,  a  Dutch  merchant,  established  first  in  Ghent,  later  in 
Amsterdam,  emigrated  to  Sweden  at  tlie  beginning  of  the  seventeenth  century 
and  was  consulted  by  Charles  IX  with  legard  to  the  foundation  of  Gothenburg. 
He  became  burgomaster  of  that  town  in  7607  and  after  the  accession  of 
Gustavus  in  7677  was  appointed  Superintendent  of  Fisheries  and  Director  of 
Trading  Companies.  By  his  zeal  and  ability  he  acquired  immense  wealth, 
which  he  frequently  used  for  the  glory  and  defence  of  the  Swedish  kingdom, 
maintaining  a  squadron  and  a  body  of  troops  at  his  own  expense.  His  daughter 
Margaret  became  the  mistress  of  Gustavus  Adolphus  and  bore  that  monarch  a 
son,  known  in  history  as  Gustaf  Gustafsson,  Earl  of  Vasaborg.  {La  Grande 
Encyclopedie  and  van  der  Aa,  Biographisch  Woordenboek.) 

It  were  interesting  to  be  able  to  determine  with  certainty  whether  the  above 
personage  is  identical  with  the  "Commies-Generaal"  of  the  American  Voyage; 
some  definite  connecting  link  is  still  required,  and  we  have  therefore  not  con- 
sidered ourselves  justified  in  including  the  hypothesis  in  our  Introduction. 




Cassia  lignea.     Found  in    Guiana, 

Cassipa    Lake.       Its    hypothetical 

situation,   466. 
Caximan.     A  sort  of  pitch,  265. 
Cayenne.      Increase  in  colonization, 

1764,  476. 
Cerekons.     An  Orinoco  tribe,  609; 
Changuion  (Fran9ois)     Commander 

ad  interim  of  Uemerara,  177 1,  650  ; 

increase    in    pay    disallowed,    657  ; 

his  views  thereon,   ib.  ;  dignity  at- 
tacked, 777^,  668. 
Charter-parties.    Too  many  signed, 

J7S3^  296. 
Chiamas.     Indians  at  Moruca  Post, 

-^Zx?'  .345- 

Christiaense  (Sebastiaen)  Exam- 
ines Carib  chief  in  Barima,  /7j6, 
346  ;  acts  as  interpreter,  ib. ;  sup- 
plies Spanish  Indians  with  arms, 
7765-,  497. 

Christy    (  )       Settles    near 

CanaUu  Mts.,  1870,  121. 

Cinnamon.  Bastard  or  wild,  found 
in  Guiana,  264,  619  ;  W.  Indian 
compared  with  Cingalese,  499. 

Ciudad  Bolivar.  Its  foundation, 
1764,  467. 

Copal  gum.     Found  in  Guiana,  263. 

Clarke  (Francis)  Demerara  planter, 
776^-,  399. 

Clarke  (Gedney)  A  Barbados 
planter,  281  ;  leads  English  to 
Demerara,  68 ;  erects  two  mills, 
775^,  281  ;  his  activity,  39  ;  eulo- 
gized by  Storm,  41,  286  ;  desires  to 
aid  small  planters,  286  ;  writes  on 
mining  projects,  285  ;  his  sugges- 
tions to  VV.ICo.  I7j3,  41  :  on  the 
colony,  295-299  ;  reports  Spanish 
movements,  77_5'^,  308  :  and  En- 
senada's  fall,  7755,  331  ;  writes  on 
Demerara,  333,  334  ;  urges  separate 
government,  41,  334;  son  to  learn 
Dutch,  334 ;  supplies  food  for 
Demerara,  ib.  ;  reports  English 
successes,  344  ;  introduces  new  mill, 
7759,  366  ;  visits  Demerara,  7760, 
378;  his  accommodating  behaviour, 
ib.\  asks  leave  to  build  cliurch,  ib.; 
contributes  towards  new  road,  ib.  ; 
fetched  by  English  warship,  379. 
His  activity  in  Berbice  revolt,  176J, 
42,  421  ;  letters  to  Bentinck,  421, 
422,  433  :  letter  from  Bentinck, 
426,  427  ;  letter  to  his  son,  423  ; 
sends  out  Barbados  volunteers,  442. 
Aids  Torres  de  Bandeyra,  614  ;  his 
death,  7765,  479. 

Clarke  (Gedney)  Jr.  His  large  pro- 
fits in  Demerara,  1761,  390 ;  his 
account  of  Berbice  fighting,  776^, 
440,    441  ;    suggests    more   slaves, 

440  ;  advises  measures  of  defence, 

441  ;  letter  from  Bentinck,  444 : 
from  Storm,  448-452  ;  letter  to 
Bentinck,  ^76^,  479  ;  criticizes 
W. I.Co.'s  methods,  ib.  ;  claim  for 
aid  in  Berbice  revolt,  483  ;  his  loss 
feared,  1766,  525  ;  letter  to  Storm, 
526,  527  :  claims  rights  as  a  Middel- 
buig  citizen,  527  :  displeased  with 
treatment  received,  ib.  :  threatens 
to  leave  Demerara,  ib.  :  1767,  555  ; 
his  example  discourages  English, 
ib. ;  of  great  benefit  to  the  Colony, 
582  ;  sells  his  plantations,  7769, 
599  :  777=-,  661 ;  difficulty  in  settling 
his  claim,  599  :  Rodway's  remarks 
thereon,  43. 

Clarke  (Peter)  Demerara  planter, 
776^,  399. 

Clarke  (William)  Demerara  planter, 
776_=>,  39Q. 

Cleveland  (Stephen  Grover)  Presi- 
dent of  the  United  States  of 
America.  Suggests  arbitration  in 
boundary  dispute,  i8gj,  134. 

Climate  of  Guiana  compared  with 
N.  American  colonies,  258. 

Cocoa.  Storm  advises  cultivation, 
17JO,  258  ;  its  success,  7767,  535. 

Codex  sumarouba.     See  Simaniba. 

Coelesiraboe  Creek.  First  allot- 
ment of  lands  in  Demerara,  174b, 
111,  630  :  7770,  ib. 

Coffee.  Storm  advises  cultivation, 
1730,  258 ;  first  shipment  from 
Demerara,  J7yg,  367. 

Collaert  (Nicholas)  Alleges  Spanish 
designs  on  Cuyuni,  1734,  316. 

Conde.  A  Warouw  chief;  to  aid 
against  rebels,  1768,  564. 

Con-o-con   Mountains,    (Canaku) 


Coolie  immigration,    i  j8. 

Coppijn  (David)  A  Pomeroon  plant- 
er, 766^,  17. 

Corentin  R.  Postholder  supplies 
Indians  with  arms,  1768,  584 ; 
parts  first  explored  by  Schomburgk, 
i8j6,  8o,  112;  its  source  reachetl, 
184J,  117. 

Cotton.  Storm  advises  cultivation, 
I7SO,   258. 

Courawa.     See  Peat. 

Courthial  (Ignace)  His  journeys,  74, 
80,  242  ;  becomes  a  Netherlands 
subject,    1746,    241 ;    granted   per- 



mission  to  make  a  road,  69,  217; 
his  road  constructed,  174S,  240: 
described,  242:  discussed,  70,  71; 
trades  in  Orinoco,  240;  petitions 
W.I. Co.  24I-243;  is  backed  up  by 
Storm,  240,  24 1  ;  his  men  report 
Spanish  movements,  17S4,  314; 
arrives  in  Essequibo,  327. 
Court  of  Justice,  Essequibo.  Storm 
nominated  a  member,  1738,  194 ; 
it  re-opens  Upper  Essequibo  to 
trade,  250;  disputes  with  Court  of 
Policy,  266 ;  appoints  burgher- 
officers  in  Demerara,  1753,  301  ; 
hears  charges  of  ill-treating  Aka- 
wois,  1736,  346,  347 ;  refuses  to 
sit  in  Storm's  absence,  1760, 
390 :  17^4,  4-i6 ;  loss  of  respect 
for,  1763.,  492  ;  forbids  settling  in 
Barima,  1766,  504  ;  re-constituted, 

1773^  105- 

Court  of  Policy,  Essequibo.  Storm 
nominated  a  member,  173S,  194  ; 
Court  difficult  to  move,  1744,  206  ; 
disputes  with  Court  of  Justice,  266  ; 
grants  37  allotments  in  Demerara, 
1733,  288 ;  gives  judgment  for  a 
foreign  debt,  290;  acts  in  view  of 
invasion,  1734,  317  ;  its  despatches 
home,  499;  receives  60  petitions 
for  lands,  177 1,  647;  re-constituted, 
1773,  105. 

Couvreur  (Daniel)  A  colonist  m 
Massaruni,  349;  confirms  Spanish 
encroachments,  1736.,  ih.\  proposes 
to  capture  mission,  350. 

Cox  (John)  Demerara  planter,  776.?, 

Crommelin  (Wigbold)    Governor  of 

Surinam.    Apprehensive  of  French 

encroachments,  1764,  476,  477. 

Croydon  (William)  A  planter  from 
Barbados,  352 ;  abuses  rights  in 
Suppiname,  1736,  ib.\  of  great 
benefit  to  the  Colony,  176S,   582. 

Cruysse  (Abraham  van  der)  Presides 
over  burgher-officers,  1734,  321; 
his  method  of  cultivation  praised, 
1763,  428. 

Crystal.     See  Calecco. 

Crystal  Mine  and  Mountain.  See 
Calecco  Mine  and  Mountain. 

Cum  ana  Governor  acts  on  Storm's 
complaints,  1748,  233:  redresses 
them,  1749,  244:  proposes  a  cartel, 
ib.:  sends  pacific  message,  248: 
promises  compensation,  1734,  304  : 
claims  Cuyuni  as  Spanish,  i73g,  361. 

Cumudi  Hill.  Passed  by  Horst- 
man,  i73g,   169,    172. 

Cuyuni  R.  First  mention,  ibSo, 
19;  its  course,  466;  its  importance, 
357;  mines  in,  196,  467,  535;  fer- 
tility of  lands,  472  ;  its  occupation 
projected,  71;  regular  traders  in, 
73;  permission  to  cut  a  road,  174b, 
111:  road  constructed,   1748,  240. 

Spanish  mission  established, 
1746,  90,  220:  stops  slave  traffic, 
224,  225;  W.I.Co.'s  plantations 
there,  220;  Indians  seek  Dutch  pro- 
tection, tb.\  frontier  line  unknown, 
ib.;  Caribs  under  Dutch  jurisdiction, 
225;  Spanish  rejiorted  near  source, 
77^7, 2  28 :Finet's  report  on  this, /74^<?, 
239;  Spanish  kept  off  by  Indian  war, 
ib.\  suggested  prohibition  of  Indian 
trade,  7750,  252;  two  Spanish  mis- 
sions reported,  775'.;^,  307:  one 
demolished  by  Indians,  312,  who 
promise  to  guard  passage,  326. 

Claimed  as  Spanish  territory, 
7759,  361 ;  Dutch  rights  explained, 
1760,  373,  374;  Indians  driven 
down  by  Spanish,  7767,  392,  398  : 
176S,  604;  Spanish  again  active, 
1762,  405;  fears  of  trouble  brewing, 
J764,  475;  reported  Spanish  de- 
signs, 7766,  497 ;  W.I.Co.'s  turtle 
trade  in,  1767,  555;  things  going 
badly,  7769,  615;  measures  of 
reprisal  suggested,  ib. 

Indians  under  British  juris- 
diction, i8j6,  hi;  mining  opera- 
tions, 1863,  121;  McTurk's 
journeys,  i8gi,  132. 
Cuyuni  Post.  In  Pariacot  Savan- 
nah, 7700,  23;  first  official  record, 
1733,  71;  its  situation  and  use, 
332,  431,  466-468;  difficulties  con- 
nected with,  73 ;  raid  by  Spanish, 
1758,  11^  95'  356,  359>  .570,  466: 
Directors'  comments  thereon,  7759, 
362 ;  Spanish  watching  for  re-erec- 
tion, 7767,  384 ;  still  abandoned, 
776J,  431;  suggested  re-establish- 
ment, 408:  776^,  477:  7766,  497: 
difficulty  of,  476 ;  re-established  on 
Tokoropatti  I.  7766,  72,  99;  post- 
holder  ill,  516;  P.  Martin  appointed, 
518;  Caribs  assist  in  re-establish- 
ment, ib. ;  its  unhealthy  location, 
532;  Tampoco  reports  upon  sur- 
roundings, 7767,  537;  reported 
Spanish  raid,  541;  Indians  obstrep- 
erous, 545  ;  necessity  of  fortifica- 
tion, ib.\  French  postholder  ob- 
jected to  by  Indians,  7761?,  570; 
reported  raid  on  Indians,  7769, 
595 ;   two  missions  reported   near, 



601 :    inspection  of  these  ordered, 
602;  its  survival,  73;  Schomburgk 
iinds  remains,  72. 
Cypress.     Used  for  building,  41 1. 

Dally  (Richard  Bass)  Demerara 
planter,   1^62,   399. 

Dalton  (H.  G.)  'History  of  British 
Guiana,  18J4,  4. 

Darawow,  on  the  Rupununi;  a 
settlement  in  i860,   121. 

D'Arcy  (Robert)  Earl  of  Holderness. 
His  meeting  with  Storm,  1751, 
385 ;  his  career,   ih. 

Davidson  (John)  The  Scottish  Staple 
at  Veere,  igog,  159. 

Davis  (Nicholas  Darnell)  Directs  re- 
searches in  archives,    21. 

d'Elmina.     See  Elmina. 

Demerara.  Its  settlement,  7 ;  its 
rise,  66 ;  first  mention  in  despatches, 
1746,  2fj;  opened  to  trade,  67, 
217;  post  abolished,  67,  217;  grant 
of  land  to  A.  Pieterse,  217;  18 
plantations  allotted,  218. 

First   report   of   success,    1748, 

67,  237;  hints  for  improvement, 
237  ;  administrator  suggested,  67  ; 
delay  in  his  appointment,  /7S0, 
256  ;  condition  of  colony,  id. ;  abuse 
of  land  tenure,  274;  J.  S.  Storm 
van  's  Gravesande,  Commander,  67, 

lis  progress,  17^2,  68,  281; 
arrival  of  Gedney  Clarke,  281  :  of 
others  from  St  Eustatius  and  St 
Christopher,  2S8.   Itsprogress,  17JJ, 

68,  293;  37  plantations  allotted, 
288 ;  transfer  of  plantations  from 
Essequibo,  288;  river  frontages 
reduced,  289;  English-speaking 
majority,  292 ;  English  divine 
service,  40,  292 ;  arrival  of  rice 
planters  from  Carolina,  293  ;  report 
by  Gedney  Clarke,  295-299;  plan- 
teis  petition  for  slaves,  299;  110 
plantations  allotted,  301;  burgher- 
officers  appointed,  id. 

Measures  of  defence,  17^4,  309; 
report  by  Gedney  Clarke,  7755, 
333'  334;  Storm's  efforts,  334:  his 
tour  of  inspection,  337 ;  Essequibo 
jealous,  68 :  refuses  to  unite,  336, 
337 ;  burgher-officers'  grievances, 
337.  Excellence  of  soil,  351; 
colony's  progress, /7Jc?,  356;  Clarke 
introduces  new  mill,  /7J9,  366; 
first  shipment  of  coffee,  367:  ex- 
cellence of  the  crop,  id.;   road  to 

Essequibo,  /760,  378;  scheme  for 
new  village,  id. ;  English-speaking 
majority,  379;  English  preacher 
asked  for,  id. ;  excellence  of  coffee 
crop,    380. 

Colony's  progress,  1761,  385; 
need  of  increased  garrison,  386; 
death  of  Commander,  387:  L.  L. 
van  Bercheyck  appointed,  387, 
396;  large  profits  made,  390; 
Storm's  presence  very  necessary, 
id. ;  number  and  names  of  English 
planters,  1762,  399,  400. 

Arrival  of  Berbice  fugitives, 
176J,  416 ;  measures  of  defence, 
417  ;  colony  in  peril,  4r9  ;  aid  from 
Barbados,  423  ;  tranquillity  restored, 
id.  ;  saved  by  English  forces,  433, 
443,  444  ;  colony  thrown  back,  433; 
Storm's  tour  of  inspection,  437  ; 
colony's  progress,  438 :  excelling 
Essequibo,  id.  ;  colonists'  discon- 
tent, 438,  439.  Suggestions  by 
Clarke,  1764,  441. 

J.  C.  van  den  Ileuvel,  Comman- 
der, 176s,  597,  604,  648,  650,  651  ; 
colony's  progress,  1767,  535  ;  ex- 
celling Essequibo,  1768,  ^"jg ;  over 
160  plantations  allotted,  592  ;  great 
rise  in  land  value,  7769,  624  ; 
English  burgher-officers  objected 
to,  1770,  631  ;  colonists  defy  the 
law,  632  ;  nearly  200  plantations 
allotted,  /771,  646. 

Colony's  progress,  1772,  659 ; 
re-organization  in  f77J,  104;  P.  van 
Schuylenburg  first  separate  Com- 
mander, 105 ;  colony  excelling 
Essequibo,  178/,  105  ;  captured  by 
the  British,  id. ;  taken  by  the 
French,  7782,  id. :  who  erect  Fort 
Dauphin,  id.  ;  restored  to  Dutch, 
/78J,  106. 
Demerara  and  Essequibo.  Form 
new  colony,  f78g,  106 ;  governed 
by  a  new  Council,  ^792,  id. ; 
directly  controlled  by  the  States- 
General,  id. ;  British  re-take  the 
colony,  1796,  107  ;  restored  to  the 
Dutch,  /802,  id.  ;  final  capture  by 
the  British,  /8oj,  id. ;  ceded  to 
Britain  by  Treaty  of  18/4,  id.  ; 
constitute  part  of  British  Guiana, 
/8j/,  108. 
Demerara  R.  Sounded  by  Storm, 
218,  530;  formation  of  sand-banks, 

Diguja    (Joseph)     Governor  of  Cii- 
niand.      Harbours    fugitive   slaves, 
7766,  513- 



Directors.  See  West  India  Com- 

Dispute  between  constituent  bodies 
of  the  W.I. Co.  {167J-J770).  See 
West  India  Company. 

Divine  Worship.  Special  building 
proposed,  1744.,  213  ;  glass  requisi- 
tioned for  church,  174S,  241  ; 
Ampa  church  dilapidated,  17SO, 
271  :  new  roof,  17 j2,  279  ;  English 
service  in  Demerara,  I7S3<  292  : 
English  preacher  wanted,  ib. ;  re- 
quest for  six  dozen  chairs,  301  ; 
new  church  at  Ampa,  //JJ,  308  ; 
Clarke  asks  to  build  church,  1760, 
378  ;  arrival  of  the  Rev.  I.  Lingius, 
176J,  407  :  his  installation,  408  ; 
farewell  of  the  Rev.  H.  van  Greven- 
broek,  407. 

Donacq  (Jacques)  Brings  news  of 
Horslman,  1741,  201. 

Doom  (A.  van)  Councillor  of 
Justice;  misrepresents  Storm,  17^2, 

Douglas  {Admiral  Sir  James)  Baro- 
uet.  Commander-in-chief  on  the 
Leeward  Islands  station,  1760,  392  ; 
his  career,  ib.  ;  purchases  plantation 
for  his  brother,  ib. ;  writes  respect- 
ing deserters,  1761,  394  ;  registered 
as  a  planter,  776.?,  399. 

Douglas  (G7//a/«  Robert)  In  com- 
mand of  English  warship,  379  ;  his 
career,  391  ;  desires  to  buy  planta- 
tion, 1760,  ib.  ;  settles  in  Demerara, 
392  ;  appointed  lieutenant-colonel 
in  Netherlands  army,  176J,  391  ; 
reports  all  quiet  in   Berbice,  J764, 

Dressel    (M.     F.)       His    ascent    of 

Roraima,  1886,  126. 
Dudonjon  Qan)    His  barque  defends 

Pomeroon,  17 j 4,  3(6. 
Dutch  sphere  of  influence  ca.  1700, 

22:    ca.    J72S,    83 :    in    1763,    76  : 

upon  Storm's  retirement,  80. 
Dutch.       Their    status    in    English 

colonies,  631. 

Ebony.     Growing  in  colony,  264. 
Edmundson  [Rev.  George)  On  early 

trade,  1 3 ;  discusses  Scott's  Account 

of    Guiana.,   14,    147;    on   Swedish 

trade,  293. 
Eijs  (J.  N.   van)  Leaves  Essequibo 

for  Demerara,  I7jj,  339. 
Elmina.     Its  location,   441  ;    slaves 

obtained  from,  ib. 
English.     Own  seven  plantations  in 

Essequibo,  1743,  204 :  six  Bar- 
bados planters  settle  there,  1744, 
213;  their  plantations  imitated, 
211 ;  their  method  of  refining,  428. 

Supply  colony's  needs,  1743, 
214:  1763,  490:  7769,  611,  625: 
^77^^  639,  642;  stop  supplies 
through  protested  bills,  1772,  661  : 
demand  cash  payment,  ib.,  662. 

Encouraged  by  Storm,  66 : 
settle  in  Demerara,  68:  Netscher 
on  their  immigration,  40 ;  in  ma- 
jority in  Demerara,  1733,  292,  379; 
sanguine  of  Demeraia's  success, 
293.  Divine  service,  1733,  39,  292  : 
1760,  379.  Number  and  names  of 
planters,  1762- i7bg,  399,  400. 

E.  aid  saves  Demerara,  1763, 
43,  444:  E.  vessels  protecting  it, 
428;  E.  attack  Berbice  rebels,  442, 


Considered  harmful  to  colony, 
1768,  582;  objected  to  as  burgher- 
officers,  1770,  63 1  ;  impossibility  of 
excluding  them,  ib.  Sell  slaves  in 
Demerara,  1770,  632 ;  their  treat- 
ment of  slaves,  638;  attempt  to 
land  slaves,  639;  would  profit  by 
Pomeroon  opening,   654. 

English  ships.  Suggested  dues  on, 
1730,  275;  frauds  of  skippers,  1732, 
284:  1761,  386;  40  sailors  offer 
colony  aid,  1734,  314;  E.  pirates 
delay  Zeeland  ships,  /7J9,  361;  E. 
warship  comes  for  Clarke,  1760., 
379;  eight  E.  barques  in  Esse- 
quil)0,   1767,    536. 

Ensenada  (Zenon  de  Somodevilla  y 
Bengoechea,  Marquis  de  la)  His 
biography,  331;  influence  of  his 
fall,   7755,  i'b. 

Erijee  Manarwa,  an  Indian  chief. 
Receives  a  captain's  commission, 
1833,    119. 

Essequibo,  Colony.  Forms  of 
name,  9;  mention  by  Cabeliau, 
759c?,  ib.  ;  first  settlement  uncertain, 
10:  attributed  to  Groenewegen, 
7676,  ib. ;  described  in  1623,  1 1 ; 
early  Dutch  records,  ib.;  Jacob 
Canijn  outlier,  1626,  148;  two 
fresh  outliers  appointed,  ib.\  a  fort 
contemplated,  76^7,  ib. ;  abandon- 
ment proposed  by  "The  XIX," 
1632,  143;  maintained  by  Zeeland 
Chamber,  ib.  ;  base  of  war  opera- 
tions, 76j7,  12;  Spanish  account 
of  it,  ib.;  given  up  to  "the  three 
towns,"  7657,  '43;  fi^^  immigrant 
ships  arrive,  1638- ib3(),   16;  Eng- 



lish  conquest,  i6bs,  i8;  Dutch 
re-occupation,  ibbb,  ih.  ;  its  pro- 
sperity restored,  ib. ;  handed  over  to 
States  of  Zeeland,  ibbg,  144;  large 
exports,  19;  under  direct  control 
of  W.I. Co.,  ibjo,  ih.\  restored  to 
Zeeland  Chamber,  144;  active 
progress,  19;  Hendrik  Rol,  Com- 
mander, ib. ;  free  trade  controversy, 
7675-/770,  12;  trade  in  interior, 
jjSo,  19;  extent  of  colony,  20,  ■za; 
S.  Beekman,  Commander,  ibgo- 
jyoj,  22. 

Boundary,  1704,  22  ;  description 
of  colony,  23 ;  loss  of  touch  with 
Ulterior,  i7'5~'735^  -6'  govern- 
ment removed  to  Carthabo,  1718, 
ib.;  H.  Gelskerke,  Commander, 
i'72g-i742,  35,   194,  200. 

Storm  van  's  Gravesande,  Secre- 
tary, 1737-1742,  32,  34,  621:  his 
arrival,  1738,  193;  tnilitia  "almost 
naked,"  194;  colony's  soil  and 
climate,  212:  its  products,  195,  196, 
263,  264;  Ilorstman's  expedition 
starts,  /7J9,  201 ;  Storm  applies  for 
commandership,  1741,  200,  201. 

Storm  commander,  1742,  35, 
204,  205  ;  seven  English  plantations, 
174J,  204;  Spoors  secretary,  205. 
Eack  of  supplies,  1743-1771,  160- 
162:  causes  loss  of  10,000  guilders, 
2i.s;  establishment  reform,  1744, 
206;  Fort  Zeelandia  completed, 
207  ;  scarcity  of  bread,  209;  general 
demand  for  discharge,  210;  colony 
progressing,  211;  Jews  excluded,  ib. ; 
sugar  ousts  cocoa  and  coffee,  212; 
godlessness  of  colonists,  ib. ;  dearth 
of  slaves,  213;  Barbados  planters 
settle  in,  ib. ;  construction  of  Cuyuni 
road,  174b,  11"];  western  boundary 
unknown,  220,  225:  enquiries  re- 
specting it,  229;  colony  becoming 
populous,  223  ;  fishery  rights 
violated,  225;  danger  from  Span- 
ish, 1747,  228;  map  ordered,  229; 
completion  of  Cuyuni  road,  1748, 
240;  maps  of  colony  sent  home, 
238:  1749,  247;  Storm's  visit 
home,  36. 

Storm's  Report  on  colony,  17J0, 
252-276:  its  precarious  condition, 
253  :  colonists'  neglect  of  duty,  255, 
27  r:  paucity  of  mills,  255:  need  of 
population,  256 :  rice-growing  ad- 
vised, 257:  plan  for  subsidizing 
settlers,  260,  261 :  new  methods 
unpopular,  262  :  all  river  sites  al- 
lotted, 274. 

Condition  on  Storm's  return, 
17^2,  279;  total  failure  of  crops, 
1733,  294;  scarcity  of  sugar  and 
bread,  300,  301  ;  removals  to 
Demerara,  288 ;  report  by  Gedney 
Clarke,  295-299.  Measures  against 
invasion,  1754,  309;  ammunition 
from  Barbados,  326;  jealousy  of 
Demerara,  7755,  68,  336,  337; 
Akawoi  revolt,  340.  E.  a  burden 
on  the  W.I. Co.,  7756,  348;  road 
to  Demerara,  7760,    378. 

Number  and  names  of  English 
planters,  I7b2-i7bg,  399,  400; 
colony's  condition,  I7b3,  432 ; 
saved  by  English  aid,  433  ;  its 
growth  compared,  7765,  480;  com- 
pulsory standstill,  490;  colony  a 
Noah's  Ark,  7766,  520,  572; 
fisheries  described,  i7b8,  579,  580; 
70  plantations  in  colony,  592  ;  Eng- 
lish aid  necessary,  7769,  625  ;  slave 
smuggling,  7777,  640;  ill-treatment 
of  Indians  prejudicial,  641;  free 
trade  petition,  658. 

Colony's  condition  praised,  1772^ 
659;  Indian  ill-treatment  punished, 
661;  planters'  bad  policy,  662; 
coast  allotments,  662,  663;  slave 
revolt,  i^i,  667;  on  brink  of  ruin, 

Storm  retires,  52,  59:  colony's 
prosperity  under  him,  7;  territorial 
consolidation  of,  65.  Re-organiza- 
tion, 1773,  1 04  ;  captured  by  British, 

1751,  105;    taken   by   the   French, 

1752,  ib.;  restored  to  the  Dutch, 
77c?j,  io6;  takes  second  place,  77(5*9, 

A  British  possession,  i7gb,  107  ; 
discovery  of  gold,  i8_^7,  120;  ex- 
peditions sent  out,  ib. ;  British 
development    of,    1887-1892,    130- 


Essequibo,  Upper.  Post  established, 
172^,  26;  mining  in,  1741-1746, 
74;  murder  of  traders,  1747,  231; 
Storm  desires  to  close,  232 ;  the 
upper  river  closed,  250;  re-opened 
for  trade,  ib. ;  enormities  committed 
in,  1730,  ib. ;  the  Indians  desperate, 
251 ;  suggested  prohibition  of  trade, 
ib.\  re-closing  advocated,  270; 
murder  of  colonists,  1753,  302; 
Portuguesemissionsin,  465;  districts 
first  explored  by  Schomburgk,  80. 

Essequibo  River.  Earliest  ex- 
ploration, 74-78,  459;  unknown 
above  Arinda,  I7b4,  463  ;  sandbank 
forming,   i7bb,   507  ;    explored    by 


68 1 

Schomburgk,  iSj^,  112;  its  sources 
discovered,  //'. 

Essequibo  River  District.  Its 
extent,   iSgi,   131. 

Exports.      Freight  rates,  265,  266. 

Ezquibel  (Juan  d')  His  name  con- 
nected with  Essequibo,  q. 

Felix,  Don.     Contador   in  Orinoco, 

J7J4,   317;    contradicts   threatened 

invasion,  ih. 
Feytler    (Jolian    Rudolf)    Dismissed 

from  plantation,  //jj,   308. 
Fijn    (Francois    de)    Commander   in 

Pomeroon,  1661,  17;  describes  his 

colony,  i66j,  ib. ;  mentions  Groene- 

wegen,  151 ;  official  visit  to  Barima, 

17;  his  difficulties,  ib. 
Finet  (Christiaan)    Cuyuni  trader,  73 ; 

his  journeys,   74 ;    reports   Spanish 

in  Cuyuni,   1746,   219:  174.8,  239; 

navigates  R.  Massaruni,  465. 
Fisheries.       Description    of,     S19, 

Fitzgerald    (Cyrenius    C.)       Holds 

concession   from   Venezuela,  iSSj- 

84,  .27. 
Fitzpatrick     (Edward)       Essequibo 

and  Demerara  planter,  1762,  399. 
Fitzpatrick  (John)  Demerara  planter, 

Flag  Island.  Its  position,  198; 
government  removed  to,  ca.  1738, 
26;  dilapidations  upon,  1763,  431. 

Fleming  (Gilbert)  Lieutenant- 
General.  Governor  of  the  Wind- 
ward Isles,  290  ;  supports  successful 
action  in  Demerara  against  fugitive 
debtor,  /7JJ,  ib. 

Floyd  (Samuel)     Demerara  planter, 

n(}2, 3^^9. 

Flushing.  Description  of,  156;  its 
town-hall,  ih.  With  Middelburg 
and  Veere  takes  over  Essequibo, 
i6j7,  144:  and  helps  to  found  a  new 
settlement,  15. 

Fort  Dauphin.  Erected  by  the 
French,  105. 

Fort  Kijkoveral.  Its  location,  220, 
363  ;  its  history,  474 ;  suggested 
Portuguese  origin,  ib. ;  Netscher's 
remarks  upon,  jb.  ;  Scott's  de- 
scription of,  10,  146;  its  "Official 
Diary,"  i6gg-i7oi,  21  ;  govern- 
ment removed  from,  17181  26  ;  in- 
tention to  repair,  1744,  209 ;  pro- 
posal to  raze,  1748,  235  ;  aban- 
doned, 1730,  254  ;  again  fortified, 

Fort  San  Joaquim.  Brazilian  fort 
near  Pirara,  jSjS,  114. 

Fort  Willem  Frederik.  Erected 
by  French,  106. 

Fort  William  Frederick.  See  Fort 
Willem   Fretlerik. 

Fort  Zeelandia.  Its  location,  198  : 
completion,  1744,  207  :  description, 
208  ;  dilapidated,  1732,  282  ;  again 
fortified,  1734,  311;  again  dilapi- 
dated, 1762,  402 ;  impossible  of 
upkeep,  /76J,  431 ;  works  pro- 
gressing, 7767,  531. 

Fortique  (Alejo)  First  Venezuelan 
Minister  in  Europe,  115;  proposes 
Boundary  Treaty,  ib. 

Fredrica  Sophia  Wilhelmina, 
Princess,  Consort  of  William  V, 
Prince  of  Orange.  Celebration  of 
her  birthday,  652. 

Freight.     Discussion  of  rates,  266. 

French.  Fears  of  their  encroach- 
ments, 1764,  473  ;  claim  all  Guiana, 
ib.  ;  capture  Dutch  colonies,  1782, 
105  ;  erect  Fort  Dauphin,  ib. 

Frensel  (J.  M.)  Demerara  planter, 
1730,  256. 

Fruin  (Robert)  Dr.,  Archivist  of 
Zeeland.  Communicates  two  of 
Storm's  letters,  276,  588. 

Fuentes  (Philippe  de)  Petitions  to 
land  in  Essequibo,  16. 

Gamandra.     See  Gutta  Gamba. 

Gamboge.     See  Gutta  Gamba. 

Garounas.     See  Warouws. 

Gelskerke  (Hermanns)  Commander 
of  Essequibo,  172^-1742 ;  receives 
Storm  well,  1738,  194  ;  announces 
Horstman's  departure,  1739,  61  ; 
his  hopes  of  the  expedition,  ib. ;  asks 
for  discharge,  1741,  200;  his  death, 

1742,  Vt,- 

Gelskerke  (Johannes)  An  Assistant, 
drowned,  1747,  230. 

Georgetown.  Laid  out  by  the 
French  (in  1782)  and  called  Long- 
champs,  106;  called  Stabroek  (from 
1784)  until  1812,  106;  becomes 
capital  of  combined  new  colony, 
I78g,  106. 

Ginger.     Growing  in  colony,  263. 

Goed  rond  goed  Zeeuwsch.  Ap- 
plied to  Storm,  429,  629,  644. 

Goes  (Jan  Adriaenss  van  der)  W.I. 
Co.'s  outlier  in  Essequibo,  1626, 
148  ;  his  wages  to  be  raised,  1627, 
ib.  ;  is  given  a  sloop,  ib.  ;  visits 
Zeeland,  1632,  ih. ;  is  paid  oft",  ib.  ; 



re-engaged  for  Essequibo,  ib. ; 
visits  D.  P.  de  Vries  in  Demerara, 
i6j4,  149 ;  writes  home  for  neces- 
saries, idjy,  ib. ;  sends  home  syrup, 
ib.  ;  aimounces  intention  to  return, 
ib. ;  appears  before  Zeeiand  Cham- 
ber, i6j8,  ib.;  enquires  concerning 
Orinoco,  ib.  ;  committee  appointed 
to  confer  with,  idjg,  ib.  ;  goes 
prospecting  in  Orinoco,  ib. ;  returns 
to  Zeeiand,  1640,  ib. ;  his  journals 
and  wages,  ib. 
Goliat  (Cornelis)  Cartographer  to 
Prince  Maurice  of  Nassau,  16;  his 
plan  of  Middelburg,  /6j7,  155, 
156;   engaged   by  W.I. Co.,   16^7, 

15,  16;  founds  a  new  colony,  16; 
instructions  as  commissary,  i6sS, 
151  ;  writes  from  Nova  Zeelandia, 
ib.:  from  Nieuw  Middelburg,  i6s9, 
ib. ;    his   death,   1661    (or   earlier), 

16,  17. 

Gordon  (Herbert)  Holds  concession 
from  Venezuela,  1884,  127. 

Goritz  (Gerrit)  Murdered  by  Indians, 
1747,  231,  269. 

Graham  of  Killearn  (James)  Com- 
mands Scotch  in  Netherlands 
service,  29,  30 ;  daughter  marries 
Storm's  uncle,   ib. 

Gravesande  (William  Jacob  's) 
F.R.S.  Uncle  of  Laurens  Storm 
van  's  Gravesande,  30;  his  career, 

Gray  (Alexander)  The  Scottish  Staple 
at  Veere,    159. 

Great  Britain.  Captures  Pomeroon, 
7665,  18;  its  successes  reported, 
7755,  344;  Storm's  policy  regard- 
ing, 1761,  384;  Indians  seek  its 
intervention,  1807,  109:  resume 
relations  with,  1810,  1 10 :  accept 
conditions  from,  ib.  Maintains 
Dutch  rights  over  interior,  ib. ; 
claims  savannahs  near  R.  Branco, 
I II. 

Grevenbroek  (Rev.  Hubertus  van) 
His  farewell  sermon,   176J,  407. 

Groenewegen,  Town  of.  Its  loca- 
tion,  153. 

Groenewegen  (Aert  Adriaenszoon) 
Serves  the  Spanish  in  Orinoco, 
146;  deserts  Spanish  service,  ib.  ; 
sent  out  by  Zeeiand,  1616,  ib.  ;  first 
settlement  of  Essequibo  made  by 
him,  ib.  ;  erects  a  fort  (Kijkoveral?) 
ib.  ;  trades  with  Spanish,  ib. ;  aids 
Barbados,  1627,  ib. ;  Governor  48 
years,  ib. 
\The  above  according  to  Scott. '\ 

His  identity  with  Gromweagle, 
147 ;  Scott's  account  uncor- 
roborated, ib.  ;  Commander  at 
Kijkoveral,  1644,  150;  writes  from 
Kijkoveral,  164^.,  151;  his  instruc- 
tions as  director,  ib^8,  ib.  ;  writes 
from  Essequibo,  ib.  :  from  Nova 
Zeelandia,  ib. :  from  Nieuw  Mid- 
delburg, ib. ;  written  to,  1660,  ib.  ; 
his  death,  1664,  ib. 

Various  forms  of  his  name,  152. 
Groennewegels  \ 
1    Groenwegel  |  See  Groenewegen 

j    Groenwegen         j      (A.  A.) 
j    Gromweagle        j 
Gronwegen,  Town  of.     See  Groene- 
Grootendorst  (Jan)  W.I.Co.'s  pilot. 
Measures    Waini    and     Pomeroon, 
^7S3i     289;     active     in     colony's 
defence,     I7S4-,    314;     his    death, 

i75j,   .S44- 

Grovestins  (Liiitenant  •  Generaal 
Douwe  van  Sirtema)  Baron  van. 
Master  of  the  Horse  to  William  IV, 
Prince  of  Orange,  281;  purchases 
lands  in  Demerara,  1751,  ib. ; 
W.  J.  Storm  van  's  Gravesande  his 
manager,  1732,  ib.  ;  ships  first 
coffee  from  Demerara,  I7jg,  367. 

Grovestins  (Louis  Idsert  van  Sir- 
tema) Baron  van.  Fiscal  of 
Demerara,   281. 

Grovestins  (Willem  August  van 
Sirtema)  Baron  van.  Commissioner 
for  colony's  re-organization,  i78g, 
107,  281;  Governor  of  Essequibo 
and  Demerara,  1793-1793,   281. 

Guaiacum.  Obtained  in  colony, 

Gum  elemi.  Obtained  in  colony, 

Gum  gutta.     See  Gutta  Gamba. 

Gutta  gamba.  Obtained  in  colony, 

Hall    (Elizabeth)  Demerara  planter, 

1762,   399. 
Halley    (Peter)    Demerara    planter, 

1762,  399. 
Hamalte  Creek,  663. 
Hancock  (John)  Z>r.    His  expedition 

of     1810,     109-111;     his     literary 

remains,    no. 
Harcourt    (Robert)    Relation    of  a 

Voyage  to  Gniatta,  161J,   3. 
Harrison  (John  B.)  Professor.     His 

views  on  Guiana  volcanoes,  75. 
Hartsinck  (Jan  Jacob)  BeschHjving 



van  Guiana,  ijyo,  4;  his  indebted- 
ness to  Storm,  460;  erroneous 
description  of  Kijkoveral,  474. 

Heijliger  (Johannes)  Demerara  plan- 
ter, 1762,  493 ;  appointed  Governor 
of  Berbice,  1764,  ib.  ;  gives  little 
satisfaction,  ib. ;  receives  advice 
from  Storm,  ij6^,  ib. ;  discharged, 
1767,  ib. ;  returns  to  Demerara, 
ib. ;  acts  in  foreign  slave  matter, 
^770,   639. 

Herrera  (Antonio  de)  Descripcion  de 
las  Indias  Occidentales,  160 1,  4. 

Heuvel  (Jan  Cornelis  van  den) 
Commander   of    Demerara,    1766- 

1771,  597  ;  lacking  in  method,  ib.  ; 
his  system  of  tax-collecting,  //'.  ; 
warned  by  Storm  of  Spanish  raid, 
i76g,  604;  obtains  his  discharge, 
7777,648,650.  His  loss  deplored  in 
Demerara,  651;  his  efficiency,  47; 
his  eulogy  by  Storm,  651. 

Heuvel  (Maria  Catharina  van  den) 
See  Storm  van  's  Gravesande, 
afterivards  Bercheyck,  aftenvards 

Heyde  (S.  G.  van  der)  His  jealousy 
of  Demerara,  7755",  336,  337;  acts 
as  interpreter,  7756,  346;  negotiates 
with  Indians,  1764,  477;  discovers 
the  ouarouchi  tree,  7765,  485;  to 
enquire  into  Tampoco  affair,  176S, 
583;  examines  Caribs,  598;  reports 
concerning  Cuyuni,  7769,  615; 
commands    Caribs   against    rebels, 

1772,  664 ;  dissatisfied  with  his 
treatment,  668. 

Heyden  Resen  (Pieter  van  der) 
Commander  of  Essequibo,  1707— 
1719,  24 ;  instructed  to  seek  El 
Dorado,    777^,   186,    187. 

Hildebrandt  (Thomas)  Mining  en- 
gineer, 63  ;  his  reports,  1741-174J, 
ib.;  results  he  obtained,  64;  his 
conduct  causes  failure,  ib.,  268, 
501  ;   is  discharged,   174J,   64. 

Hog  gum-tree.  Found  in  colony, 

Holderness  (Robert  D'Arcy)  Earl 
of.     See  D'Arcy. 

Holmes  (^V;- William)  Prospects  for 
gold,  7(5*57,  i^o- 

Hoofd  (P.  C.)  His  slaves  revolt, 
777.?,  664 ;   his  murder,  ib. 

Hooge.     See  Huis  ter  Hooge. 

Hoogenheim  (Wolfeit  Simon  van) 
Governor  of  Berbice,  415;  agrees 
upon  terms  for  aid,  176J,  427; 
asks  Storm's  advice,  434;  receives 
aid  from  Storm,  ib.;    at  wits'  end 

through  home  neglect,  440;  sets 
out  to  attack  rebels,  441  ;  thanks 
Storm  for  Carib  aid,  776^,  445, 

Horstman  (Nicolas)  His  expedition, 
61-63:  its  start,  77J9,  201;  first 
news  of  him,  77^7,  201,  202;  re- 
port of  his  desertion,  203 ;  meets 
La  Condamine,  62;  La  Conda- 
mine's  account  of,  174^,  167.  His 
journal,  168-174:  Humboldt's  re- 
ferences thereto,  168:  its  discovery, 
167:  its  value  in  Arbitration,  ib.; 
his  map  the  earliest  of  district,  62; 
results  of  his  expedition,  63  :  allusion 
to  in  1764,  465. 

Hose  (Cornelis  Pietersz. )  In  service 
of  W.I. Co.  at  Essequibo,  765'7,  149, 

Houbabboe  Creek.  Company  form- 
ed, 7769,  621;  chart  completed, 
ib.;   increase  in  land  value,  ib. 

Huis  ter  Hooge.  A  Pomeroon  fort 
projected  in  7657,  16. 

Humboldt  (Alexander  von)  His  refer- 
ences to  Horstman,  168:  to  the 
Akawois,  175-177:  to  the  Caribs, 
178-181:  to^El  Dorado,  182-184: 
to  the  Manaos,  185,  188,  189. 

Imataca  Mts.  Explored  by  Schom- 
burgk,  /S41,  1 16. 

Imports.     Freight  rates,   266. 

im  Thurn  (Sir  Everard  Ferdinand) 
His  acquaintance  with  Indians, 
124  ;  his  views  on  Schomburgk  line, 
125;  ascends  Roraima,  126;  report 
on  Brazilian-Venezuelan  Commis- 
sion, 7.5'i5'7,  129,  130;  appointed 
Government  Agent,   iSg/,    131. 

Indian  Policy  pursued  by  Storm, 
83-89:  compared  with  modern 
British,  86. 

Indians.  Trade  dependent  on,  16S0, 
19  ;  early  Dutch  alliance  with,  83  : 
proves  valuable,  103 ;  employed  as 
police,  84 ;  Storm's  relations  with, 
ib.:  his  consideration  for,  ib.,  88, 
398,  458,  478,  661;  their  trust  in 
him,  1756,  349;  their  value  to 
colony,   641. 

Hunt  out  fugitive  slaves,  77^^, 
207  ;  Orinoco  I.  attack  Waini 
Caribs,  77^6,  219;  Cuyuni  I.  seek 
Dutch  protection,  220;  ill-treatment 
by  Portuguese,  226  ;  Waini  Caribs 
repel  Orinoco  L,  1747,  227  ;  I. 
murder  traders  up  river,  231  ;  bring 
Storm  information,   1749,   250.     I. 



up  river  desperate,  //Jo,  251  ; 
Akawois  complain  of  ill-treatment, 
ib.  ;  promised  satisfaction  by  Storm, 
ib. ;  suggested  stoppage  of  trade 
with,  ib.  Warned  in  view  of  in- 
vasion, iTS4i  3°9 !  promise  to  guard 
Cuyuni,  326  ;  retreat  before  Spanish 
in  Massaruni,  7756,  349  ;  unwilling 
to  fight  unled,  1738,  358  ;  driven 
down  Cuyuni,  1761,  392  ;  armed  by 
VV.I.Co.,  776^,  404;  neglect  of 
annatto  culture,  412;  led  against 
rebels,  776J,  424  ;  their  knowledge 
of  mines,  467,  468  ;  harsh  treatment 
by  Spanish,  468,  503  ;  repay  Dutch 
protection,  776^,  478  ;  ill-treatment 
by  colonists,  7765,  ib.  ;  Spanish 
I.  captured,  496:  by  Dutch  colonist, 
497  ;  need  of  I.  interpreter,  7766, 
503  ;  obstreperous  at  Cuyuni  Post, 
7767,  545  ;  object  to  French  post- 
holders,  lybS,  570;  Storm  seeks 
neutrality,  575;  Akawois  and  Caribs 
at  war,  584,  585.  None  left  in 
Cuyuni,  7769,  603 ;  driven  away, 

I.  safeguard  British  claims,  104; 
seek  British  intervention,  7<?07,  109; 
staves  of  office,  103;  Carib  chief 
comes  down,  iSio,  109;  accept  con- 
ditions of  British  friendsl^ip,  110;  in 
closer  touch  with  government,  in; 
captains  under  British  jurisdiction, 
1S16-1S1S,  ib.  ;  settling  near  Pom- 
eroon  and  Moruca,  7<?77,  118  ;  de- 
sire British  missionary  on  Rupununi, 
113  ;  settlements  on  Pomeroon  and 
Moruca,  iSjj,  118;  commissions 
bestowed  by  British,  ib. ;  Indians' 
needs  urged  by  Schomburgk,  iSjg, 
114;  I.  re-assured  by  Schomburgk's 
delimitation,  119;  keep  within  his 
line,  ib.  Captains'  commissions 
issued  to,   iSjj,  ib. 

Indigo  plantation.  Belonging  to 
W.I. Co.,  233  ;  unsold  at  auction, 
1748,  ib. 

Interlopers.  Meaning  of  the  term, 
12  ;  conflicts  with  W.I. Co.,  ib. 

Iraquari    Fall.       Horstman    passes, 

170,  17.'.- 

Ireng  R.  Its  junction  with  Takutu 
determined,  1 16  ;  its  source  dis- 
covered, 140. 

Iron-wood.      See  Cypress. 

Iruwary  Creek.  [Yuruari  R.], 
occupied  by  Spanisli,  I7jj,  332. 

Irving  {Sir  Henry  Turner)  Governor 
of  iJritish  Guiana,  127  ;  energetic 
action  against  Venezuela,  128. 

Itabo.  Indian  name  for  waterway, 
322,  468,  663. 

Itami  Fall.  Passed  by  Horstman, 
169,  172. 

Itinerant  traders.  Their  extensive 
travels,  13,  269;  their  routes,  76; 
their  life,  259,  260,  270.  Explore 
the  Rio  Branco,  76,  77;  their 
influence  over  Indians,  1700,  23  ; 
Storm's  indebtedness  to,  13 ;  two 
murdered  up  river,  1747,  231  ;  their 
brutal  dealings,  ib.,  269  ;  insufficient 
proof  to  punish,  250,  269  ;  Jan  Stok 
commits  enormities,  250;  suggestion 
to  exclude,  269. 

Iturriaga  (Jose  de)  Chief  Commis- 
sioner for  delimitation,  775J,  357  ; 
Viceroy  of  Spanish  dominions, 
I7j8,  ib. ;  his  action  criticized  by 
Storm,  ib. 

Janss  (Adriaen)  See  Groenewegen 
(A.  A.) 

Jansse  (Gerrit)  Appointed  post- 
holder  at  Arinda,  7767,  559  ;  brings 
message  from  Carib  chief,  1768, 
574;  praised  by  Storm,  581.  His 
journey  to  Crystal  Mine,  i76g,  613, 
616-619;  hires  Macusi  interpreter, 
617  ;  describes  the  R.  Mahu,  ib.  ; 
reaches  the  Wapisanas,  ib. ;  is 
well  received,  618;  finds  Paravil- 
hanas,  ib.\  difficulty  in  procuring 
crystal,  ib.  ;  his  reconnaissance  of 
district,  619;  finds  saltpetre,  ib.; 
obtains  specimens  of  cinnamon,  ib. ; 
arrives  at  Fort  Zeelandia,  613  ;  his 
report  discussed,  69.  Instructed  to 
explore  further,  619,  620  ;  sets  off 
up  the  river,  620;  ill  four  months, 
7770-7777,  640;  arrives  with  50 
Caribs,  ib. :  leads  them  against 
deserters,  641. 

Jawaho.  The  Indian  Devil,  501  ; 
dwelling-places  of,  ib. 

Jesuits.  Form  Spanish  expedition, 
77^6*,  250. 

Jews.  Settle  on  the  Pomeroon, 
i6ji,  15,  211;  charter  granted 
them,  7659,  ^11;  many  arrive  in 
Essequibo,  16;  "Jews'  Savannah" 
in  Surinam,  211;  Holland  and 
So/ne  Je~u>s,  references  to  colonial 
settlement,   2(2. 

Moses  Isaakse  de  Vries  goes 
prospecting,  77^9,  197 :  leads  In- 
dians against  fugitives,  77^^,  207 : 
his  success  as  jjlanter,  659;  Jews 
desire    to   settle   in    colony,    1744, 



211,    1753,    301,    1772,    659:    pro- 
hil)ited  by  Storm,  211. 
Jonghe   (Jacob   Pieteisz.  de)    Takes 
command  of  the  Pomeroon,   16S6, 
20;  his  non-success,  21. 

Kaieteur    Fall.     Discovered   by  C. 

Harrington  Brown,  1S70,  123. 
Keymis  (Lawrence)  Kelatioii  of  the 

Second  Voyage  to  Guyana^  ^S9^i  3  > 

his  "laos"  possibly  Manaos,  184. 
Kiltum.     A    name    for    rum,    386; 

suggested   for  taxation,   1761,   ib. 
King   William   IV   Fall.     On  the 

Essequibo,  112;  named  by  Schom- 

burgk,   ib. 
Klaprot      collection,      Bibliotheque 

Nationale.      Discovery    of    Horst- 

man's  narrative,    167. 
Knott     (Isaac)     Demerara     planter, 

350;  asks  leave  to  cut  timber,  1736, 

ib. ;    is   referred    to   Directors,    //;.  ; 

his  petition  discussed,  351. 

La  Chau  (Joseph  de)  His  journeys, 
80;  sets  out  for  Upper  Essequibo, 
1762,  413;  discovers  gold,  465; 
returns  alone,  413;  his  journal,  ib., 
593;  manager  for  Spoors,  i76g,  594. 

La  Condamine  (Charles  Marie  de) 
Meets  Horstman,  62  :  receives  ex- 
tract from  his  diary,  167;  his  own 
account  of  the  journey,  ib. ;  his 
travels  in  America,  539;  visits 
Stomi's  friend  Mauricius,  ib. 

Laet  (Joannes  de)  Nieiiwe  IVereldt, 
162J,  4  ;  Novtis  Orbis,  idjj,  ib. 

Lapis  bezoar.     Description  of,  264. 

La  Riviere  (Jan)  Forbidden  to  settle 
in  Barima,  580;  his  widow's  planta- 
tion raided,  176S,  ib. 

La  Villette  (  )  A  Demerara  rice- 
grower,  I7S3.  293. 

Leary  (Cornells)  English  colonist, 
314,  399;  promises  English  aid  in 
defence,  17S4,  314;  offers  loan  of 
barque,  316;  his  slave  returns  criti- 
cized, 1766,  510. 

Le  Clair  (.Servaas)  A  postholder. 
Desertion  and  arrest,  1776,   104. 

Leigh  (Charles)  Voyage  to  Gtiiana, 
1604,  3. 

Lentisk  Tree.   Found  in  colony,  263. 

Letter-wood.  Found  in  colony, 
264 ;    reason  for  its  name,   ib. 

Lignum  quassiae.  Known  in  colony 
as  carawadani,  506;  Storm  sends 
to  Europe,  ib. 

Lignum  vitae.  Found  in  colony, 

Lindgreen  (Elias)  Sets  out  for  Up- 
per Essequibo,  J762,  412;  never 
heard   of  again,   593. 

Lingius  (A'czk  Izaak)  Arrival  in 
colony,  176J,  407;  his  installation, 

Longchamps.     See  Georgetown. 

Lonk  (Engel)  Constructs  mill  in 
Demerara,    1732,  282. 

Loof  (Michiel)  Provisionally  ap- 
pointed Assistant,  /7J'.?,  280. 

Luchtenburg  afterwards  Storm 
van  's  Gravesande  (Alpheda 
Louisa  van)  Mother  of  the  Direc- 
tor-General, 29. 

Macarana  Mt.  [Makarapan.]  Horst- 
man passes,  170,    173. 

McTurk  (Michael)  His  qualities  and 
career,  125  ;  his  expedition  in  1S78, 
126;  special  magistrate,  Pomeroon 
District,  1SS4,  128;  reports  on  en- 
croachments, ib. ;  arrests  foreign 
delinquent,  ib.;  in  charge  of  Esse- 
quibo River  District,  131;  his 
journeys  in  i8gi,  132;  re-establishes 
police  on  the  Uruan,  iSgj,  133; 
investigates  encroachments  on  the 
Takutu,  iSg7,  136;  stations  a  post- 
holder  and  constables,  ib. ;  recalls 
his  men,  ib. ;  appointed  a  com- 
missioner for  delimitation, /907,  138. 

Macusis.     Full  account  of,  305. 

Maelen  (Jacobus  van)  A  deserter 
reported  killed  by  Caribs,  1768, 
580;  returns  to  Essequibo,  584; 
alleges  coercion  in  deserting^  ib. 

Maganouts.   \ 

■,,„   °        .     '    Y   See  Manaos. 

Magnouws.    ) 

Mahaica.  Described  as  a  desert, 
1748,  241  ;  W.I. Co.  grants  land  in, 
1771,  647 ;  distance  from  Deme- 
rara,  ib. 

Mahaicony.  Described  as  a  desert, 
1748,  241. 

Mahaicony  Post.  Situation  and 
use,  430,  460;  new  postholder, 
1700,  67 ;  Caribs  seek  leave  to 
settle  near,  7769,   624. 

Mahanarva,  a  Carib  chief.  Sends 
envoy  to  the  British,  1810,  109;  is 
received  by  Court  of  Policy,  ib. 

Maho  R.     Sec  Mahu. 

Mahu  R.  Called  Mejou  by  Indians, 
617;    joins    RR.     Rupununi    and 



Branco,    77,    462,  617;   traditional 
source  in  L.  Parima,  ib. ;  Horstman 
passes  up,  /7J9,  170,  174;  Jansse's 
description  of,  ijbg,  617.   The  name 
also  in  Cuyuni,?/;.  ;  Spanish  mission 
said  to  be  established,  307. 
Malgraef  (Johan  Hendrik)  Manager 
of  W.I. Co. 's  plantation,  1^44.,  210; 
slaves  rebel  against,  ib. 
Mana  Caboera,  663. 
Manaos.      Various     forms     of    the 
name,    85;    their   connection    with 
Manoa,    181-185;    their   historian, 
184;  their  location,  185,  186;   first 
appearance    in     Essequibo,    1722, 
187 ;    official    references    to,    iJ2j, 
ib.;   repelled   by  the   Dutch,    188; 
their  later  history,   188,   189. 
Mangue    Fall.     The   first  in  Esse- 
quibo, 659. 
Mani  tree.     Found  in  colony,  265  ; 

its  description,  ib. 
Manoa.     Its  identity,  182-184;  sug- 
gested derivation  of  name,  189. 
Manoa  Company.     Holds  conces- 
sions   from    Venezuela,    1884,   127; 
asserts  its  claim,   ib. ;    barbarity  of 
its  agent,   128. 
Maps  of  Essequibo.     In  "Journal  du 
Voyage,  162J,  1 1 ;  one  ordered  by 
W.I. Co.,     1747,    229;      one     sent 
home,   1748,    238;    another,    i74g, 
247 ;  error  in  date  of  Storm's  map, 
238;  coast  chart  made,  777.?,  662. 
Maps  of  district.    Horstman's,  1740, 
167;  one  brought  by  Storm,  /750, 
267,  349 ;   d'Anville's   map,  17^8, 
357>   .S.^S,  370- 
Maraywakke,    a   Carib   chief.      See 

Marcand    (J.    Louis)    Murdered    in 
Upper  Essequibo,  17s J,  302,  617. 
Marchal    (Pieter)     Causes    Akawoi 
revolt,    7755,    340 ;    his    plantation 
attacked,  ib.;  pursued  by  Akawois, 
343;    tried,    7756,    346;    declared 
innocent,  347  ;  returns  to  his  plan- 
tation,  ib. ;    driven   away  by  Aka- 
wois, ib.;  enters  Spoors'  service,  ib. 
Marewyne    R.       French    boundary 

with  Surinam,   473. 
Maripurma.    Chief  of  the  Cerekons, 
609  ;  reported  evil  intentions,  7769, 
Maritata    Fall.     Passed   by  Horst- 
man, 77J9,    169,   172. 
Markoe  (P.)  Planter  of  St  Eustatius, 
281;  settles  in  Demerara,  775^,  ib. 
Marria  Fall.     Passed  by  Horstman, 
I7J9,  168,  172. 

Martens  (Frederick  de)  Piesident  of 
the  Arbitration  Tribunal  of  7<5'99, 135. 

Martin  (Pierre)  Appointed  to  Cuyuni 
Post,  1766,  518;  Indians  force  him 
to  leave,  1768,  570. 

Martinique.  Tobacco  cultivation, 
importance  of,   258. 

Masham  (Thomas)  The  Third 
Voyage... to  Guiana,  ijgd,  3. 

Massaruni  R.  Its  course,  465 ; 
fertility  of  lands,  472  ;  first  mention, 
1680,  19;  dye  store  there,  7700, 
24;  Spanish  reported  near  its 
source,  77^7,  28 ;  navigated  by 
colonists,  465,  466  ;  suggested  pro- 
hibition of  Indian  trade,  17SO,  252; 
still  little  known,  1764,  73;  Caribs 
assemble  against  rebels,  447 ; 
Spanish  encroachments,  176J,  494 ; 
Indians  under  British  jurisdiction, 
1816,    III. 

Mastic.  Found  in  colony,  263 ; 
description  of,  ib. 

Mauricius  (Jan  Jacob)  Governor  of 
Surinam,  77^.2,  538,  539;  quoted  by 
Storm,  ib.  ;  entertains  La  Con- 
damine,  1744,  ib. ;  his  career,  ib. 

Maynard  (John)     Demerara  planter, 

n(>2, 399. 

Meijer  (Joseph  de)  Leads  Indians 
against  rebels,  776J,  424. 

Meijerhelm  (Alpheda  Louisa)  See 
Storm  van  's  Gravesande  afteiiuards 
Bakker  afterwards  Meijerhelm. 

Mejou  R.     See  Mahu. 

Mendoza  (Joachin  Moreno)  Cover- 
nor  of  Spanish  Guayana.  Writes 
re  restitution    of    runaways,    7766, 

5i2>  513- 

Mennes  (Albertus  Adrianus)  Lieu- 
tenant-Captain. Commandant  of 
the  militia,  17 j4,  309  ;  his  death,  ib. 

Miamo  R.     Mission  on,  307. 

Middelburg.  Description  of,  155, 
156;  plan  of,  ib.  ;  its  town-hall,  ib.; 
with  Flushing  and  Veere  takes  over 
Essequibo,  7657-  ^43  =  'i""^  helps  to 
found  a  new  settlement,  15. 

Militia.  Reported  almost  naked, 
1738,  194  ;  none  but  Popish  men, 
195  ;  Storm  suggests  changes,  ib.  ; 
reinforcements  arrive,  1743,  215  ; 
discharged  soldiers  to  leave  colony, 
259,  260  ;  suggested  reforms,  7750, 
275 ;  inadequacy  demonstrated, 
i7S3^  291;  L.  L.  van  Bercheyck 
appointed  commandant,  1734,  310, 
and  lieutenant-captain,  17 jj,  335  ; 
complaint  concerning  recruits,  7757, 
354  ;    reinforcements   arrive,  7759, 



369;  increase  necessary  in  Denierara, 
lyhi,  386;  mulattoes  enlisted,  ijbs, 
404  ;  weakness  in  face  of  revolt, 
/76J,  420;  lack  of  Protestants,  7766, 
498,  500,  520  :  1768,  569 ;  rein- 
forcements asked  for,  ijbb,  521  : 
7767,545;  unsatisfactoryreply,  545, 
546  ;  more  French  sent,  ijbS,  569  ; 
Frenchmen  desert,  586,  5S7  ;  rein- 
forcements promised,  7769,  606  ;  no 
garrison  to  oppose  rebels,  777^,  665. 

Millikin  (James)  Essequibo  planter, 
{76_=>,  399. 

Mines.  Suggested  mining  in  Cuyuni, 
77j'i5',  196 ;  Zeeland  Chamber's 
reply,  77^9,  ib.;  Storm's  belief  in, 
535;  ore  sent  home,  197;  mining 
enterprise,  63, 64;  engineer  sent  out, 
1740,  63  ;  mining  reports,  1741- 
1743,  ib.  ;  miners  return,  1746^  226: 
and  are  discharged,  227  ;  failure 
attributed  to  Hildebrandt,  268;  iron 
and  copper  suggested,  7750,  267, 
268;  silver  in  Blue  Mts.,  305: 
copper,  468 ;  mines  in  Cuyuni, 
467  ;  kept  secret  by  Indians,  468  ; 
prospecting  for  gold,  7i?57,  120; 
operations  in  Cuyuni,  i8b^,  121  ; 
gold  in  Barima,  i88g,  131  ;  increase 
of  M.  in  Essequibo  River  District, 
131,  132  ;  commission  to  Massaruni 
and  Potaro,  iSgi,  132 ;  M.  in 
Yuruari  district,  tb. 

Monk  (Johan  Hendrik)  Manager  of 
W.I.Co.'s  plantation  "  Duinen- 
burg,"  206;  objects  to  fresh  regula- 
tions, 77^^,  ib.  ;  good  to  old  slaves, 

Monteiro  Baena  (Antonio  Ladislau) 
Lieutenant-Colonel.  Records  early 
Dutch  intiuence,  25. 

Morawhana.  Becomes  important 
centre,  1SS7,  130. 

Moronobea  coccinea.  Found  in 
colony,  265  ;  description  of,  ib. 

Moruca  Post.  Its  establishment 
and  purpose,  80  ;  includes  Barima 
district,  23 ;  postholder  reports 
fighting  on  Waini,  77^6,  219: 
ordered  to  assist  Caribs,  ib.  ;  Ori- 
noco Indians  repelled,  77.^7,  227, 
228  ;  de  Scharde  postholder,  77.^^^, 
469  :  defended  by  Storm,  236; 
restitution  of  Indians  demanded, 
7755,  345  ;  removal  of  post,  7756, 
80;  its  fortification,  81 ;  situation  and 
use,  430,  468,  469,  663  ;  its  trading 
facilities,  469,  519;  fertility  of  lands, 
472  ;  Spanish  threats  to  raid,  7760, 
375)  37^  )  warning  of  intended  raid. 

776^",  404 ;  postholder's  hurried 
return,  7765',  488  :  ordered  to  keep 
Barima  clear,  7766,  504  ;  necessity 
of  fortification,  7767,  545  ;  Warouw 
migration,  548  ;  D.  Neelis  post- 
holder,  557  ;  Warouws  object  to 
French  postholder,  776c?,  570; 
threatened  raid  by  deserters,  580; 
Spanish  raid,  7769,  604,  607  ;  good 
conduct  of  postholder,  607 ;  resistsan 
attack,  7797,  8r,  107;  Indians  near, 
under  British  jurisdiction,  18 ib.,  1 1 1: 
1S33,  119;  Roman  Catholic  mission, 

Moshack  (Jacob  Friedrich)  A  dis- 
charged miner,  77^6,  227 ;  ap- 
pointed postholder  at  Arinda,  174^, 
ib. ;  instructed  to  report  on  Wa- 
pisanas,  17 jj,  303. 

Moulion  (  )  W.I.Co.'s  chief  book- 
keeper in  Middelburg,  7770,  633  ; 
writes  concerning  the  books,  ib. 

Munster,  Treaty  of.  Its  historical 
importance,  13,  14 ;  invoked  by 
Storm,  775^,  306;  vainly  consulted, 

Murphy  (Henry  Cruse)  United 
States  Minister  to  the  Netherlands, 
148  ;  his  translation  of  de  Vries' 
Journal,  ib. 

Muster  Roll  of  colony.  First  extant, 
7697,  67. 

Nassy  (David)  Jewish  settler  in 
Guiana,  211;  granted  a  charter  by 
W.I. Co.,  ibsg,  ib. 

Nauwarucu  Mountain.  Passed  by 
Horstman,  169,  172. 

Neelis  (Diderik)  Postholder  at 
Moruca,   7767,   557. 

Netherlands.  Tegetiwoordige  Staat 
der  Veree?iigde  Nederlanden,  17 jg,  1 8. 

Netscher  (Pieter  Marinus)  Geschied- 
enis  van  de  Kolonien  Esseqtiebo, 
Demerary  en  Berbice,  1888,  4,  7 ; 
Les  Hollandais  au  Bri^sil,  7,  14. 
On  Scott's  Account  of  Guiana,  10, 
147  ;  on  anti-Semitism  in  Surinam, 
212;  on  English  immigration,  40; 
on  Fort  Kijkoveral,  474;  on 
W.I.Co. ,  669:  on  its  neglect  to 
import  slaves,  48,    162,    300. 

Neuman  (Johannes)  Postholder  in 
Cuyuni,   71. 

Newton  (  )  English  syrup  dealer, 
284;  punished  for  defrauding,  17J2, 

Nichols  (Benjamin)  Demerara  plant- 
er, 776^,  399. 



Nichols  (Edward)  Demerara  planter, 
iy62,  399. 

Nieuw  Middelburg.  Pomeroon 
town  projected,  16^^,  16;  centre 
of  flourishing  settlement,  j66i,  ib. 

North  America.  English  successes 
in,  7755,  344. 

North  Western  District.  Organi- 
zation of,  i8Sb,  128;  its  great 
progress,  i8gi,   131. 

Nova  Zeelandia.  Projected  Pome- 
roon colony,  idjy,  16. 

Nutmeg  trees.  Growing  wild  in 
colony,   264. 

Oanani.     See  Mani  tree. 

Occowyes.     See  Akawois. 

Ogilvie  (Thomas)  Prosecutes  in 
Demerara  for  a  foreign  debt,  //JJ, 
290,  291  ;  his  claims  satisfied,  291. 

Old  Councillors,   194,  417. 

Omaguas.     See  Akawois. 

Oosterbeek  Plantation.  See  Sint 

Oreane  dye,  430,  431. 

Orinoco  R.  Dutch  trade  in,  16S0, 
19;  slaves  desert  thither,  IJ44,  65; 
Dutch  fishery  hampered,  1746,  225, 
226;  Dutch  cattle  trade,  174S,  240; 
negotiations  with  Commandant, 
233  :  iJS^,  287 ;  suspicious  Spanish 
movements,  i7S4^  305 ;  Dutch 
trade  revived,  //JJ,  339:  1764, 
446 ;  swarming  with  soldiers,  7755, 
345)  trade  there  causes  jealousy, 
776.?,  395 :  at  a  standstill,  7767, 
545;  Warouws  migrate  from,  548. 

Orphan  Chamber  in  Essequibo. 
Reforms  needed,  7750,  271,  272; 
now  scrupulously  exact,  775^,  283; 
its  survival,  271. 

Ouarouchi.  Discovery  of  the  tree, 
176s,  4S4,  485  ;  description  of,  ib.  ; 
regarded  as  nutmeg-tree,  499. 

Pacaraima  Mts.  Expeditions,  187S 
and  iSSj,  126. 

Pallandt  {Generaal  Johan  Werner 
van)  Colonel  of  Storm's  regiment, 
629;  congratulates  Storm  on  ad- 
vancement, 645. 

Panacays.     Their  history,  312. 

Panella.  On  Mt.  Cumudi,  passed 
by   Horstman,   169,    172. 

Para,  town  of.  Horstman's  arrival 
reported,  203. 

Parahans.     See  Paravilhanas. 

Paravilhanas.     Their  history,  415. 

Pariacot  Savannah.     Trade  there, 

ibSs,  20,  23,  70.  ^ 
Parima  Lake.  Keymis'  reference 
to,  7j96,  184;  traditional  source  of 
R.  Ptiahu,  617;  its  hypothetical 
situation,  228,  466;  expedition 
ordered  to,  777^,  24,  186,  187; 
report  of  Horstman's  arrival  there, 
202 ;  reported  within  Dutch  juris- 
diction, 174S,  249;  visited  by 
Sirtema  van  Grovestins,  ib. ;  its 
identity  with  L.  Amucu,  181-189; 
Humboldt's  references  to,  ib. ; 
Schomburgk's  references  to,  ib. 

Parima  R.  Horstman  passes  down, 
171,    174.     See  also  V^iO  ^xTcnco. 

Pataputu  Fall.  Horstman  passes, 
169,    172. 

Pawaricajra  Fall.  Horstman  passes, 
169,  172. 

Peat.     Its  suggested  cultivation,  265. 

Penna  (Hieronimo  Fernandez  de  la) 
Secretary  to  the  Governor  of 
Guayana,  509 ;  arrives  in  Essequibo 
to  trade,  1766,  ib.  ;  his  remarks  on 
slave  restitution,  ib. 

Pare  (Abraham  van)  Makes  shipping 
contract  with  W.I. Co.,  76^6,  289. 

Perkins  (Harry  Innes)  Ascends  Ro- 
raima,  18S4,  126;  appointed  com- 
missionerfordelimitation,  igoi,  138. 

Parrels  (J.  W.)  Writer  on  the  Scotch 
staple  at  Veere,  159. 

Persik  (Salomon)  Burgher-Captain. 
Reports  Spanish  movements,  1747, 
228,  229:  and  threatened  invasion, 
I7S4,  309 ;  offers  barque  for  de- 
fence, 316;  receives  Spanish 
assurances,  317;  translates  Spanish 
despatches,  7759,   367. 

Peruvian  Gum.  Found  in  colony, 

Petapi  Fall.  Passed  by  Horstman, 
169,  172. 

Pickersgill.  Police-station  estab- 
lished, 18S7,   130. 

Pieterse  (Andries)  First  planter  in 
Demerara,   77.^^6,   217,   630. 

Pijpersberg  (Engelbert)  Navigates 
Upper  Massaruni,  466;  reports  a 
pyramid  there,    501. 

Pinfold  (Charles)  Governor  of  Bar- 
bados, 420,  444;  his  assistance 
suggested,   776J,  445. 

Pinto  (Paulo  Jacomo)  Petitions  to 
lands  in  Essequibo,   i6- 

Pirara,  village  of.  Schomburgk 
welcomes  missionary  to,  i8j8, 
113;  mission  razed  by  Brazilians, 
114;    missionary  re-instated,   7<?^7, 



ib. ;     re-visited     by     Schomburgk, 
116.     Salt  found  near,  619. 

Pirara  R.  Horstman  navigates, 
170,    174. 

Pistachia  Lentiscus,  263. 

Plantijn  (Philip)  Killed  in  Akawoi 
revolt,  /7jj,   340,   341. 

Playa  Point.  Fixed  by  boundary 
commissioners,    139. 

Poiret    (  )    Murdered    in    Upper 

Essequibo,   /TJJ,   302. 

Pomeroon.  Settlement  in  i6ji, 
14;  "Nova  Zeelandia"  projected, 
ih^J,  16;  early  Jewish  colonists, 
15,  16,  211;  Francois  de  Fijn, 
commander,  1661,  1 7 ;  troubles 
with  colonists,  /66j,  //'. ;  early 
histoiy  in  Veere  Archives,  18; 
captured  by  English,  i66j,  ib. ; 
description  by  Lieut. -Gen.  Byam, 
i66g,  ib. ;  colony  practically  wiped 
out,  ib.  •  names  retained  on  maps, 
ib.;  again  occupied,  J^jg,  19; 
re-opened  for  traiie,  ib. ;  trade  in 
16S0,  ib.;  second  attempt  to 
colonize,  1686,  20;  demolished  by 
French  and  Caribs,  i68g,  21  ; 
three  men  in  possession,  ib. 

Storm's  policy  concerning,  81; 
surveyed  for  plantations,  ^753^ 
289 ;  defence  against  threatened 
invasion,  i7S4i  3 '6;  timber  con- 
cessions sought,  7756,  350;  opening 
opposed  by  Storm,  351:  177 11 
654;  no  profit  to  W.I. Co.,  352; 
Dutch  occupation  shown,  1760, 
373;  fertility  of  lands,  472;  Indians 
report  Spaniards'  arrival,  176J, 
488;  Indians  under  British  juris- 
diction, 1816.,  m;  Indians  settle 
near,  18 17,  118;  Indian  settle- 
ments on,   1833,  ib. 

Pomeroon  R.    Its  shallow  entrance, 

Portuguese.  Ill-treatment  of 
Indians,  /7^6,  227;  seize  mines 
near  Orinoco,  17^4,  314,  315; 
ill-treat  Manaos,  1762,  414:  their 
indebtedness  to  latter,  464;  their 
missions  near  Essequibo,  465. 

Posts.  Storm's  treatise  on,  460- 
473  :  its  main  inferences,   76. 

Potaro  R.  Explored  by  Barrington 
Brown,   iSjo,   123. 

Products,  of  Essequibo,  195,  196, 
263,   264. 

Protested  bills.  Their  cause,  300, 
65,^,  654;  their  results,  7769,  623: 
7777,  642,  651,  652:  1772,  661; 
lead  to  financial  chaos,  662. 

V.  S.    II. 

Pulgar  (General  Venancio)  Holds 
concession  from  Venezuela,  1881, 

Puruni  R.     Surveyed,  7^6c?,  122. 

Pyramid.  Its  position,  77-79,  463, 
464;  accounts  of,  77,  78,  500-502; 
drawings  brought,  7765,  487  :  7766, 
501;  Prof.  Allamand's  opinion 
asked,  502;  W.I. Co.  desires 
further  examination,  ib. ;  Storm 
discusses  origin,  533;  first  marked 
on  map,  7<?70,  iio;  described  by 
Schomburgk,  78 ;  identified  as 
Ataraipu,  78,  79;  others  in  Mas- 
saruni,  78,  466,  5or. 

Quassiae  lignum,  506. 

Quassia  fistula.   See  Cassia  fistula. 

Quassia  ligna.     See  Cassia  lignea. 

Quelch  (J.  J.)  His  ascent  of 
Roraima,   iSgj,    126. 

Quimata.  im  Thurn  visits,  1888, 

Quitaro  R.  Explored  by  Barring- 
ton  Brown,  i86g,    123. 

Radix    china.     Found    in    colony, 

Radix  jalappa.     Found  in  colony, 

Raleigh  (5'z>  Walter)    Tlie  Discoverie 

of  Guiana,  i^gb,  3. 
Rappard     (Frans     Alexander     van) 

His  interest  in  Storm,  276. 
Reddan  (James  Henry)     His  interest 

in  the  boundaries  question,  119. 
Registers,  compiled  by  Storm,  ijbs- 

^7^9,  399-400. 
Renaud    (Jean)      Assists    rebels    in 

Berbice,  776J,  442. 
Rewa  R.   Flows  into  Rupununi,  123. 
Reygersberg  ([an)     Dye    Cronijcke 

van  Zeelandt,  ijji,  157:  Boxhorn's 

edition,   1644,    '.'^4'    '55  =     Smalle- 

gange's  edition,  i6g6,  i^^. 
Ribeiro    de     Sampaio     (Francisco 

Xavier)       His   diary,    25  ;    records 

early  Dutch   influence,   ib. ;    writes 

of  the  Manaos,  184,  185. 
Rice.  Cultivation  urged,  7750,  257; 

cultivation  in  Demerara,  17SJ,  293  ; 

its  later  cultivation,  i8gS,  257. 
Richter  (Jan    Christoffelj     Manager 

of  "  DujTienburg"  plantation,  547; 

accuses  Storm  of  disloyalty,  1767, 

Rietstap  (J.  B.)     Heraldieke  Biblio- 

theek,  28. 




Rijst  (Chiistiaen)  Reported  return 
from  Horstman  expedition,  1741, 
102  :  his  desertion,  203. 
Rio  Branco.  Dutch  traders  explore, 
77  ;  British  claim  to  savannahs 
near,  iii.  See  also  Parima  R. 
Rio  Negro.    Horstman  passes  down, 

171,   174. 
Roberts  (William)    Demerara  plant- 
er, ijbs,  400. 
Rode  (van)     Erects  a  mill  in  Deme- 
rara, 1732,  282. 
Rodemeyer     (Hendrik)        Deserter 

killed  by  Caribs,  ijbS,  580. 
Rodney    (George    Brydges)    Baron. 
Commander-in-chief    of    H.B.M.'s 
squadron    on    the    Leeward    Isles 
Station,  1762,  392  ;  demand  for  his 
aid  suggested,  1763,  445. 
Rodway  (James)     History  of  British 
Guiana,  i8gi~i8<p4,  4  ;  his  remarks 
on  Clarke's  claim,  43  ;  on  meanness 
of  W.I. Co.,    ib. 
Rol     (Hendrik)        Commander     of 

Essequibo,  1670,  19. 
Roman  Catholic  mission  onMoruca, 

1833,  118. 
Ronij      (Leonardo)        Accompanies 

Horstman,   168,  171. 
Rooij    (William   de)    settles  on  the 

Rupununi,  121. 
Roraima.     Its  situation,    126  ;   dis- 
covered    by     Schomburgk,      116; 
ascended  in  1884,  126  :  by  bound- 
ary commissioners,  jgo4,  139;  suc- 
cessive ascents  enumerated,  126. 
Rosen    (Jan    Adolph   van)      Causes 
trouble   on   the  Barima,   1766,   82, 
504  ;  his  trial  and  sentence,  504. 
Rousselet    de    la    Jarie    (Nicolas) 
Secretary  and    sales-master,    7765, 
483  ;  envoy  to  Orinoco,  7766,  509  ; 
returns    with    unsatisfactory    reply, 
510;   his  difficulty  with  W.I.Co.'s 
books,  634  ;  his  death,  7767,  546 ; 
his  services,  ib. ;  sale  of  his  estate, 
176^,     623;     his     widow     attacks 
Storm,  624. 
Rowan    (John)      Demerara  planter, 

776.?,  400. 
Royal      Geographical       Society. 
Commissions    Schomburgk    to    ex- 
plore, III. 
Ruijsch.     See  Rijst. 
Rupununi  R.     Its  connection  with 
Mahu,     76 ;     reached    by    traders, 
7700,  24 ;  Horstman  proceeds  up, 
^739  f    17O'     '73!     -^'tfi     for     Post 
Arinda,  254 ;  explored  by  Schom- 
burgk, 1833,  112  ;    Indians  desire 

British  missionaiy,  113  ;  British  on 
savannahs  beyond,  i8go,  132.  Its 
products,  462,  463  ;  cinnamon  in, 

Saba,  Island  of.     Description,  282  ; 

planters  leave  for  Demerara,   1752, 

Saint  Christopher.     Planters  leave 

for  Demerara,  1732,  288. 
Saint  Eustatius.    Description,  281  ; 

planters  leave  for  Demerara,  1732, 

ib.,  288  ;  aid  sent  to  Berbice,  7767, 

Saint    George     del     Mina.       See 

Salt.       Found  on    Pirara   savannah, 

619:  analysis  of,  ib. 
Saltpetre.     Found  near  the    Mahu, 

Sampson  (Ralph)     Demerara  plant- 
er,   776^,  400  ;    lets  his  barque   to 

colony,  776^,  428. 
San  Thome.     Burnt  by  the  Dutch, 

76j7,     12;    its   removal    in    1764, 

Sarsaparilla.        "  In     abundance," 


Sawkins  (James  G.)  His  survey  of 
B.  Guiana,  1S67-1870,  121-123. 

Scharde  (Jan  de)  Postholder  at 
Moruca,  77^1?,  469,  470,  519;  his 
profits,  470,  519. 

Scharde  (Aegidius  de)  Demerara 
planter,  519  ;  his  doubts  concerning 
Tampoco,  577. 

Scherpenisse.  A  town  in  Zeeland, 
152;  its  possible  connection  with 
Groenewegen,  150,  152,  153. 

Schinus  moUe.  Mastick  obtained 
from,   263. 

Schomburgk  (Richard)  Accom- 
panies his  brother  to  Guiana,  1840, 
115,  1 16;  his  Reise)i  in  Britisch 
Giiia?ta,  116:  translation  of  ex- 
cerpts, ib. ;  settles  in  Australia, 
j84g,  ib. ;  director  of  Botanic  Gar- 
dens, Adelaide,  1866,  ib. ;  his 
death,  j8go,  ib. 

Schomburgk  [Sir  Robert  Hermann) 
His  exploration  of  British  Guiana, 
80,  111-117;  his  reports,  in: 
compared  with  accounts  80  years 
earlier,  77;  proceeds  up  the  Es- 
sequibo, 112;  halts  at  Annai,  ib.; 
explores  the  Rupununi,  ib.;  finds 
remains  of  Dutch  posts,  72  ;  names 
King  William  IV's  Fall,  76;  de- 
scribes the  pyramid,    78;    ascends 



Corentin  and  Berbice  rivers,  112; 
discovers  Essequibo  sources,  ib.\ 
reaches  the  Acarai  Mts.,  ib;  his 
i"epresentations  concerning  Indian 
needs,  114.  Commissioner  for  de- 
limitation, 115;  his  travels,  1841- 
1S4J,  116,  117;  discovers  Roraima, 
116;  explores  the  Wenamu,  117; 
discovers  sources  of  the  Trombetas, 
ib. ;  reaches  source  of  the  Corentin, 
ib. ;  his  reports  buried  50  years,  ib.  ; 
his  delimitation  re-assures  Indians, 
119:  they  keep  within  his  line, 
ib.:  which  is  declared  definitive 
boundary,  18S6,  128.  Appreciation 
of  his  work,  140:  and  justification, 

Schutz  (Niels  Andries)  Emissary 
to  Orinoco,  371;  Spanish  opinion 
of,   509. 

Schuylenburg  (Paulus  van)  First 
separate  commander  of  Demerara, 

Scott  [A/ajoi-  John)  Geographer  to 
Charles  II.,  10;  his  Account  of 
Guiana,  ibbg  (?),  ib. ;  describes 
foundation  of  Essequibo,  146;  dis- 
credited by  Netscher,  10,  147:  by 
Prof.  G.  L.  Burr,  147;  favourably 
criticized  by  Rev.  G.  Edmundson, 
147,  and  Sir  J.  A.  Swettenham,  ib. 
His  account  of  Pomeroon  settle- 
ment in,  ib^i,    15. 

Shanks  (James)  Prospects  for  gold, 
iS^-j,  120. 

Shawhauns.     See  Wapisanas. 

Shier,  Dr.  Prospects  for  gold,  iSjj, 

Sibarona  R.     See  Siparuni. 

Simaruba,  or  bitter- wood,  264. 

Simmons  (John)  Demerara  planter, 
ijbj,  400. 

Simon  (  )  Joins  Hancock's  ex- 
pedition, iSio,  no. 

Simons  (Edward)  Leaves  Nevis  for 
Demerara,  IJSJ,  289  ;  lands  allotted 
him,  ib.\  condemned  to  pay  old 
debt,  290;  placed  in  confinement, 
ib.\  his  slaves  defy  the  law,  291; 
satisfies  his  prosecutor,  ib. 

Simons  (Thomas)  Demerara  planter, 
i'jb2,  400. 

Sint  Jan  plantation.  Assistance 
wanted  against  Indians,  /750,  251 ; 
attacked  by  Akawois,  iJSSi  .^40- 

Siparuni  R.  Explored  by  Horst- 
man,  ijjg,  169,  173;  knowledge 
of,  76;  active  volcano  reported,  75, 
249 ;  explored  by  Barrington  Brown, 
iSyo,  123. 

Sirtema  (D.  van)  Visits  Lake  Parima, 
249;  joins  Hancock's  expedition, 
18 10,  no. 

Sirtema  van  Grovestins.  See 

Skins  procurable,  264. 

Slaves.  Non-supply  retards  progress, 
38,  162,  213,  299,  594;  colonists 
buy  from  English,  ijjo.,  632 ; 
W.I. Co.  complains  of  foreign  im- 
portation, 636:  Storm  asks  for 
proofs,  ib. ;  foreign  importation 
frustrated,  639:  continues,  ijji, 
640,  642,  644:  causes  protested 
bills,  653.  Netscher  on  smuggling, 

Unwilling  tlirough  want,  174S1 
214;  desertion  to  the  Orinoco,  65; 
brave  demeanour  against  Spanish, 

1754^  94- 
Slave  Trade.     A  knotty  point,  299, 
300;  W.I. Co.  versus  private  trade, 


Smallegange  (M.)  Cronijck  van 
Zeclaiid,  ibgb,  155,  157. 

Smilax  officinalis  H.B.K.  Found 
in  colony,  195. 

Smit  (Jan)    Risks  his  life,  1747,  230. 

Smith  [Captain  Jacob)  Commands 
English  auxiliaries,  I7t>3,  443! 
commands  Dutch  and  English 
forces,  442 ;  his  bravery  com- 
mended, ib.\  defeats  the  rebels, 
ib. ;  his  expedition  saves  Demerara, 

Smith  (Servaes)  Deserts  with  French 
to  Orinoco,  jjbS,  588. 

Snake-bites,  remedy  for,  264. 

Soestdijk.  Plantation  belonging  to 
Storm  van  's  Gravesande  family, 
367 ;  produces  first  Demerara 
coffee,   ib. 

Somersall  (Anthony)  Demerara 
planter,  I7b2,  400 ;  attempts  to 
smuggle  slaves,  1770,  639. 

Spain.  Boundary  disputes  with, 

Spanish.  Mission  established  near 
Cuyuni,  174b,  220,  90:  stops  slave 
traffic,  225.  Reported  near 
Cuyuni  and  Massaruni  sources, 
1747,  228;  Zeeland  Chamber 
suggests  dislodgment,  229.  S. 
trade  retarded,  i'J48,  236;  advance 
in  Cuyuni  stopped,  239.  Their 
discoveries  in  1748,  249;  con- 
tinually nearing  the  colony,  iJS'^y 
i6i\  complain  of  injuries  by 
Caribs,  268.  Rumoured  hostile 
intentions,    17S4,    93;      suspicious 




movements      in      Orinoco,      305 : 
Clarke's     report     on,     308.     Two 
missions  reported  in  Cuynni,  307 : 
location  thereof,  90 ;  Caribs  furious 
against  S.,  311,  312:  and  demolish 
mission,       312.         S.      contradict 
threatened    invasion,    316;    secret 
negotiations     against     Dutch,     94; 
S.       administration      of      colonial 
provinces,      96;     feared     invasion 
groundless,   1735,    327,    330.     Re- 
ported   raid    on    Dutch    territory, 
332  ;  S.  10  or  12  hours  from  Dutch 
post,    ib.  ;    war    scare    over,     339. 
Demand  Indians  at  Moruca  Post, 
34:,.     Reports    of    encroachments, 
7756,  349;  raid  Cuyuni  Post,  i^S^i 
95>    356)    357;      Storm     demands 
satisfaction,  360,  363-365  :  unsatis- 
factory reply,   365,   366.     S.  claim 
to  the  Cuyuni,  96 ;  driving  Caribs 
away,    I7j<p,    36S.     S.  harassed    in 
Orinoco,  ib. ;    agree    to   deliver  up 
fugitives,      ib.        Attack      Barima, 
1760,  98;  seize  Dutch  boats,  376; 
threaten   to  raid    Moruca  Post,  ib. 
S.  trade    prohibited   in   Essequibo, 
383 ;   fresh  descent  upon   Moruca, 
100,    loi.     Watching    for    re-erec- 
tion  of  Cuyuni    Post,    1761,    384; 
drive    Indians    down    the    Cuyuni, 
392 ;     create     disturbances     there, 
IJ62,  397,  398.     Intended  raid  on 
Moruca    Post,    404 ;    S.    again    re- 
ported    active     in     Cuyuni,     405; 
gradually    Hearing    the    Post,    467. 
Their    treatment    of   Indians,  468; 
S.  trade  at  Moruca  Post,  468,  469; 
a  S.  party  in  Pomeroon,  1763,  488. 
S.   Mission   visited   by  Dutch  spy, 
ib.  •    its  situation  and  harm  fulness, 
ib. ;     reported    activity,    489 ;     en- 
croachments   feared,    ib.;    reported 
trespassing   in  Massaruni,   494 ;    S. 
Indians     brought     before     Storm, 
496;       reported       designs       upon 
Cuyuni,   1766,  497.     Their  cruelty 
in    mining,     503;     refusal     to    co- 
operate in  Barima,  528 ;  report  on 
S.       Mission      in      Cuyuni,      537; 
reported     raid    on    Cuyuni     Post, 
7767,     541 ;     suggested     measures 
against,     541,     542;     S.     deserters 
to   leave  Essequibo,   545.     Storm's 
distrust    of,    553 :    describes    their 
governors,  ib.,  582.     S.  join  Dutch 
deserters    in    Barima,    776c?,    580 ; 
attack  W.I.Co.'s  salters,  585,  586; 
molest    Caribs,    586.       Reluctance 
to   conclude   a   cartel,    7769,    592; 

raid  on  Indians  near  Cuyuni  Post, 
595;  deserters  seek  Cuyuni  mission, 
600.     Two    missions    reported    in 
Cuyuni,  601:  Storm  orders  inspec- 
tion,  602,  633.     Reported  raid  on 
Moruca  Post,  604;  raiding  between 
Barima   and    Pomeroon,   606,  607, 
612,  615.    Remonstrance  suggested 
to    the    States-General,    608;     S. 
threaten  to  attack  Fort  Zeelandia, 
613;     measures    of     reprisal    sug- 
gested,    615;     S.    prevent    salting 
along  coast,  624;  their  threats  not 
feared,   7770,  635.     Storm    desires 
to  trade  with  Orinoco,  1772,  660. 
S.    unsuccessfully    attack    Moruca 
Post,     7797,     107;      S.      missions 
destroyed,   1S17,   118. 
Spoors    (Adriaan)    Manager   of   the 
W.I.Co.'s    plantation,     "De    Pel- 
grim,"    201  ;    proposed    by   Storm 
for    secretary-ship,    77,^7,    ib. :    ap- 
pointed,    1742,     205,     206,     633 ; 
vindicated  and    praised  by   Storm, 
77^1?,    234;    Storm's   loctiJH   tenens, 
1730-1732,       252 ;       reports       on 
Spanish    missions,     92;    acts    con- 
jiaictitn  with  Director  General,  37, 
38;    his    relations   with   latter,   ib., 
163,     164;     visits     Europe,     77^7, 
297;   W.I. Co.  declines  his  request 
for  discharge,  7759,  368 ;  ill,  7760, 
379;    his    rations    doubled,    776^, 
397 ;     his    action     as     salesmaster 
criticized,    450;     loses    his    sight, 
1764,    45,    163,    457,    459;    terms 
of     his      discharge,      633 ;      again 
visits     Europe,     516;     returns     to 
colony,  7766,  ib.  ;  defends  English 
slave    smuggler,    7767,    559,    569; 
questions    Storm's    veracity,    560; 
misrepresents      Storm's      conduct, 
565  ;    refuses    to     act    in    Stoim's 
absence,    566;    blamed    for  neglect 
of    duty,    567 ;    his    opposition    to 
acreage     dues,     568;      his     death, 
776<?,     163,     594;    his     arrears    of 
work,  633. 
Stabroek.     Laid  out  by  French  and 
called      Longchamps,      105,      106; 
becomes  capital  of  combined  new 
colony,   77i5'9,    106. 
States-General.        Their     Remon- 
strance   to    Spain    re  Cuyuni   raid, 
7759.  97;    demand    Storm's  letters 
re  Berbice  revolt,  176J,  45 1  ;  their 
action   on  the  W.I.Co.'s  represen- 
tations,    Jf76g,     loi,     102;     invite 
arbitration    on    free    trade   dispute, 
7770,   144. 



Stewart  (Daniel)  Essequibo  planter, 
1762,  399. 

Stock-ranch.  Storm's  scheme  for, 
'750,   272-274. 

Stok  (Jan  Baptist)  Regular  Cuyuni 
trader,  73;  his  journeys,  74;  sees 
Portuguese  missions  up  Essequibo, 
465;  returns  from  Upper  Cuyuni 
with  false  news,  17 46,  220;  com- 
mits enormities,  1730,  250;  warrant 
issued  for  arrest,  251. 

Storm  (Gerard)  Heer  van  Hoogeveen. 
Burgomaster  of  Gouda ;  his  death, 
7757,  644. 

Storm  van  's  Gravesande.  De- 
scent of  the  Netherlands  family, 
29,   30. 

Storm  van  's  Gravesande  (Alpheda 
Louisa)  Mother  of  the  Director- 
General.  See  Luchtenburg  after- 
wards  Stomi  van  's  Gravesande. 

Storm  van  's  Gravesande  after- 
'wards  Bakker  aftenvards  Meijer- 
helm  (Alpheda  Louisa)  Daughter 
of  the  Director  General.  Birth  and 
career,  33. 

Storm  van 's  Gravesande  (Joitkheer 
Carl  Marius)  29. 

Storm  van  's  Gravesande  (Dirk) 
b.  76^6,  28,  29. 

Storm  van  's  Gravesande  (Ernes- 
tine Henriette)  See  Bronkhorst 
aftci~sjards  Storm  van  "s  Grave- 

Storm  van  's  Gravesande  (Ewout 
Hendrik)   b.  16S4  ;  his  career,  29. 

Storm  van  's  Gravesande  (Gerard 
Johan)  b.  77^0 ;  his  career,  32  ;  his 
death,  1764,  45. 

Storm  van  's  Gravesande  (Jeremias) 
b.  i74g ;  goes  to  Europe,  776^;,  45 ; 
cost  of  his  education,  482  ;  com- 
mended to  protection  of  Prince  of 
Orange,  7766,  550;  called  home  by 
his  father,  523  ;  recommended  to 
Bentinck's  protection,  1767,  589 ; 
applies  for  salesmastership  in  De- 
merara,  1773,  ih. 

Storm  van's  Gravesande  (Jonathan 
Samuel)  b.  1728,  32  ;  career,  ib.  ; 
appointed  ensign,  1744,  ib. ;  com- 
mander of  Demerara,  7750,  37  ; 
takes  the  oath,  775^,  279  ;  his  salary 
and  position,  I75S-,  329 ;  harshly 
treated  by  Directors,  ib. ;  his  death, 
7767,  386,  387  ;  compared  with  his 
successors,  47. 

Storm  van  's  Gravesande  (Laurens) 
Great-grandfather  of  the  Director- 
General  ;  b.  760J,  28. 

Storm  van 's  Gravesande  (Laurens) 

770^.  Born  at 's  Hertogenbosch, 
629:  Oct.  12,  22,  31,  516;  /7.?7, 
enters  army,  31  ;  77^7,  marries, 
32;  1731,  quarrels  witli  burgomaster 
of  Utrecht,  645  ;  loses  promotion, 
ib.\  accepts  post  in  W.LCo.,  32  ; 
congratulated  by  Generaal  van 
Pallandt,  645 ;  77J7,  takes  the 
oath  as  Secretary  of  Essequibo, 

1738.  Arrives  in  Colony,  May 
13,  434,  621  ;  promotes  important 
enterprises,  6r  ;  takes  his  seat  in 
Courts,  194  ;  offers  to  complete  new 
fort,  195  ;  reports  on  its  site,  198, 
199;  constructs,  34,  and  describes 
it,  207,  208.  Reports  on  Colony's 
products,  195,196;  suggests  mining, 
63,  in  Cuyuni,  196  ;  intends  to 
prospect  in  person,  63  ;  semis  home 
ore,  197;  proposes  closing  W.  LCo.'s 
shop,  199;  early  letters  not  directly 
answered,  645  :  his  chagrin  thereat, 

1739-  Equips  Horstman's  ex- 
pedition, 61  ;  77^0,  orders  explora- 
tion of  Upper  Essequibo,  77,  501  ; 
77^7,   applies   for  commandership, 

200  ;  proposes  Spoors  as  Secretary, 

201  ;  sends  first  news  of  Horstman, 
201,  202  ;  reports  more  fully,  202, 

77^.?.  Provisionally  appointed 
Commander,  201  :  77^j,  thanks  for 
approval  thereof,  204;  appointment 
made  definite,  ib.  35,  64  :  his 
thanks,  205  ;  pleased  with  Spoors' 
appointment,  205,  206.  1744, 
Institutes  reforms,  206  ;  intends 
repairing  Kijkoveral,  209  ;  sup- 
presses slave  revolt  at  Poehvijk, 
210;  prohibits  Jews  from  settling, 
211  ;  praises  Colony's  soil  and 
climate,  212  ;  deplores  godlessness 
of  colonists,  lb.;  is  generally  beloved 
but  thwarted,  ^b.  ;  suggests  post- 
liolder  for  Barima,  64  ;  proposes 
special  building  for  divine  worship, 
213  ;  174b,  explains  working  of 
W.I.Co. 's  plantations,  221  ;  his 
complaint  against  other  officials, 
224  ;  feels  want  of  good  interpreter, 
226  ;  his  indebtedness  to  itinerant 
traders,  13  ;  77^7,  desires  to  close 
Upper  Essequibo,  232,  269 ;  pre- 
sented with  negroes,  232  ;  his  grati- 
tude, 233  ;  vindicates  Spoors,  234 ; 



Storm    van    's    Gravesande    (L. ) 

sends  map  of  Essequibo,  -2.^8  ;  1748, 
commends  Courthial's  petition,  240, 
241  ;  vindicates  officials  against 
charge  of  dishonesty,  246,  247 ; 
1749,  moves  into  new  house,  411  ; 
applies  for  permission  to  visit 
Europe,  245  ;  ser  ds  map,  248. 

lyjo.  Sails  for  Zeeland,  36, 
252  ;  reason  for  his  visit  home,  253  ; 
presents  report  on  the  Colony,  252- 
276  ;  advises  abandonment  of  bread 
plantation,  254;  orders  removal  of 
Post  Arinda,  ib. ;  deplores  paucity  of 
mills,  2^^  ;  urges  greater  population, 
256  ;  advises  rice  cultivation,  257  ; 
his  advice  followed,  ib. ;  compares 
timber  with  N.  American,  258  : 
also  climate,  ib.  ;  suggests  various 
products  for  cultivation,  ib.\  dis- 
courages small  sugar  holdings,  ib.  ; 
proposes  subsidizing  settlers,  260; 
blames  colonists'  want  of  enterprise, 
262  ;  enumerates  Colony's  products, 
263,  264  ;  suggests  construction  of 
saw-mills  265  :  lower  homeward 
freights,  ib.  :  adjustment  of  differ- 
ences between  the  Courts,  266  : 
mining  foriron  and  copper,  268;  con- 
demns wantonness  ot  traders,  269  ; 
advocates  closing  Upper  Essequibo, 
270  ;  urges  reform  of  Orphan  Cham- 
ber, 271 :  in  W.I.Co.'s  smithies,  272; 
submits  scheme  for  stock-ranch, 
272-274;  advises  retrenchment  in 
wages,  274 :  re-establishment  of 
W.I.Co.'s  shop,  276.  Submiismap, 
71,  349;  is  received  by  Prince  of 
Orange,  472,  645  :  and  shown 
d'Anville's  map,  397.  iJS^t  Vrt- 
dicts  failure  of  "great  reform,"  412  ; 
dines  at  Count  Bentinck's,  385 : 
meets  Lord  Holderness,  ib.  ;  inter- 
view with  Heer  van  Wassenaer, 
572  ;  writes  to  Count  Bentinck, 
277;  his  farewell  tothe  Netherlands, 


17J2.      Arrives    in    Essequibo, 

278;  reports  on  condition  of  Colony, 

279;    exhibits    his    commission    (as 

Director-General),     ib. ;     disagrees 

with    Spoors,    280;    discharges   his 

son    from    W.I.Co.'s    service,    ib.; 

engages  a  writer  at   his  own  cost, 

ib.  ;    his    authority    impaired,    37, 

429,  436;    complains  of  unworthy 

treatment,    283 ;    ijjj,   encourages 

cultivation  of  annatto,  289;   orders 

survey  of  Pomeroon  and  Waini,  ib. ; 

his  policy  relating  thereto,  8f; 
gives  desolate  report  of  Essequibo, 
294;  remonstrates  concerning  num- 
ber of  charter-parties,  296;  com- 
putes W.I.Co.'s  sugar  yields,  297; 
his  intentions  concerning  Jewish 
immigrants,  301  ;  I7S4^  complains 
of  want  of  ammunition,  309,  312; 
reports  measures  taken  against  in- 
vasion, 309:  and  further  measures 
of  defence,  311,  313-315;  receives 
alarmist  report,  315;  proclamations 
to  burgher-officers,  319-325;  still 
uneasy  regarding  invasion,  325; 
purchases  ammunition  from  Bar- 
bados, 326;  7755,  complains  of 
harsh  treatment  from  Directors, 
329;  refutes  their  complaints,  330; 
has  no  further  fear  of  invasion, 
ib. ;  determined  to  guard  Colony's 
interests,  332;  answers  Directors' 
complaints  concerning  sugar,  335, 
336;  asks  leave  to  visit  Europe, 
338;  reports  native  outbreak,  340; 
reports  lack  of  arms  and  ammuni- 
tion, 341  ;  questions  prudence  of 
selling  powder,  345  ;  1736,  W.I. Co. 
approves  his  measures,  345,  346; 
reports  Marchal's  trial,  346,  347 ; 
his  grief  at  Colony's  condition, 
348;  discouraged  by  opposition, 
ib.  ;  laments  his  meagre  influence, 
ib. ;  is  determined  not  to  give  in, 
ib.  ;  discusses  Knott's  petition,  350- 
.^53  i  opposes  opening  of  Pomeroon, 
ib. ;  1738,  sets  out  for  a  month  in 
Demerara,  359;  7759,  his  pleasure 
at  Spoors'  retention,  368 ;  urges 
importance  of  Spanish  affair,  367, 
368 ;  impatiently  awaits  order  to 
fight,  98,  370;  explains  d'Anville's 
map,  370,  371:  1760,  sends  a  copy 
(with  additions),  374;  repudiates 
intention  of  fighting  without  orders, 
ib. ;  Court  refuses  to  sit  in  his 
absence,  390;  asks  W.I. Co.  to 
provide  for  old  slaves,  377;  de- 
plores dearth  due  to  Anglo-French 
war,  380;  1761,  complains  of  his 
secret  enemies,  382 ;  suggests 
measures  for  protecting  Zeeland 
shipping,  385,  386;  1762,  a  New 
Year's  wish,  395;  suggests  increase 
in  salary  of  Commander,  396  ;  com- 
plains of  reduced  rations,  396,  397 ; 
compiles  Register  of  Colony,  398, 
399 ;  his  house  become  uninhabit- 
able, 406 :  removes  to  one  of  two 
rooms,  406 ;  deplores  his  lack  of 
authority  over  W.I.Co.'s  plantations, 



Storm  van  's  Gravesande  (L.) 
{cent. ) 
407  ;  organizes  expedition  to  Upper 
Essequibo,  412,  413:  i7(>3i  his 
intention  to  fit  out  another,  413: 
sends  list  of  necessaries  to  Zeeland, 
ib.  ;  exculpates  himself  concerning 
sugar  yields,  429;  describes  the 
W.I. Co. 's  trading-posts,  430:  the 
deplorable  state  of  the  Co.'s  build- 
ings, 431  :  the  general  condition  of 
the  Colony,  432,  433;  opposed  and 
thwarted  since  visit  home,  436  ;  his 
efforts  to  protect  slaves,  445. 

776^;.  Writes  to  G.  Clarke  Jr., 
448-452;  criticizes  Bellin's  history, 
448 ;  active  in  procuring  slaves, 
450;  criticizes  Spoors'  action  as 
salesmaster,  ib.  ;  grief  and  despond- 
ency, 454;  weary  of  his  office,  45; 
his  views  on  free  trade,  455 ;  per- 
mitted to  speak  his  mind,  ib.  ; 
Court  refuses  to  sit  in  his  absence, 
456 ;  compiles  treatise  on  planter- 
ship,  458 ;  further  literary  activity, 
ib. ;  orders  Arinda  Post  to  be 
moved,  459,  476 :  and  source  of 
Essequibo  to  be  explored,  459;  his 
information  used  by  Hartsinck, 
460;  his  Treatise  on  the  Posts, 
460-473:  his  contentions  regarding 
them,  72:  his  suggestions  for  their 
improvement,  470;  apprehensive 
of  French  encroachments,  473, 
476;  suggests  greater  population 
of  Colony.  472;  his  views  on 
colonial  relations,   480. 

7765".  His  journey  to  Europe 
disapproved,  482 ;  resolved  to  do 
his  duty,  ib.  ;  describes  the  ouar- 
ouchi  tree,  484;  renewed  despond- 
ency, 46 ;  his  various  troubles, 
491  ;  blamed  for  not  writing 
enough,  492 ;  exculpates  himself, 
ib. :  also  of  the  charge  of  injustice, 
493 ;  laments  his  want  of  a  flag, 
493,  494;  his  conduct  approved 
by  W.I. Co.,  495;  7766,  hopes  for 
end  of  W.I. Co.'s  dispute,  498; 
transmits  information  concerning 
pyramid,  500-502:  asks  AUamand's 
opinion  thereon,  502  ;  has  need  of 
good  interpreter,  503;  describes 
deplorable  state  of  Barima,  ib.\ 
sends  lignum  quassia  to  Leiden, 
506 ;  his  measures  concerning  sand- 
banks, 507;  writes  to  Prince  of 
Orange,  548-550:  receives  a  reply, 
55  r;  his  indirect  appeals  to  As- 
sembly  of  Ten,    143;    must   needs 

exercise  caution,  50S;  his  views  on 
negro  converts,  512;  sends  details 
of  rations  distributed,  513,  514; 
complains  of  secret  opposition,  515  ; 
shares  administration  (jf  plantations, 
516:  his  annoyance  thereat,  ib.', 
his  remarks  on  postholders,  99, 
100,  518-520,  532,  557;  likens 
colony  to  Noah's  Ark,  520,  572; 
refutes  alleged  neglect,  521;  his 
surprise  at  Tampoco's  escape,  522; 
receives  permission  to  visit  Europe, 
523;  his  health  keeps  him  back, 
ib.\  fears  to  lose  Clarke  as  a 
colonist,  525. 

7767.  Worried  by  false  reports, 
100;  remits  fees  due  to  him,  529; 
directs  river  soundings  in  person, 
ib.\  his  solicitude  for  W.I.Co. 's 
servants,  531;  discusses  origin  of 
pyramids,  533;  speculates  upon 
ancient  discoveries  of  America,  ib. ; 
his  finds  of  ancient  remains,  534; 
sends  statistics  of  exports,  538;  his 
loyalty  to  Zeeland  Chamber,  547 ; 
urges  measures  to  prevent  desertion, 
554 ;  blames  colonists  for  negligence, 
ib. ;  deplores  his  helplessness  against 
desertion,  556;  changes  postholder 
of  Arinda,  557;  his  action  as  Fiscal, 
560;  takes  measures  against  Berbice 
rebels,  562. 

776^.  Acts  as  Secretary,  563; 
his  conduct  misrepresented  by 
Spoors,  565:  his  vindication,  ib.; 
his  official  worries,  567 ;  charges 
Spoors  with  neglect  of  duty,  ib.\ 
his  patience  coming  to  an  end,  568; 
his  service  rendered  bitter,  571; 
inveighs  against  secret  foes,  ib. ; 
his  fears  concerning  deserters,  573; 
laments  loss  of  authority,  ib.;  de- 
precates W.I. Co.'s  false  economy, 
ib. ;  apologizes  for  outspokenness, 
574;  describes  Colony's  fisheries, 
579)  580;  comments  on  Tampoco 
affair,  583 ;  writes  to  Count  Ben- 
tinck,  589-592:  alludes  to  W.I.Co. 
dispute,  589  :  deplores  chaos  caused 
thereby,  ib. ;  ingratitude  shown  him 
by  colonists,  590. 

7769.  His  inability  to  conclude 
a  cartel,  592 :  or  to  restrict  de- 
sertion, 593;  his  system  of  tax- 
collecting,  597 ;  pleads  for  old 
slaves,  597,  598;  uncertain  of 
Tampoco's  guilt,  598;  reports  raid 
on  Moruca  Post,  607 ;  writes  to 
Prince  of  Orange,  608;  his  letters 
lead    States   General  to   act,    loi ; 



Storm    van    's    Gravesande    (L. ) 

{cont. ) 
his  fears  for  the  Colony,  612,  613; 
reports  Jansse's  journey,  613,  614: 
sends  fuller  details,  616-619;  orders 
continuance  of  explorations,  619, 
620;  his  hopes  of  finding  plalina, 
620;  losing  patience  with  colonists, 
615;  his  views  on  W.I.Co.'s  re- 
forms, 622;  complains  of  official 
salaries,  57,  58  ;  his  treatment  of  a 
lady  critic,  623,  624;  reluctant  to 
use  Indians  against  Spanish,  625: 
but  willing  to  fight  himsell,  ib. ; 
desires  but  unfit  to  visit  Europe, 

ijjo.  His  views  on  exchange, 
627  ;  suspected  of  hostility  to 
Zeeland  Chamber,  628  :  refutes  the 
charge,  628—630  :  his  opinions 
shared  by  his  family,  629;  about  to 
visit  Demerara,  632  ;  his  infirmities 
prevent  proper  government,  ib.; 
charged  with  neglect  of  books,  633  : 
refutes  the  charge,  633-635;  laments 
W.I.Co.'s  indifference,  635,  636; 
W.I.Co.'s  ill-feeling  against  him, 
636 ;  Storm  no  despot,  ib. ;  re- 
proached with  leniency, /3.;  remon- 
strates against  slave-whipping, 

7777.  Arranges  expedition 
against  deserters,  640,  641  ;  Court 
refuses  to  sit  in  his  absence,  643 ; 
journeys  to  Essequibo  whilst  ill,  ih.\ 
desires  but  unfit  to  write  fully,  644  ; 
complains  of  lack  of  unity,  645  :  of 
ingratitude,  646  ;  refutes  unjust 
charges,  ib. ;  his  condition  and 
duties,  647 ;  indifferent  to  the 
world,  49;  hopes  for  his  end,  ib.\ 
fears  for  the  Colony's  future,  649  ; 
eulogizes  van  den  Heuvel,  651  ;  has 
compassion  on  defaulters,  55 ; 
worried  by  protested  bills,  652  : 
describes  their  results,  ib.  ;  com- 
pares himself  to  Cassandra,  653  ; 
opposes  opening  of  Pomeroon,  654; 
reproached  with  bad  management, 
655;  ludicrous  charges  by  W.I. Co., 
48  :  refutes  them,  48,  49,  655  ; 
shows  results  of  false  economy,  656 ; 
reports  on  W.I.Co.'s  plantations, 
ib. ;  his  inclination  for  Zeeland 
feared,  658  ;  washes  his  hands  of 
plantations'  ruin,  ib. 

1^72.  His  last  holograph,  50  ; 
praises  condition  of  Colony,  659  ; 
his  views  on  Jewish  settlement,  tb.\ 
declaims   against    unworked    allot- 

ments, 660 ;  his  health  improves, 
50;  his  desire  to  trade  with  Orinoco, 
660 ;  describes  financial  chaos,  662 ; 
orders  coast  chart,  ib.  ;  apologizes 
for  outspokenness,  664  ;  reports  re- 
volt of  slaves,  664-669  ;  his  mea- 
sures of  defence,  51  ;  extraordinary 
energy  explained,  50 ;  deplores 
disagreement  amongst  colonists, 
665,  668 ;  reports  danger  to  Prince 
of  Orange,  666  ;  his  measures  de- 
tailed, ib. ;  quite  worn  out,  667  ; 
his  last  official  despatches,  51,  669; 
his  last  letter,  589  ;  his  retirement, 
52,  59  ;  his  death,  Aug.  14,  7775, 
S2.  "Little  or  not  at  all  known," 

On  Particular  Matters. 

Berbice  revolt.  Storm  reports 
thereon,  776J,  416,  seqq.\  his  mea- 
sures of  defence,  42,  418  ;  hopes  for 
assistance  from  home,  419;  sends 
further  details,  420  ;  invites  aid 
from  Barbados,  ib.  :  resolves  to  ask 
for  200  men,  423  ;  acknowledges 
protection  of  English  vessels,  428  ; 
dilates  upon  value  of  Barbados  aid, 
433  ;  his  advice  asked  by  Governor 
of  Berbice,  434  ;  his  conduct  ap- 
proved by  W.I. Co.,  436,  444  ; 
blamed  for  W.I.Co.'s  neglect  of 
danger,  439 ;  his  share  in  plan  of 
attack,  442  ;  explains  how  English 
aid  obtained,  1764,  444  :  admits  it 
saved  Demerara,  ib.;  disclaims 
a.sking  for  direct  assistance,  445 ; 
thanked  by  Governor  of  Berbice, 
ib. ;  his  letters  home  demanded  by 
States  General,  450,  451 ;  vindicates 
invocation  of  foreign  aid,  7765,  479; 
his  advice  to  Governor  of  Berbice, 


Boundary.  Storm  ignorant 
respecting  Cuyuni  frontier,  77.^6,  91, 
220,  22.S  ;  desires  to  be  informed, 
IJ47,  229;  quotes  Abary  and 
Barima  as  boundaries,  174S,  239  ; 
feels  necessity  of  fixing,  267;  anxious 
for  definition,  1734^  306  ;  invokes 
Treaty  of  Miinster,  ib.  ;  again 
suggests  Barima,  7759,  369  :  his 
policy  concerning  Barima,  82  ; 
W.I.  Co.  questions  his  ideas,  369; 
his  views  on  the  boundaries,  1760- 
1761,  97 ;  supports  his  views  re 
Barima,  388,  389 ;  his  decided 
opinion,  7766,  503  ;  again  quotes 
Barima,  7767,  528.     Importance  of 



Storm    van    's   Gravesande    (L.) 

his  despatches  in  Arbitrations,  89  ; 
his  territorial  consolidation  of 
Colony,  65  ;  his  efforts  embodied 
in  definite  claim,  102  ;  area  under 
control  upon  his  retirement,  80. 

Ctiyutii.  Storm's  projects  in, 
71  ;  reports  Spanish  raid  on  the 
post,  iJjS,  356  ;  points  to  import- 
ance of,  357  ;  adduces  d'Anville's 
authority,  ib. ;  confirms  news  of 
raid,  359  ;  reluctant  to  retaliate 
without  authority,  358 ;  invokes 
aid  of  States  General,  361  ;  his 
action  praised  by  W.I. Co.,  7759, 
362;  his  renewed  remonstrance,  97; 
sends  desired  information,  369,  370  ; 
writes  again,  1760,  373 ;  explains 
Dutch  right  to,  ib. ;  issues  instruc- 
tions to  C.  settlers,  lydi,  98  ;  sug- 
gests le-establishment  of  the  post, 
lydj,  408;  his  fears  of  trouble  in, 
1764,  475  ;  plans  re-estaV;lishment 
of  post,  477,  478 ;  his  belief  in 
mining  in  C.,  535  ;  reports  deserters 
to  C    missions,  J^dg,  600. 

Demerara.  Storm  sounds  the 
river,  218;  describes  the  settle- 
ment, 1746,  ib. ;  intends  remo\-ing 
the  post,  217;  suggests  measures 
for  improving,  1748,  237:  his  care 
of  the  colony,  66:  his  pleasure  in 
it,  39;  dilates  on  its  prospects,  67; 
prophecies  Us  future,  1752,  68; 
proposes  residing  there,  69;  sends 
glowing  report.  1753,  293 ;  his 
desire  to  further  D. ,  17 jS,  333; 
predicts  its  prosperity,  334;  spends 
a  month  in  inspecting,  337  ;  reports 
Essequibo's  jealousy  of,  336  ;  reports 
colony's  progress,  1738,  356 :  1761, 
385;  his  presence  there  necessary, 
776/,  390 ;  asks  for  authority  to 
reside  in,  391  ;  completes  a  tour  of 
colony,  7765',  437  ;  his  amazement 
at  its  progress,  438:  another  visit, 
7765,  485:  another,  7767,  544; 
vindicates  his  presence  there,  564- 
566 ;  his  pleasure  in  its  progress, 
1-768,  579;  his  visits  there  objected 
to,  591 ;  his  pleasure  in  going 
there,  592;  complains  of  having  to 
leave,  623. 

Discharge.  Storm's  applica- 
tions for,  77.^6,  36,  223  (hopes  for 
re-employment  in  military  service, 
224):  1763,  46,  425  (his  motives, 
434-437):  7766,  515,  524,  525, 
530   (asks   for    no   pension,    524): 

7767,  539,  540,  542  (true  reasons 
for  retiring,  567;  intention  to  ab- 
stain from  all  business,  578) :  1768, 
589  (his  reasons,  ib.;  describes 
steps  to  obtain  release,  591;  his 
applications  to  Prince  of  Orange, 
ib.\  implores  Bentinck's  interces- 
sion, ib.):  i76g,  597,  602  ;  despond- 
ent at  deferred  discharge,  626; 
7770,  reasons  given  him,  628 ; 
remonstrates  with  W.I. Co.,  ib.; 
grieved  to  stay  in  office,  1771, 

Duties.  Storm's  references  to 
his  manifold  duties:  1738-1742, 
633:  nS^,  280:  775J,  294:  7765-, 
495:  7766,  499:  7767,  47,  536, 
537:  776^,  563,  568,  591:  7769, 
596,    600,    602,    622:     7770,    634, 

637:  177^,  648- 

English.  Storm  praises  E. 
planters,  77.^,  211:  his  views  on 
E.  immigration,  40,  41 ;  cites 
example  of  E.,  7750,  256,  257; 
suggests  adjustment  of  dues  on  E. 
ships,  275:  and  appointment  of 
gauger,  ib. ;  introduces  Clarke  to 
W.I. Co.,  775^,  41,  286;  invites 
him  to  write  to  Zeeland,  286;  takes 
action  against  E.  colonist,  77_5'j>, 
290,  291 :  his  uneasiness  in  the 
matter,  291  ;  sanctions  E.  divine 
service  in  Demerara,  292 ;  his 
policy  regarding  the  E. ,  7767, 
384 ;  embarrassed  by  a  letter  from 
E.  admiral,  393 ;  commends  E. 
method  of  sugar  boiling,  1763, 
428;  admits  E.  aid  saved  the 
colony,  444 ;  considers  E.  harmful 
to  colony,  1768,  582  ;  disinclination 
for  E.  burgher-officers,  7770,  631  : 
his  doubts  as  to  their  exclusion,  ib.; 
cites  anglicized  Dutch  families,  ib. ; 
777=",  eulogizes  bravery  of  two 
Englishmen,  667,  668. 

Indian  policy,  65,  83-89:  com- 
pared with  modern  British,  86 : 
apparent  inconsistency  in,  85 ; 
instances  of  his  relations  with 
Indians,  84.  Moves  I.  to  attack 
deserters,  77^,  207  ;  assists  Caribs 
against  Orinoco  I.,  1746,  219; 
restrains  Caribs  from  attacking 
Spanish,  91,  225,  392;  visited  by 
complaining  I.,  7750,  251: 
promises  them  satisfaction,  ib. ; 
suggests  prohibiting  trade  with  I., 
ib.,  269;  persuades  Akawois  to 
pursue  deserters,  1732,  287  ;  takes 
measures  against  Wapisanas,  1733, 



Storm  van  's  Gravesande  (L.) 
302 ;  entertains  Panacay  chiefs, 
lySSi  330;  asked  to  pit  Caribs 
against  Akawois,  341  :  reluctance 
to  do  so,  /d. ;  sends  for  Arawaks 
as  mediators,  343 ;  is  greatly  trusted 
by  I.,  lysd,  349;  his  device  to 
protect  I.,  1762,  398;  reports  fight 
between  Manaos  and  Caribs,  /ydj, 
414;  invites  Manao  chiefs  to  Esse- 
quibo,  415;  sends  a  vi^hite  to 
lead  I.  against  rebels,  424 ;  his 
house  full  of  Caribs,  443 :  /jd^, 
447  ;  fosters  enmity  between  Caribs 
and  negroes,  t/>.;  his  consideration 
for  I.,  458;  sends  envoys  to 
Taroumas,  459;  solicitous  to  foster 
I.  relations,  lydj,  478;  insists  upon 
neutrality  in  I.  war,  486;  repri- 
mands Spanish  I.,  496;  admonishes 
Caiib  chief,  497 ;  reports  impending 
Indian  conflict,  1766,  505 ;  en- 
deavours to  reconcile  Caribs  and 
Akawois,  506 ;  arranges  for  I.  to 
attack  rebels,  ijbS,  564 ;  receives 
reassurances  from  Carib  chief,  574; 
anxious  to  remain  neutral  amongst 
I.,  575 ;  reports  spread  of  Indian 
war,  584,  585  ;  permits  Caribs  to 
fight  Spanish,  ■;86  ;  examines  Carib 
chief  from  Barima,  ijbg,  612  ;  asks 
for  50  Caribs  to  watch  plantations, 
/770,  638  ;  his  efforts  to  protect 
free  I.,  1772^  661  ;  calls  up  Caribs, 
664 ;  accepts  Akawois'  aid  against 
rebels,   665. 

Alilitia.  Storm  suggests  im- 
provement, 1738,  194,  195;  his 
troubles  with,  34,  163;  thanks  for 
reinforcements,  174^,  215;  suggests 
reforms,  7750,  275;  deplores  small- 
ness  of  garrison,  i7S4>  305  \  reports 
on  men  available,  312;  complains 
of  the  recruits  sent,  1757 ,  354! 
forced  to  give  up  his  sentry,  17S9, 
369 ;  engages  mulattoes,  1762, 
404;  deplores  weakness  in  Berbice 
revolt,  1763^  420 :  and  non-arrival 
of  reinforcements,  440;  laments 
lack  of  Protestant  soldiers,  7766, 
498,  500,  520;  asks  for  reinforce- 
ments, 521:  7767,  545;  reports 
arrival  of  useless  recruits,  569;  his 
hands  completely  tied,  1768,  581  ; 
urges  need  of  Protestant  soldiers, 
ib.\  proposes  to  send  back  all 
Frenchmen,  587 ;  emphasizes  dan- 
ger of  desertion,  588;  laments 
weakness  of  garrison,    7769,  613; 

suggests  a  garrison  of  200  men, 
777^-,  668,  669. 

Slaves.  Urges  necessity  of 
sending  s.  77^^,  212,  213:  775^, 
282:  773'j',  328;  predicts  ruin  of 
fort,  etc.  ib.  ;  laments  dilapidations 
through  lack  of  s.,  1762,  402,  403  : 
1763,  408-412;  kept  at  home 
through  lack  of  rowers,  410;  dwells 
upon  insufficiency  of  s.,  431 ;  reports 
a  trial  for  slave-smuggling,  7767, 
539;  discusses  dearth  of  s.,  7769, 
594,  621,  622  ;  unable  to  stop  slave- 
smuggling,  7770,  632:  asks  for 
proof  of,  636;  frustrates  attempt  to 
land  foreign  s.,  639;  deplores 
continued  smuggling,  7777,  640, 

Spa7iish.  Storm  cautious  in 
action  against  S.,  1746,  90;  urges 
danger  of  S.  fort  on  Cuyuni,  7777, 
228;  negotiates  with  Commandant 
of  Orinoco,  77^<?,  233;  obtains 
favourable  hearing  from  Governor 
of  Cumana,  ib. ;  obtains  redress 
from  S.  Governor,  77^9,  244; 
negotiates  for  a  cartel,  ib. ;  receives 
satisfactory  reply  from  S.  Governor, 
248;  obtains  map  of  S.  discoveries, 
249:  submits  map  copied  from  S., 
7750,  267;  has  dealings  with  Com- 
mandant of  Orinoco,  775^,  287 ; 
reports  friendly  relations  with 
Governor  of  Cumana,  775^,  304; 
fears  S.  attack,  94;  reports  sus- 
picious movements  of  S.,  305  ;  his 
measures  of  defence,  93  ;  his  actions 
approved  by  W.I. Co.,  7755,  306; 
reports  two  S.  missions  in  Cuyuni, 
307  ;  recalls  former  S.  movement, 
ib.  ;  writes  to  Commandant  of 
Orinoco,  309,  318,  319;  transmits 
reply  from  Valdes,  317;  is  re- 
assured as  to  S.  mission,  327;  his 
uneasiness  over  as  to  S.,  330;  in- 
forms S.  of  Ensenada's  fall,  331; 
answers  S.  demand  through  Moruca 
postholder,  345  ;  his  apprehensions 
of  S.  encroachments,  1736,  349 ; 
accepts  proposal  for  capturing  S. 
mission,  350;  vindicates  himself  as 
to  S.  alarms,  1737,  353  ;  his  action 
after  S.  raid  on  Cuyuni,  1738.,  95, 
96;  criticizes  S.  Viceroy,  357;  his 
protest  on  the  raid,  96;  demands 
satisfaction,  360,  363-365  :  receives 
unsatisfactory  reply,  7759,  360,  361, 
365,  366  ;  his  letter  to  Valdes  re- 
turned, 367;  offers  to  attack  the  S. , 
98;    describes    fresh    S.    outrages, 



Storm  van  's  Gravesande  (L. ) 
{cont. ) 
ij6o,  376;  coerced  into  prohibiting 
S.  trade,  383;  urges  importance  of 
claim  against  S.,  ijbi,  389  ;  refers 
again  to  S.  disturbances  in  Cuyuni, 
1762,  397;  blamed  for  S.  piracies, 
310:  demands  satisfaction  from 
Governor  of  Trinidad,  99;  writes 
to  S.  Governor  concerning  fugitive 
slaves,  1764,  446;  apprehensive  of 
S.  encroachments,  ijbj,  488,  489 ; 
reports  S.  trespassing  in  Massaruni, 
494;  orders  arrest  of  S.  officer,  ib.; 
laments  failure  of  negotiations  with 
S.,  511;  invites  co-operation  of  S. 
Governor  in  Barima,  7767,  528; 
suggests  measures  against  S.,  541, 
542 ;  orders  S.  deserters  out  of 
Essequibo,  545;  his  diffidence  of  S., 
553;  describes  S.  governors,  ib., 
582;  complains  of  S.  attack  on 
salters,  176S,  585:  suggests  re- 
taliation, 586 ;  prepares  lor  threat- 
ened S.  raid,  7769,  595;  his 
indignation  at  their  conduct,  601 ; 
orders  inspection  of  S.  missions  in 
Cuyuni,  602;  sends  out  warning  of 
S.  raid,  604;  his  alarm  at  S.  en- 
croachments, 605,  606,  608;  reports 
fresh  S.  outrages,  612;  suggests 
reprisals,  615. 

Supplies.  Storm  urges  lack  of, 
1744,  209,  210:  17 4S,  214:  1747, 
231  :  77^9,  245,  246  :  J7S3,  300, 
301,  302:  77j6,  347,  348:  7759, 
361  :  7760,  380:  7765,  490,  491  : 
7766,  508,  517,  518:  7769,  611, 
625  :  7777,  639,  642,  649,  652, 
654.  655,  657,  658. 

Work.  S.  lays  foundation  of 
B.  Guiana,  66  ;  the  colony's  pro- 
gress under  him,  7  ;  his  part  in  its 
consolidation,  22  ;  his  conception  of 
colonization,  66  ;  his  despatches,  5, 
475?  627  ;  fulness  of  his  arguments, 
ib.  ;  his  linguistic  attainments,  60  ; 
his  love  of  method,  54,  596,  597  ; 
his  diplomacy  versus  Spanish  ag- 
gression, 89-102;  his  grasp  of  affairs, 
70;  his  difficulties,  160-166: — lack 
of  supplies,  160-162  :  shortage  of 
slaves,  162:  anundermanned militia, 

163  :  an  uncongenial  colleague,  163, 

164  :  overwork,  164  ;  ill-health,  165, 
166.  His  work  for  posterity,  102  : 
its  endurance,  66  :  its  survival,  107. 


Character,  52-55  ;  abstemious- 
ness, 53,  569 ;  conduct  in  army, 
629 ;  contentment,  55 ;  energy, 
45;  forbearance,  651  ;  goed  rond 
goed  zeeuwsch,  429,  629  ;  honour, 
58,  59,  216,  560,639;  industry,  596  ; 
mode  of  life,  53,  222,  223,  481  ; 
outspokenness,  629,  644  ;  patience, 
572  ;  peace,  love  of,  35  ;  religious 
feeling,  58;  resignation,  45;  self- 
control,  310,  560  ;  sensitiveness,  46, 
58.  530.  543  ;  soldierly  bent,  33, 
51  ;  straightforwardness,  645  ;  un- 
mercenary  nature,  54,  55,  435,  622. 

.  Family.  Storm's  ancestry,  28, 
29,  629,  644  ;  his  family,  32  ;  his 
domestic  afflictions,  39,  46  ;  77^7, 
narrow  escape  of  his  two  sons,  230: 
his  gratitude  to  negro  rescuers,  ib.; 
1732,  loses  his  second  son,  Warnard 
Jacob,  292  ;  1760,  loses  his  wife, 
372  ;  7767,  loses  his  eldest  son, 
Jonathan  Samuel,  386,  387  ;  com- 
mends his  son-in-law,  van  Ber- 
cheyck,  to  W.I.Co.,  387;  776^,  loses 
his  son-in-law,  452  ;  is  aided  by  his 
daughter,  van  Berciieyck's  widow, 
459  ;  loses  his  third  son,  Gerard 
Johan,  45  ;  7766,  marriage  of  his 
two  (laughters,  517  :  loses  their 
clerical  assistance,  ib. ;  calls  his  son, 
Jeremias,  home,  523  :  commends 
him  to  Prince  of  Orange,  550; 
7777,  loses  his  eldest  daughter,  49  ; 
777.?,  loses  his  son-in-law,  Bakker, 
49'  50. 

Ill- health.  1760,  his  poor 
health,  45  ;  reports  himself  ill,  375 ; 
776.?,  ill  and  grieved,  401  ;  7765, 
his  faculties  failing,  47 ;  severe 
illness,  46,  483  ;  his  memory  bad, 
490  ;  7766,  inability  to  go  on,  47  ; 
7767,  reports  himself  ill,  547  ;  7769, 
getting  weaker  daily,  615  ;  more 
despondent,  623  ;  7770,  despatches 
no  longer  by  his  hand,  640  ;  7777, 
his  pen  failing  him,  ib.;  his  hearing 
very  ha.(\,ib.;  memory  and  strength 
going,  lb. 

Means.  1746,  No  income  be- 
yond emoluments,  56,  222  ;  losing 
money,  222  ;  77^15*,  his  salary  in- 
creased, 232  ;  77^9,  remonstrates 
against  distraint  upon  salary,  248  ; 
exposes  his  means,  ib.\  176J,  buys 
a  house,  432  ;  his  salary  increased 
unasked,  435  ;  explains  shortage  in 



Storm  van  's  Gravesande  (L. ) 
income,  435,  436  ;  J76J,  financial 
difficulties,  57,  481  ;  his  struggles  to 
keep  his  plantation,  482  ;  his  table- 
money  increased,  495 ;  ijOg,  his 
financial  position,  023 ;  1771,  his 
possessions,  s8  ;  monies  due  to  him, 

Quotations  by  Storm. 
Alexander,  Pope,  624. 
Cicero,  Paradoxa,  637. 
Horace,    Carmiiia,    ^^,    543,    578  ; 
Epistolae,    216,    382,    520,    627, 
635,  650  ;  Satirae,  518,  651. 
Lothair  I,  573,  664. 
Moliere,  Alisanthrope,  544. 
Ovid,  Met.,  3S4  ;  Rem.  Amor.  487, 

Persius,  569. 
Publilius  Syrus,  607. 
Racine,  Athalie,  630. 
Sallust,  y ugiirtha.,  267,  335,  529. 
Shakespeare,  Othello,  572. 
Terence,  And.  629,  649  ;  Hcauton. 

Valerius  Maximus,  627. 
Vespasian,  583. 
Virgil,   355,   659 ;   ^n.,  539,   543, 

584,  650,  ib.;   Georg.,  650. 
Felix  quern  faciunt,  286. 
Tela priTvisa  tninus  nocent,  571. 
Turba  per  extremas,  569,  658. 

Storm  van  's  Gravesande  (Lumea 
Constantia)  See  Beicheyck  after- 
wards Storm  van  's  Gravesande. 

Storm  van  's  Gravesande  after- 
zvards  Bercheyck  afterioards 
Heuvel  (Maria  Cathaiina)  Birth 
and  career,  ^}^ ;  appeals  to  W.I. Co. 
on  husband's  death,  452-453, 
receives  600  guilders,  454 ;  her 
death,   49. 

Storm  van  's  Gravesande  (Pieter) 
Born  ibSj,   29. 

Storm  van  's  Gravesande  (War- 
nard  Jacob)  Birth  (i72g)  and 
career,  32  ;  appointed  an  Assistant, 
1748,  232;  accompanies  his  father 
to  Europe,  17^0,  280;  offered  an 
officer's  commission,  ib  ;  dispute 
concerning  his  duties,  1732,  ib. ; 
discharged  from  W.I.Co.'s  service, 
ib. ;  in  charge  of  Baron  van  Groves- 
tins'  plantation,  281;  his  death, 
1752,   292. 

Storm  van  's  Gravesande  (Willem 
Jacob)  Drops  surname  of  Storm, 
30.     See  's  Gravesande  (W.  J.). 

Sugar.     Its  cultivation  in  Pomeroon, 

1637,    '6;  extension  of  plantations 

in    Essequibo,    1700-1723,   26;    its 

cultivation     discussed,     258,     259; 

crops     computed     and     explained, 

1753^   297,   298. 
Suppiname       R.         Rights      there 

abused,  1730,  352. 
Supplies.     Insufficiency  of,  39,  160- 

Surinam.     Taken    from    British    by 

Dutch,    1667,     18;     anti-Semitism 

there,  212;  Jews  desire  to  settle  in 

Essequibo,   1744,   211:    1753,  301; 

S.  traders  leave  Barima,  17S4,  325. 
Sutton     (John)    Demerara     planter, 

776^,   400. 
Swedish  projects  respecting  Barima, 

1753^   92,    93>    293;    repetition    of 

report,  1734,   307. 
Swettenham  {Sir  James  Alexander) 

His  work  in  the  boundary  dispute, 

138;    discusses    Scott's  Account  of 

Gtiiana,   147. 

Tabarez  (Diego)  See  Cumana, 
Governor  of. 

Tacamahaka.  A  gum  found  in  the 
colony,  263. 

Tacutu  R.  Horstman  proceeds 
along,  171,  174;  Schombuigk 
discovers  its  source,  116;  Brazilian 
encroachments  on,  i8g7,  136; 
postholder  and  constables  stationed 
on,  ib.  ;  the  officials  recalled,  ib. ; 
complaints  become  aggravated,  ib. 

Tampoco.  A  creole  belonging  to 
the  W.I. Co.,  494;  his  acquaintance 
with  the  Massaruni,  73  ;  spies  upon 
Spanish  in  Upper  Essequibo,  1763, 
488,  489;  is  sent  on  an  expedition, 
494;  apprehends  Spanish  Indians, 
496;  report  of  his  capture,  1766, 
518:  by  Spanish  in  Cuyuni,  522; 
escapes  through  Orinoco,  ib.  ; 
reports  upon  Spanish  in  Cuyuni, 
537.  Reports  Spanish  raid  on 
Cuyuni  Post,  1767,  541  ;  confirms 
raid  on  Arinda  Post,  555.  Escorts 
Carib  chief  from  Massaruni,  176S, 
563  ;  returns  from  pursuing  rebels, 
575  ;  account  of  his  expedition, 
576;  report  of  his  duplicity,  583; 
hangs  himself,  585 ;  doubts  con- 
cerning his  guilt,   7769,   598. 

Tapacooma.  Police-station  estab- 
lished at,   1887,    130. 

Taroumas.  Mentioned  by  Storm, 
1764,  459  ;  first  visited  by  whites, 
i8j7,  ib. 



Tea.  Shrub  resembling,  found  in 
colony,   264. 

ter  Hooge.     Sfe  Iluis  ter  Hooge. 

Thibaut  (J.  W.)  Burgomaster  of  Mid- 
delburg.   Referred  to  by  Storm,  62S. 

Tholson  (Andries)  His  plantation  in 
Demerara,  290. 

Thomas  (John)  A  Demerara  planter, 
776.?,  400. 

Three  Towns,  The.      154-159. 

Timber.  Colony's  compared  with  N. 
American,  258;  variety  of,  263,264. 

Timehri.  Prints  extracts  from 
"  Bentinck  Papers"  re  Berbice 
revolt,  448. 

Tirado,  Seiior.  Venezuelan  Com- 
missioner for  delimitation,  138. 

Tobacco.  Storm  advises  cultivation, 
7750,  258. 

Toenomoeto,  Dutch  post  at,  72. 

Tollenaer  (Pieler)  A  mulatto  ;  cap- 
tures runaway  Creoles,  501  ; 
examines  ihe  pyramid,  77^0,  ib.  ; 
dies  soon  after  return,  ib. 

Tonoma  Falls.     Dutch  post  at,  72. 

Toppin  (William)  Demerara  planter, 
776^,  400. 

Torres  de  Bandeyra  (  )  The 

second  voice  in  Brazil,  414;  his 
visit  to  Storm,  614  ;  gives  informa- 
tion concerning  Manaos,  414,  464  ; 
visits  Europe  with  Clarke's  aid,  614. 

Traquari  Fall.     See  Iraquari. 

Trinidad.     Its  government,  99. 

Trombetas  R.  Schomburgk  dis- 
covers its  sources,    117. 

Trotz  (George  Hendrik)  Peremp- 
torily ordered  to  produce  accounts, 
7770,  632,  633;  succeeds  Storm  as 
Director-General,  777.?,  103,  633  ; 
his  aspersions  upon  Storm,  103 ; 
continues  Storm's  policy,  ib.\ 
distributes  rewarils  to  Indians,  ib. 

Troolie.     See  Trouille. 

Trouille.  Used  for  church  thatch, 
403 ;  described  by  im  Thurn,  ib. 

Trouille  Island,  199. 

Uaicas.      See  Waikas. 
Uaupes.     See  Wapisanas. 
United  States  of  America.     Inter- 
venes   in    the    boundary    dispute, 

iSgs,  134- 
Uruan  R.  Chief  tributary  of  the 
Cuyuni,  132  ;  government  station 
established  on,  7<S'97,  ib. :  facing 
that  of  Venezuela,  ib. ;  Venezuelans 
seize  British  station,  i8g^,  '33! 
British  police  re-established  by 
McTurk,  ib. 

Utrecht,  Treaty  of.  The  Treaty 
explained,  24;  boundaries  it  con- 
firmed to  the  Dutch,  1714,  ib. 

Valdes  (Juan)  Spanish  Commandant; 
returns  Storm's  letter  re  Cuyuni, 
17391  367  ;  forbidden  to  correspond, 
7767,  393 ;  harbours  Dutch  run- 
aways,  7766,   511. 

Varken  Island.  Clearing  made  for 
sugar  plantation,  1748,  234. 

Veere.  Description  of,  157;  its 
town-hall,  ib. ;  its  Scotch  staple, 
158,  159;  with  Middelburg  and 
Flushing  takes  over  Essequibo, 
7657,  144  •  3.nd  founds  a  new 
settlement,  15.  Discovery  there 
of  Pomeroon  documents,    18. 

Venezuela.  Becomes  a  separate 
state,  7(^5.?,  115;  grants  concessions 
of  lands  claimed  by  Britain,  1881- 
1884,  127;  suspends  diplomatic 
relations  with  Britain,  iSSy,  128; 
its  boundary  commission,  129; 
arbitration  with,   5. 

Veth,  a  Creole.  Collects  Caribs 
against  rebels,   1764,  447. 

Victor  Emmanuel  III.,  King  of 
Italy.  Arbitrates  between  Great 
Britain  and  Brazil,  790^,    137. 

Visvliet  (M.  J.  van)  Writer  on  the 
Scotch  staple  at  Veere,  159. 

Volcano.  An  active  one  reported 
on  the  Siparuni,  75,  249. 

Voyage  des  Feres  de  Families.  Its 
account  of  Essequibo,  1 1. 

Vries  (David  Pietersz.  de)  Early 
authority  on  Guiana,  4;  anchors  in 
Demerara,  16^4,  148;  visited  by 
Essequibo  Commander,  ib. ;  his 
Korte  Historiael...vaii  verscheijden 
Voyagiens,  4 :  its  translation  by 
H.  C.  Murphy,  148:  its  precis  by 
Netscher,  ib. 

Vries  (Moses  Isaakse  de)  To  accom- 
pany Storm  prospecting,  i7jg,  197; 
leads  Indians  against  deserters, 
77^,  207 ;  assists  as  interpreter, 
227;  his  plantation  in  Essequibo, 
471,  472;  his  success,  659;  his 
death,    227. 

Wacquepo.     P^ertiiity  of  lands,  472. 

For   matters    concerning    the    Post 

see  under  Moruca. 
Waikas.     Commit    depredations  in 

Barima  and  Pomeroon,  7769,  606, 

607;  their  identification,  606. 
Waini   R.     Canbs  there  supported 



by  Storm  against  Orinoco  Indians, 
1746,  219:  they  repel  the  latter, 
227;  fertility  of  the  lands,  472; 
measured  for  plantations,  ij^s,  81, 
289;  its  shallow  entrance,  507; 
traders  and  Caribs  retire  there  from 
Barima,  i754i  325;  permission 
sought  to  cut  timber,  7756,  350 ; 
Storm's  policy,  8i  ;  Indian  cap- 
tains imder  British  jurisdiction, 
III.  Waterways  connecting  with 
the  Orinoco,   23. 

Wapisanas.  An  account  of  them, 
302,  303. 

Warouws.   An  account  of  them,  343. 

Wassenaer  (  van)  Baillie  of  The 
Hague.    His  interview  with  Storm, 

nsi,  572. 

Watje.  Murdered  in  Upper  Es- 
sequibo,   1753,  302. 

Waykiers.     See  Uaicas. 

Wells  (Robert)  An  agent  of  the 
Manoa  Co.,  128;  commits  barbar- 
ities on  British  soil,  1884,  ib. 

Welsh  (Samuel)  Demerara  planter, 
1762,  400. 

Wenamu  R.  Explored  by  Schom- 
burgk,  [  17. 

West  (  )  Colonel.  Migrates  from 
Barbados  to  Essequibo,  1744,  213. 

West  India  Company.  Its  aims, 
154;  its  constitution,  142,  143;  its 
first  charter,  1621,  142  ;  its  second 
charter,  1647,  ib. ;  its  flag,  62  ; 
grants  charter  to  Jews,  7659,  "211; 
re-constituted,  167^,  143  ;  origin  of 
free  tradedispute,  143,  144  ;  conflicts 
with  interlopers,  12  ;  traders'  posts 
mark  territorial  claims,  23;  orders 
expedition  to  Lake  Parima,  1714, 
24,  186,  187;  policy  of  drift,  65; 
neglects  the  Colony,  35,  36,  43  ; 
failure  of  supplies,  46  ;  replies  as  to 
mining  operations,  i73g,  196  ;  pro- 
posed closing  of  its  shop,  199;  its 
plantations,  201  ;  warehouse  quite 
empty,  1743,  204  ;  slaves  in  revolt, 
J744,  210;  its  "great  reform,"  37, 
206,  410,  412  ;  plantations  in  good 
condition,  174.S,  36  ;  its  indigo  and 
coffee  plantations,  220  ;  location  of 
"  Duinenburg,"  ib.;  writes  concern- 
ing hostile  Indians,  1746,  220,  221  ; 
working  of  its  plantations,  221  : 
yields  compared  with  private  con- 
cerns, 222  ;  institutes  enquiries  re 
boundaries,  1747,  229 ;  suggests 
dislodging  Spanish,  ib.;  its  ignor- 
ance of  boundaries,  91  ;  orders 
chart  of  Essequibo,  229 ;   presents 

Storm  with   negroes,    232  ;    indigo 
plantation   unsaleable,    1748,    233  ; 
sanction  asked  to  raze  Kijkoveral, 
235  ;  comments  on  Courthial's  peti- 
tion, i74g,  243  ;  accuses  officials  of 
dishonesty,    247 ;    receives   Storm's 
Report,  /750,  252  ;  bread  plantation 
unsatisfactory,    253  :   Storm  advises 
its  abandonment,  254  ;  brick-works 
in  good  order,  ib. ;  retrenchment  in 
carpenter's  wages,   274  ;    suggested 
re-opening  of  its  shop,  276;  failure 
of  its  crops,  I7S3,  294 ;    signs  too 
many      charter-parties,      296 ;      its 
slaves  decreasing,  297  ;   "  Pelgrim  " 
works  collapse,  ib.\  its  sugar  yields 
computed,  ib. ;  planters  petition  it 
for     slaves,     299 ;     addressed     by 
Gedney  Clarke,  295-299  ;  failure  of 
supplies,  301,   302  ;    loyalty  of   its 
negroes,  313;  its  supineness  against 
Spanish,  97  ;  discredits  rumours  of 
invasion,   i7jS,    306  ;    doubts  con- 
cerning the  boundary,   ib.  ;  enjoins 
circumspection,     ib. ;     sends     men 
and  arms,  307  ;   plantations  slaves 
transferred,   328  ;  its  bread-gardens 
laid    waste,    330 ;     its    complaints 
refuted  by  Storm,  ib. ;  orders  sale  of 
powder,  345,  346;  approves  Storm's 
measures,  17^6,  345  ;  the  Colony  a 
burden,   348  ;    its  reply  concerning 
raid,  7759,  362  ;  plantation  allotted 
out,  368  ;  questions  Storm's  idea  of 
boundary,     369  ;     inactive    against 
renewed  aggressions,  1760,  98  ;    re- 
plies  concerning  fresh   raid,    176 1, 
376;  asked  to  provide  forold  slaves, 
377  ;  sends  arms  for  natives,  1762, 
404  ;  complains  of  plantation  yields, 
406;  approves  of  explorations,  1763, 
413  ;  pitiable  state  of  its  buildings, 
431  ;     approves    Storm's    conduct, 
436  ;  its  neglect  to  aid  Demerara, 
438  ;     its  optimism,   440  ;    treatise 
on    its    trading-posts,     1764,    460- 
473  ;  its  views  on  foreign  aid,  479  ; 
its  methods  criticized,  176^.,  ib.  ;  its 
warehouse  empty  for  months,  490  ; 
desires    examination    of    pyramids, 
1766,  502  ;  Prince  of  Orange  at  its 
head,   549;  discusses  Barima  juris- 
diction, 505  ;  its  action  as  to  deser- 
ters, 7767,  511  ;  has  little  hope  of 
redress,    ib. ;     asks    for    details    of 
rations,  513,514;  grants  Storm  leave 
to  visit  Europe,  523  ;  answers  un- 
satisfactorily ;-^  reinforcements,  545 ; 
Storm  deprecates  its  false  economy, 
1768,  ^^^  ;  the  free  navigation  dis- 



pute,  143-145,  589;  leaves  slave 
trade  to  private  enterprise,  594; 
its  indifference  to  Spanish  raids, 
7769,  605  ;  promises  recruits  and 
arms,  606  ;  its  great  reform  futile, 
622  ;  its  salting  prevented  by  Span- 
ish, 624  ;  suggests  dividing  up  des- 
patches, 627  ;  reasons  for  not  dis- 
charging Storm,  628 ;  charges 
Storm  with  neglect,  /770,  632,  633  ; 
has  no  fear  of  Spanish,  635  ;  com- 
plains of  slave-smuggling,  636;  ill- 
feeling  against  Storm,  637  ;  its 
warehouses  empty,  777/,  639,  642  ; 
settlement  of  its  free  trade  dispute, 
644;  grants  lands  in  Mahaica,  647; 
sends  no  supplies  for  19  months, 
649,  652  ;  total  lack  of  supplies, 
654 ;  brings  ludicrous  charges 
against  Storm,  48,  6^^  ;  its  illo- 
gicality,  48  ;  number  of  its  slaves, 

655  ;    condition  of  its   plantations, 

656  ;  salaries  of  its  managers,  i^. ;  its 
service  unpopular,  657  ;  disallows 
Commander's  increase,  li.  ;  planta- 
tions deteriorating,  658  ;  is  dis- 
pleased at  Storm's  remarks,  663  ; 
its  reward  to  Caribs,  /77J',  669  ;  its 
generosity  criticized  by  Netscher, 
z6.  ;  Rodway  on  its  meanness,  43  ; 
end  of  its  rule,  f/g/,  106,  143;  its 
reports,  5. 

Whetham  (Boddam)  His  expedition, 
1S7S,  126. 

Whitely  (Henry)  His  expedition, 
fSSj,  126;  attempts  ascent  of 
Roraima,   id. 

Widdup,  Dr.  Appointed  a  com- 
missioner for  delimitation,    138. 

Wild  Coast.  Signification  of  the 
term,    15. 

Willemse  (Jan)  A  pilot  in  W.I. Co. 's 
service,  7755,  344. 

William  IV.  Prince  of  Orange, 
Hereditary  Stadholder  of  the  United 
Provinces.  Governor-General  of 
the  W.I. Co.,  548,  549;  receives 
Storm,  775/,  37,  472:  shows  him 
d'Anville's  map,  397 ;  his  words  to 
Storm,  645;  his  death,  278. 

William  V.  Prince  of  Orange, 
Hereditary  Stadholder  of  the 
United  Provinces.  Governor-Gen- 
eral   of    the    W.I. Co.,    548,    549; 

Storm  applies  to  him  for  discharge, 
524,  548-550;  his  reply  to  Storm, 
551 ;  his  action  concerning  Spanish 
raids,  7769,  608;  inclined  to  aid 
Storm,  7770,  630;  arbitrates  on 
free  trade  dispute,    144. 

Williams  (Clinton)  Heroic  defence 
against  rebels,  777^,  664 ;  his 
bravery  eulogized,  668. 

Williams  (William)  Heroic  defence 
against  rebels,  ^77^i  664;  his 
bravery  eulogized,   668. 

W^iltshire  (Richard)  A  Demerara 
planter,  444.  His  action  in  Ber- 
bice  revolt,  42 1 ;  carries  news  of 
rebellion  to  Barbados,  fy6j,  444. 

Wind  (Jan  de)  Governor  of  St. 
Eiisiatius.  Sends  aid  to  Berbice, 
776J,  424,  426;  appealed  to  by 
Storm,  439. 

Wodehouse  (Philip  E.)  Issues 
captain's  commission  to  Indian 
chief,  7<?5'5,   119. 

Woestijne  (Adriaen  van  de)  As- 
sistant in  Essequibo,  765*7,  '49 > 
clerk  there,   1644,   150. 

Yair  (James)  Writer  on  the  Scotch 

staple  at  Veere,  159. 
Yakontipu    Mt.     Source  of  Ireng, 

Youd  (Thomas)  Missionary,  welcomed 

to    Pirara   by    vSchomburgk,    1838., 

113;  turned  out  by  Brazilians,  114; 

re-instated  at  Pirara,  1841,  ib. 
Yuruari    R.      Its    mining    district, 


Zealand.  Measures  for  protecting 
its  shipping,  7767,  386. 

Zeeland,  States  of.  Essequibo 
handed  over  to,  7669,  144;  resolve 
to  admit  only  Z.  ships,  7750,  ib. 

Zeeland  Chamber.  Continues  up- 
keep of  Essequibo,  i6j3,  143 ; 
hands  it  over  to  States  of  Zeeland, 

7669,  144;   Essequibo  restored  to, 

7670,  ib.;  Storm's  loyalty  to,  547; 
Storm  suspected  of  hostility  to, 
7769,  628 ;  opposes  re-organization 
of  the  colony,  777J,  105. 

Zelandia  Illustrata,  156. 

Cambridge:  printed  by  john  clay,  m.a.  at  the  university  press 

XLbc  Ibahlu^t  Society. 

(Founded   1846.) 
191  I. 


ALBERT  GRAY,  Ksq.,  K.C. 


The  Right  Hon.  The  Lord  BELHAVLN  and  STENTON. 

Sir  CLEMENTS  MARKHAM,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S.,  Ex.-Pres.  R.G.S. 

The  Right  Hon.  The  Lord  PECKOVER  of  WISBECH. 





CLOSE,  C.M.G.,  R.E. 


Major  LEONARD  DARWIN,  late  R.E., 
Pres.  R.G.S. 


The  Right  Hon.  Sir  GEORGE 
D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 

F.  H.  H.  GUILLEMARD,  M.D. 


Admiral     Sir     ALBERT 



Admiral  of  the  Fleet  The  Right  Hon. 
G.C.B.,  O.M. 


H.  R.  TEDDER,  Esq. 

Lieut.-Col.  Sir  RICHARD  CARNAC 
TEMPLE,  Bart.,  CLE. 



Hon.  Secretary. 

J.  A.  J.  de  VILLIERS,  Esq., 
British  Museum,  W.C. 

Clerk  and  Assistant  Treasurer. 

Royal  Geographical  Society,  i,  Savile  Row,  W. 

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I— The  Observations  of  Sir  Richard  Hawkins,  Knt., 

In  his  Voyage  nito  the  South  Sea  in  1593.  Reprinted  from  the  edition 
of  1622,  and  edited  by  Admiral  Charles  Ramsay  Drinkwater 
Bethune,  C.B.     pp.  xvi.  246.  Index. 

(First  Edition  out  of  print.     See  No.  57.  j     Issued  for  1847. 

2— Select  Letters  of  Christopher  Columbus, 

With  Original  Documents  relating  to  the  Discovery  of  the  New  World.  Trans- 
lated and  Edited  by  Richard  Henry  Major,  F.S.A.,  Keeper  of  Maps, 
British  Museum,  Sec.  R.G.  S.     pp.  xc.  240.  Index. 

(First  Edition  out  of  print.  See  No.  43.  Two  copies  only  were  printed  on 
velkuTi,  one  of  which  is  in  the  British  Museum,  C.  29.  k.  14.) 

Issnedfor  1847. 

3— The  Discovery  of  the  Large,  Rich,  &  Beautiful  Empire  of  Guiana, 

With  a  relation  of  the  great  and  golden  City  of  Manoa  (which  the  Spaniards 
call  El  Dorado),  (S:c.,  performed  in  the  year  1595  by  Sir  Walter  Ralegh, 
Knt.  .  .  .  Reprinted  from  the  edition  of  1596.  With  some  unpublished 
Documents  relative  to  that  country.  Edited  with  copious  explanatory  Notes 
and  a  biographical  Memoir  by  Sir  Robert  Hermann  Schomburgk,  Ph.  D. 
pp.  Ixxv.  XV.  I  Map.  Index. 

(Out  of  print.     Second  Edition  in  preparation.)   Issued  for  1848. 

4— Sir  Francis  Drake  his  Voyage,  1595, 

By  Thomas  Maynarde,  together  with  the  Spanish  Account  of  Drake's 
attack  on  Puerto  Rico.  Edited  from  the  original  MSS.  by  William 
Desborough  Cooley.     pp.  viii.  65.  [Out  of  print.)     Issued  for  1848. 

5— Narratives  of  Voyages  towards  the  North-West, 

In  search  of  a  Passage  to  Cathay  &  India,  1496  to  1631.  With  selections 
from  the  early  Records  of  .  .  .  the  East  India  Company  and  from  MSS. 
in  the  British  Museum.     Edited  by  Thomas  Rundall.  pp.  xx.  259.    2  Maps. 

(  Out  of  print. )     Issued  for  1849. 

6— The  Historie  of  Travaile  into  Virginia  Britannia, 

Expicssing  the  Cosmographie  and  Commodities  of  the  Country,  together  with 
the  manners  and  customs  of  the  people,  gathered  and  observed  as  well  by  those 
who  went  first  thither  as  collected  by  William  Strachey,  Gent,  the 
first  Secretary  of  the  Colony.  Now  first  edited  from  the  original  MS.  in  the 
British  Museum  by  Richard  Henry  Major,  F.S.A.,  Keeper  of  Maps,  British 
Museum,  Sec.  R.G.S.     pp.  xxxvi.  203.  i  Map.  6  Illus.  Glossary.  Index. 

(Out  of  print.  )     Issued  for  1849. 

7— Divers  Voyages  touching  the  Discovery  of  America 

And  the  Islands  adjacent,  collected  and  published  by  Richard  Hakluyt, 
Prebendary  of  Bristol,  in  the  year  1582.  Edited,  with  notes  &  an  introduction 
by  John  Winter  Jone^,  Principal  Librarian  of  the  British  Museum. 
pp.  xci.  171.  6.  2  Maps.  I  Illus.  Index.       ( Out  of  print. )    Issued  for  1850. 

8— Memorials  of  the  Empire  of  Japon. 

In  the  Sixteenth  and  Seventeenth  Centuries.  (The  Kingdome  of  Japonia. 
Had.  MSS.  6249.— Tlie  Letters  of  \Vm.  Adams,  161 1  to  16 1 7.)  With  a 
Commentary  by  T]iomas  Rundall.     pp.  xxxviii.     186.  i  Map.  5  Illus. 

(Out  of  print.)     Issued  for  1850. 

9— The  Discovery  and  Conquest  of  Terra  Florida, 

By  Don  Ferdinando  de  Soto,  iX;  six  hundred  Spaniards  his  followers.  Written 
by  a  Gentleman  of  Elvas,  employed  in  all  the  action,  and  translated  out  of 
Portuguese  by  Richard  Hakluyt.  Reprinted  from  the  edition  of  161 1. 
Edited  with  Notes  &  an  Introduction,  &  a  Translation  of  a  Narrative  of  the 
Expedition  by  Luis  Hernandez  de  Biedma,  Factor  to  the  same,  by 
William  Brenchley  Rye,  Keeper  of  Printed  Books,  British  Museum. 
pp.  Ixvii.  200.   V.  I  Map.  Index.  ( Out  of  print.)     Issued  for  1 85 1. 

10— Notes  upon  Russia, 

Being  a  Translation  from  the  Earliest  Account  of  that  Countr)',  entitled  Remm 
Muscoviticarum  Commentarii,  by  the  Baron  Sigismund  von  Herberstein, 
Ambassador  from  the  Court  of  Germany  to  the  Grand  Prince  Vasiley  Ivanovich, 
in  the  years  1517  and  1526.  Translated  and  Edited  with  Notes  &  an 
Introduction,  by  Richard  Henry  Major,  F.S.A.,  Keeper  of  Maps,  British 
Museum,  Sec.  R.G.S.     Vol.  i.  pp.  clxii.  116.     2  Illus. 

(Vol.  2  =  No.  12.)  (Out  of  print.)     Issued  for  \2i^i. 

11— The  Geography  of  Hudson's  Bay, 

Being  the  Remarks  of  Captain  W.  Coats,  in  many  Voyages  to  that  locality, 
between  the  years  1727  and  1751.  With  an  Appendix  containing  Extracts 
from  the  Log  of  Captain  Middleton  on  his  Voyage  for  the  Discovery  of  the 
North-west  Passage,  in  H.M. S.  "Furnace,"  in  174 1-3.  Edited  by  John 
Barrow,  F.R.  S.,  F.S.A.     pp.  x.  147.  Index.  Issicedfor  iSs,2. 

12— Notes  upon  Russia. 

(Vol.  I.=No.  10.)     Vol.  2.     pp.  iv.  266.  2  Maps,  i  Illus.  Index. 

{Out  of  print.)    Issued  for  1852. 

13— A  True  Description  of  Three  Voyages  by  the  North-East, 

Towards  Cathay  and  China,  undertaken  by  the  Dutch  in  the  years  1594,  1595 
and  1596,  with  their  Discovery  of  Spitzbergen,  their  residence  often  months  in 
Novaya  Zemlya,  and  their  safe  return  in  two  open  boats.  By  Gerrit  de 
Veer.  Published  at  Amsterdam  in  1598,  &  in  1609  translated  into  English 
by  William  Philip.  Edited  by  Charles  Tilstone  Beke,  Ph.D., 
F.S.A.     pp.  cxlii.  291.  4  Maps.  12  Illus.  Index. 

(Out  of  print.     SeealsoNo.z,\.)      Issued  for  I^^t,. 

14-15— The  History  of  the  Great  and  Mighty  Kingdom  of  China  and 
the  Situation  Thereof. 
Compiled  by  the  Padre  Juan  Gonzalez  de  Mendoza,  &  now  reprinted  from 
the  Early  Translation  of  R.  Parke.  Edited  by  Sir  Gkorge  Thomas 
Staunton,  Bart.,  M.P. ,  F.R.S.  With  an  Introduction  by  Richard 
Henry  Major,  F.S.A.,  Keeper  of  Maps,  British  Museum,  Sec.  R.G.S. , 
2  vols.  Index.  {Vol.  \iSf  out  of  print.)         Issued  for  1854. 

16— The  World  Encompassed  by  Sir  Francis  Drake. 
Being  his  next  Voyage  to  that  to  Nombre  de  Dios.  [By  Sir  Francis 
Drake,  the  Younger.]  Collated  with  an  unpublished  ]\Ianuscript  of  Francis 
Fletcher,  Chaplain  to  the  Expedition.  With  Appendices  illustrative  of 
the  same  Voyage,  and  Introduction,  by  William  Sandys  Wright 
Vaux,  F.R.S.,  Keeper  of  Coins,  British  Museum,  pp.  xl.  295.  i  Map. 
Index.  (Out  of  print.)    Issued  Jor  1855. 


17— The  History  of  the  Two  Tartar  Conquerors  of  China, 

Including  the  two  Journeys  into  Tartary  of  Father  Ferdinand  Verbiest,  in  the 
suite  of  the  Emperor  Kang-Hi.  From  the  French  of  Pere  Pierre  Joseph 
d'Orleans,  of  the  Company  of  Jesus,  1688.  To  which  is  added  Father 
Pereira's  Journey  into  Tartary  in  the  suite  of  the  same  Emperor.  From  the 
Dutch  of  NicOLAAS  WiTSEN.  Translated  and  Edited  by  the  Earl  of 
Ellesmere.  With  an  Introduction  by  Richard  Henry  Major,  F.S.A., 
Keeper  of  Maps,  British  Museum,  Sec.  R.G.S.     pp.  xv.  vi.  153.  Index. 

f  Out  of  print. )     Issued  for  1855. 

18— A  Collection  of  Documents  on  Spitzbergen  and  Greenland, 

Comprising  a  Translation  from  F.  Martens'  Voyage  to  Spitzbergen,  1671  ;  a 
Translation  from  Isaac  de  la  Peyrkre's  Histoire  du  Greenland,  1663,  and 
God's  Power  and  Providence  in  the  Preservation  of  Eight  Men  in  Greenland 
Nine  Moneths  and  Twelve  Dayes.  1630.  Edited  by  Adam  White,  of  the 
British  Museum,     pp.  xvi.  288.  2  Maps.  Index.  Issued  for  1856. 

19— The  Voyage  of  Sir  Henry  Middleton  to  Bantam  and  the  Maluco  Islands, 

Being  the  Second  Voyage  set  forth  by  the  Governor  and  Company  of 
Merchants  of  London  trading  into  the  East  Indies.  From  the  (rare)  Edition 
of  1606.  Annotated  and  Edited  by  Bolton  Corney.  M.R.S.L.  pp.  xi.  %t,. 
52.  viii.  3  Maps.  3  Illus.  Bibliography.  Index. 

{Otitofprhtt).     Issued  for  1856. 

20— Russia  at  the  Close  of  the  Sixteenth  Century. 

Comprising  the  Treatise,  "The  Russe  Commonwealth"  by  Dr.  Giles 
Fletcher,  and  the  Travels  of  Sir  Jerome  Horsey,  Knt.,  now  for  the  first 
time  printed  entire  from  his  own  MS.  Edited  by  Sir  Edward  Augustus 
Bond,  K.C.B.,  Principal  Librarian  of  the  British  Museum,  pp.  cxxxiv.  392. 
Index.  Issued  for  1857. 

21— History  of  the  New  World.    By  Girolamo  Benzoni,  of  Milan. 
Showing   his   Travels   in    America,    from    A.d.     1541     to    1556,    with    some 
particulars  of  the   Island  of  Canary.     Now  first  Translated  and   Edited   by 
Admiral  William  Henry  Smyth,  K.S.F.,  F.R.S.,  D.C.L.     pp.  iv.  280. 
19  Illus.  Index.  Issued  for  1857. 

22— India  in  the  Fifteenth  Century. 

Being  a  Collection  of  Narratives  of  Voyages  to  India  m  the  century  pieceding 
the  Portuguese  discovery  of  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  ;  from  Latin,  Persian, 
Russian,  and  Italian  Sources.  Now  first  Translated  into  English.  Edited 
with  an  Introduction  bv  Richard  Henry  Major,  F.S.A.,  Keeper  of 
Maps,  British  Museum,     pp.  xc.  49.  39.  32.  10.  Index. 

( Out  of  print. )     Issued  for  I S58. 

23— Narrative  of  a  Voyage  to  the  West  Indies  and  Mexico, 

In  the  years  1599-1602,  with  4  Maps  and  5  Illustrations.  By  Samuel 
Champlain.  Translated  from  the  original  and  unpublished  Manuscript, 
with  a  Biographical  Notice  and  Notes  by  Alice  Wilmere.  Edited  by 
Norton  Shaw.    pp.  xcix.  48.  Issued  for  1858. 

24— Expeditions  into  the  Valley  of  the  Amazons,  1539,  1540,  1639, 

Containing  the  Journey  of  Gonzalo  Pizarro,  from  the  Royal  Commen- 
taries of  Garcilasso  Inca  de  la  Vega  ;  the  Voyage  of  Francisco  de  Orellana, 
from  the  General  History  of  Herrera;  and  the  Voyage  of  Cristoval  de  Acuna. 
Translated  and  Edited  by  SiR  Clements  R.  Makkham,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S., 
ex-Pres.  R.G.S.  pp.  Ixiv.  190.  I  Map.  List  of  Tribes  in  the  Valley  of  the 
Amazons.  Issued  for  1859. 


25— Early  Voyages  to  Terra  Australis, 

Now  called  Australia.  A  Collection  of  documents,  and  extracts  from  early 
MS.  Maps,  illustrative  of  the  history  of  discovery  on  the  coasts  of  that  vast 
Island,  from  the  bes^inning  of  the  Sixteenth  Century  to  the  time  of  Captain' 
Cook.  Edited  with  an  Introduction  by  Richard  Henry  Major,  F.S.A., 
Keeper  of  Maps,  British  Museum,  Sec.  R.G.S.  pp.  cxix.  200.  13.  5  Maps. 
Index.  {Out  of  print.)     Issued  for  iS'^() 

26— Nappative  of  the  Embassy  of  Ruy  Gonzalez  de  Clavijo  to  the  Court 
of  Timoup,  at  Samarcand,  A.D.,  1403-6. 

Translated  for  the  first  time  with  Notes,  a  Preface,  &  an  introductory  Life  of 
Timour  Beg,  by  SiR  Ci.rments  R.  Markham,  K.C  B.,  F.R.S.,  ex-Pres. 
R.G.S.     pp.  Ivi.  200.  I  Map.  Issued  for  i860. 

27— Henry  Hudson  the  Navigator,  1607-13. 

The  Original  Documents  in  which  his  career  is  recorded.  Collected,  partly 
Translated,  &  annotated  with  an  Introduction  by  George  Michael 
ASHER,   LL.  D.  pp.     ccxviii.  292.  2  Maps.  Bibliography.  Index. 

Issued  for  i860. 

28— The  Expedition  of  Pedro  de  Ursua  and  Lope  de  Aguirre, 

In  search  of  El  Dorado  and  Omagua,  in  1560-61.  Translated  from  Fray 
Pedro  Simon's  "  Sixth  Historical  Notice  of  the  Conquest  of  Tierra  Firme," 
1627,  by  William  BiH.laek'I',  F.R.G.S.  With  an  Introduction  by  Sir 
Clements  R.  Markham,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S.,  ex-Pres.  R.G.S.  pp.  lii.  237. 
I  Map.  Issued  for  1861. 

29- The  Life  and  Acts  of  Don  Alonzo  Enriquez  de  Guzman, 

A  Knight  of  Seville,  of  the  Order  of  Santiago,  A.D.  15 18  to  1543.  Translated 
from  an  original  &  inedited  MS.  in  the  National  Library  at  Madrid.  With 
Notes  and  an  Introduction  by  SiR  Clements  R.  Markham,  K.C.B., 
F.R.S.,  ex-Pres.  R.G.S.     pp.  xxxv.  168.  i  Illus.  Issued  for  \^(32. 

30— The  Discoveries  of  the  World 

From  their  first  original  unlo  the  year  of  our  Lord  1555.  By  Antonio 
Galvano,  Governor  of  Ternate.  [Edited  by  F.  de  Sousa  Tavares.]; 
Corrected,  quoted,  &  published  in  England  by  Richard  Hakluyt,  1601. 
Now  reprinted,  with  ihe  original  Portuguese  text  (1563),  and  edited  by 
Admiral  Charles  Ramsay  Drinkwater  Bethune,  C.B.    pp.  iv.  viiii.  242. 

Issued  for  1862. 

31— Mirabilia  Descripta.    The  Wonders  of  the  East. 

By  Friar  Jordan  us,  of  the  Order  of  Preachers  &  Bishop  of  Columbum  in 
India  the  Greater,  circa  1 330.  Translated  from  the  Latin  Original,  as  published 
at  Paris  in  1839,  in  the  Reciieil  de  Voyages  et  de  Menioires,  of  the  Societe  de 
Geographie.  With  the  addition  of  a  Commentary,  by  Col.  Sir  Henry 
Yule,  K.C.S.I. ,  R.E.,  C.B.     pp.  iv.  xviii.  68.  Index.         Isszied for  1863. 

32— The  Travels  of  Ludovico  di  Varthema 

In  Egypt,  Syria,  Arabia,  Persia,  India,  &  Ethiopia,  A.D.  1503  to  1508. 
Translated  from  the  original  Italian  edition  of  15 10,  with  a  Preface,  by 
John  Winter  Jones,  F.S.  A.,  Principal  Librarian  of  the  British  Museum, 
&  Edited,  with  Notes  &  an  Introduction,  by  the  Rev.  George  Percv 
Badger,     pp.  cxxi.  321.  i  Map.  Index.  Issued  for  1863. 


33— The  Travels  of  Pedro  de  Cieza  de  Leon,  A.D.  1532-50, 

From  the  Gulf  of  Darien  to  the  City  of  La  Plata,  contamed  m  the  first  part  of 
his  Chronicle  of  Peru  (Antwerp,  1554).  Translated  &  Edited,  with  Notes 
&  an  Introduction,  by  SiR  Ci.kmknts  R.  Markham,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S., 
ex-Pres.  R.G.S.     pp.  xvi.  Ivii.  438.  Index. 

(Vol,  2  =  No.  68.)  Issued  for  1864. 

34— Narrative  of  the  Proceedings  of  Pedrarias  Davila 

In  the  Provinces  of  Tierra  Firme  or  Castilla  del  Oro,  &  of  the  discovery  of  the 
South  Sea  and  the  Coasts  of  Peru  and  Nicaragua.  Written  by  the  Adelantado 
Pascual  de  Andagoya.  Translated  and  Edited,  with  Notes  &  an  Introduc- 
tion, by  Sir  Clemknts  R.  Markham,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S.,  ex-Pres.  R.G.S. 
pp.  xxix.  88.  I  Map.  Index.  Issued  for  1865. 

35— A  Description  of  the  Coasts  of  East  Africa  and  Malabar 

In  the  beginning  of  the  Sixteenth  Century,  by  DuARTE  Barbosa,  a 
Portuguese.  Translated  from  an  early  Spanish  manuscript  in  the  Barcelona 
Library,  with  Notes  &  a  Preface,  by  Lord  Stanley  of  Alderley. 
pp.  xi.  336.  2  Illus.  Index.  Issued  for  1865. 

36-37— Cathay  and  the  Way  Thither. 

Being  a  Collection  of  medieval  notices  of  China,  previous  to  the  Sixteenth 
Centuiy.  Translated  and  Edited  by  Colonel  Sir  Henry  Yule,  K.C.S.I., 
R.E.  C.B.  Wiih  a  preliminary  Essay  on  the  intercourse  between  China  &  the 
Western  Nations  previous  to  the  discovery  of  the  Cape  Route.  2  vols. 
3  Maps.  2  Illus.  Bibliography.  Index. 

{Out  of  print.     Neiu  Edition  in  pj-eparation.)         Issued  for  1866. 

38— The  Three  Voyages  of  Sir  Martin  Frobisher, 
In  search  of  a  Passage  to  Cathaia  &  India  by  the  North- West,  A.D.  1 576-8. 
By  George  Best.  Reprinted  from  the  First  Edition  of  Hakluyt's  Voyages. 
With  Selections  from  MS.  Documents  in  the  British  Museum  &  State  Paper 
Office.  Edited  by  Admiral  Sir  Richard  Collinson,  K.C.B.  pp.  xxvi. 
376.  2  Maps.  I  Illus.  Index.  Issued  for  1867. 

39— The  Philippine  Islands, 

Moluccas,  Siam,  Cambodia,  Japan,  and  China,  at  the  close  of  the  l6th  Century. 
By  Antonio  de  Morga,  1609.  Translated  from  the  Spanish,  with  Notes  & 
a  Preface,  and  a  Letter  from  Luis  Vaez  de  Torres,  describing  his  Voyage 
through  the  Torres  Straits,  by  Lord  Stanley  of  Alderley.  pp.  xxiv.  431. 
2  Illus.  Index.  Issued  for  1868. 

40— The  Fifth  Letter  of  Hernan  Cortes 

To  the  Emperor  Charles  V.,  containing  an  Account  of  his  Expedition  to 
Honduras  in  1525-26.  Translated  from  the  original  Spanish  by  Don 
Pascual  de  Gayangos.     pp.  xvi.  156.  Index.  Issued  for  1868. 

41— The  Royal  Commentaries  of  the  Yncas. 

By  the  Ynca  Garcilasso  de  la  Vega.    Translated  and  Edited,  with  Notes 
&   an   Introduction,   by   SiR   Clements    R.    Markham,  K.C.B.    F.R.S., 
ex-Pres.  R.G.S.     Vol.  i.  (Books  I. -IV.)     pp.  xi.  359.  i  Map.  Index. 
(Vol.  2.=  No.  45.)  Issued  for  \Seg. 

42— The  Three  Voyages  of  Vasco  da  Gama, 

And  his  Viceroyalty,  from  the  Lendas  da  India  of  Caspar  Corkea  ;  accom- 
panied by  original  documents.  Translated  from  the  Portuguese,  with  Notes 
&  an  Introduction,  by  Lord  Stanley  of  Alderley.  pp.  Ixxvii.  430. 
XXXV.  3  Illus,  Index.  (Out  of  print.)         Issued  for  i?,6g. 


43— Select  Letters  of  Christopher  Columbus. 
Wiih   other  Original  Documents  relating  to  his  Four  Voyages  to  the  New 
■\^'orld.     Translated    and    Edited    by    Richard    Henry    Major,    F.S.A., 
Keeper  of  Maps,  British  Museum,  Sec.  R.G.S.     Second  Edition,    pp.  iv.  142. 
3  Maps.  I  Illus.     Index. 

(First  Edition  =  No.  2.)  Issued  for  1870. 

44— History  of  the  Imams  and  Seyyids  of  'Oman, 
By  SaliL-Ibx-RaziK,  from    a.D.   661-1856.       Translated    from    the    original 
Arabic,  and  Edited,  with  a  continuation  of  the  History  down  to  1870,  by  the 
Rev.  George  Percy  Badger,  F. R.G.S.     pp.  cxxviii.  435.  i  Map.  Biblio- 
graphy. Index.  Issued  for  1870. 

45— The  Royal  Commentaries  of  the  Yneas. 

By  the  Ynca  Garcilasso  de  la  Vega.       Translated  &  Edited  with  Notes, 

an  Introduction,  &  an  Analytical  Index,  by  SiR  Clements  R.  Markham 

K.C.B.,  F.R.S.,  ex-Pres.  R.G.S.     Vol.  II.     (Books  V.-IX.)  pp.  553. 

(Vol.  i.=No.  41.)  Issiied jor  xZ'ji. 

46— The  Canarian, 

Or  Book  of  the  Conquest  and  Conveision  of  the  Canarians  in  the  year  1402, 
by  Messire  Jean  de  Bethencourt,  Kt.  Composed  by  Pierre  Bonlier  and 
Jean  le  Verrier.  Translated  and  Edited  by  Richard  Henry  Major,  F.S.  A., 
Keeper  of  Maps,  British  Museum,  Sec.  R.G.S.  pp.  Iv.  229.  i  Map.  2  Illus. 
Index.  Issued  for  1871. 

47— Reports  on  the  Discovery  of  Peru. 

I.  Report  of  Francisco  de  Xeres.  Secretarv  to  Francisco  Pizarro.  II.  Report 
of  Miguel  de  Astete  on  the  Expedition  to  Pachacamac.  III.  Letter  of 
Hernando  Pizarro  to  the  Royal  Audience  of  Santo  Domingo.  IV.  Report  of 
Pedro  Sancho  on  the  Partition  of  the  Ransom  of  Atahuallpa.  Trani-laicO  and 
Edited,  with  Notes  &  an  Introduction,  by  SiR  Clemenis  R.  Markham, 
K.C.B.,  F.R.S.,  ex-Pres.  R.G.S.     pp.  xxii.  143.  i  Map.      Issued  for  1872. 

48— Narratives  of  the  Rites  and  Laws  of  the  Yneas. 
Translated   from   the  original   Spanish   MSS.,  &  Edited,  with  Notes  and  an 
Introduction,    fiy  SiR  Clements  K.  Markham,   K.C.B.,  F.R.S.,  ex-Pres. 
K.G.S.     pp.  XX.  220.  Index.  Issued  for  1872. 

49— Travels  to  Tana  and  Persia, 

By  JosAKA  Barbaro  and  Ambrogio  Contarini.  Translated  from  the 
Italian  by  William  Thomas,  Clerk  of  the  Council  to  Edward  VI.,  and  by 
E.  A.  Roy,  and  Edited,  with  an  Introduction,  by  Lord  Sianley  of 
Alderley.  pp.  xi.  175.  Index.  A  Narrative  of  Italian  Travels  in  Persia, 
in  the  Fifteenth  and  Sixteenth  centuries.  Translated  and  Edited  by 
Charles  Grey.     pp.  xvii.  231.  Index.  Issued  for  1873. 

50  The  Voyages  of  the  Venetian  Brothers,  Nicolo  &  Antonio  Zeno, 
To  the  Northern  Seas  in  the  Fourteenih  century.  Comprising  the  latest 
Icnown  accounts  of  the  Lost  Colony  of  Greenland,  &  of  the  ISorthmen  in 
America  before  Columbus.  Translated  &  Edited,  with  Notes  and  Introduc- 
tion, by  Richard  Henry  Major,  F.S  A.,  Keeper  of  Maps,  British 
Museum,  Sec.  R.G.S.     pp.  ciii.  64.  2  Maps.  Index.  Issued Jor  1873. 

51— The  Captivity  of  Hans  Stade  of  Hesse  in  1547-55, 

Amone;  the  Wild  Tribes  of  Eastern  Brazil.  Translated  by  ALBERT  Tootal, 
■of  Rio  de  Janiero,  and  annotated  by  SiR  Richard  Francis  Burton, 
K.C.  M.G.     pp.  xcvi.  169.  Bibliography.  Issued  for  \%-j\. 

52-The  First  Voyage  Round  the  World  by  Magellan.     1518-1521. 

Translated  from  the  Accounts  of  Pigafetta  and  other  contemporary  writers. 
Accompanied  by  original  Documents,  with  Notes  &  an  Introduction,  by  LORD 
Stanley  of  Alderley.     pp.  Ix.  257.  xx.  2  Maps.  5  Illus.  Index. 

Issued  for  1874. 

53— The  Commentaries  of  the  Great  Afonso  DalbOQuerque, 

Second  Viceroy  of  India.  Translated  from  the  Portuguese  Edition  of  I774> 
and  Edited  by  Wal'I'er  de  Gray  Birch,  F.  K.S.L.  ,  of  the  British  Museunu 
Vol.  I.     pp.  Ix.  256.  2  Maps.  I  Illus.  (Index  in  No.  69.) 

(Vol.  2  =  No.  55.     Vol.  3  =  No.  62.     Vol.  4  =  No.  69.)       Issued  for  1875. 

54— The  Three  Voyages  of  William  Barents  to  the  Arctic  Regions,  in  1594, 

1595,  &  1595. 
By  Gerrit  de  Veer.     Edited,  with  an  Introduction,  by  Lieut.  Koolemans 
Beynen,  of  the  Royal  Netherlands  Navy.     Second  Edition,    pp.  clxxiv.  289. 
2  Maps.  12  Illus.  Issued  for  1876. 

(First  Edition  =  No.  13.) 

55— The  Commentaries  of  the  Great  Afonso  Dalboquerque, 

Second  Viceroy  of  India.  Translated  from  the  Portuguese  Edition  of  1774, 
with  Notes  and  an  Introduction,  by  Walter  de  Gray  Birch,  F.R.S.L.,  of 
the  British  Museum.  Vol.  2.  pp.  cxxxiv.  242.  2  Maps  2  Illus.  (Index  in 
No.  69. )  Issued  for  1875. 

(Vol.  i=No.  53.     Vol.  3 -No.  62.     Vol.  4  =  No.  69.) 

56— The  Voyages  of  Sir  James  Lancaster,  Knt.,  to  the  East  Indies, 

With  Abstracts  of  Journals  of  Voyages  to  the  East  Indies,  during  the  Seven- 
teenth century,  preserved  in  the  India  Otificc,  &  Uic  Voyage  of  Captain  JOHN 
Knight,  1606,  to  seek  the  North-West  Passage.  EHn&i  by  Sir  Ci.emen  is 
R.   Markham,  K.C.B.,  F.R.  S.,  ex-Pres.  R.G.S.     pp.  xxii.  314.     Index. 

Issued  for  1877. 

57— The  Hawkins'  Voyages 

During  the  reigns  of  Henry  VIII,  Queen  Elizabeth,  and  James  I.  [Second 
edition  of  No.  i.]  Edited  by  Sir  Clements  R.  Markham,  K  C.B.,  F.R.S., 
ex-Pres.  R.G.S.     pp.  lii.  453.  I  Illus.  Index.  Issued  for  1877. 

(First  Edition  =  No.  i). 

58— The  Bondage  and  Travels  of  Johann  Schiltberger,  a  Native  of  Bavaria» 
in  Europe,  Asia,  &  Africa. 

From  his  capture  at  the  battle  of  Nicopolis  in  1396  to  his  escape  and  return 
to  Europe  m  1427.  Translated  from  the  Heidelberg  MS.,  Edited  in  1859  Ijy 
Professor  Karl  Fr.  Neumann,  by  Commander  John  Buchan  Telfek, 
R.N.;  F.S.A.  With  Notes  bv  Professor  P.  Bku UN,  &  a  Preface,  Introduction^ 
&  Notes  by  the  Translator  &  Editor.  pp.  xxxii.  263.  i  Map.  Bibliography. 
Index.  Issued  for  1878. 

59— The  Voyages  and  Worics  of  John  Davis  the  Navigator. 
Edited     by     Admiral     Sir     Albert     Hastings     Markham.     K.C.B. 
pp.  xcv.  392.  2  Maps.  15  Illus.  Bibliography.  Index.  Issued  for  iSj^. 

The  Map  ot  the  World,  A.D.  1600. 

Called  by  Shakspere  "  The  New  Map,  with  the  Augmeniiition  of  the  Indies." 
To  illustrate  the  \'oyages  of  John  Davis.     Issued  for  1878. 

60-61 -The  Natural  &  Moral  History  of  the  Indies. 

By  Father  Joseph  de  Acosta.  Reprinted  from  ihc  English  Translated  Ediiion 
of  Edward  Grimston,  1604;  and  Edited  by  Sir  Clements  R.  Makkham, 
K,C.B.,  F.R.S  ,  ex-Pres.  R.G.S.  Vol.  i,  The  Natural  History  Books,  I. -IV 
pp.  xlv.  295.  Vol.  2,  The  Moral  History  Books,  V.-VH.  pp.  xiii.  295-551. 
Index.  Issued  for  1879. 

Map  of  Peru. 

To  Illustiate  Nos.  33,  41,  45,  60,  and  61.  Issued  for  1879. 

62— The  Commentaries  of  the  Great  Afonso  Dalboquerque, 

Second  Viceroy  of  India.  Translated  from  the  Portue;uese  Edition  of  I774> 
with  Notes  &  an  Introduction,  by  Walter  de  Gray  Birch,  F.S.A.,  of 
the  British  Museum.  Vol.  3.  pp.  xliv.  308.  3  Maps.  3  lUus.  (Index  in 
No.  69.)  Issued  for  1880. 

63-The  Voyages  of  William  Baffin,  1612-1622. 
Edited,  with  Notes  &  an  Intioduction,   by  Sir  Clemknts    R.    Markham, 
K.C.B.,  F.  K.S.,  ex-Pres.  R.G.S.     pp.  lix.  192.  8  Maps,  i  Illus.  Index. 

Issued  for  1 880. 

64— Narrative  of  the  Portuguese  Embassy  to  Abyssinia 

During  the  years  1520-1527.  Bv  Kaiher  FraN'CISCO  Alvarez.  Translated 
from  the  Portuguese  «&  Edited,  with  Notes  &  an  Introduction,  by  Lord 
Stanley  of  Alderley.     pp.  xxvii.  416.  Index.  Issued  for  188  [. 

65— The  History  of  the  Bermudas  or  Summer  Islands, 

Attributed  to  Capiain  Nathaniel  Butler.  Edited  from  a  MS.  in  the 
Sloane  Collection,  British  Museum,  by  General  Sir  John  Henry  Lefroy, 
R.A.,  K.C.M.G.,  C.B.,  F.R.S.  pp.  xh.  327.  i  xMap.  3  Illus.  Glossary. 
Index.  Issued  for  1881. 

66-67— The  Diary  of  Richard  Cocks, 

Cape-Merchant  in  the  English  Factory  in  Japan,  1615-1622,  with  Corres- 
pondence (Add.  MSS.  31,300-1,  British  Museum).  Edited  by  SiR  Edward 
Maunde  Thompson,  K.C.B.,  Director  of  the  British  Museum.  Vol.  i. 
pp.  liv.  349.     Vol.  2,  pp.  368.  Index.  Issued  jor  1882. 

68— The  Second  Part  of  the  Chronicle  of  Peru,  1532-1550 

By  Pedro  de  Cieza  de  Leon.  1554.  Translated  and  Edited,  with  Notes 
&  an  Introduction,  by  Sir  Clements  R.  Markham,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S., 
ex-Pres.  R.G.S.     pp.  Ix.  247.     Index.  Issued  for  1883. 

(Vol.  i  =  No.  33.) 

69— The  Commentaries  of  the  Great  Afonso  Dalboquerque, 

Second  Viceroy  of  India.  Translated  from  the  Portuguese  Edition  of  1774, 
with  Notes  &  an  Introduction,  by  Walter  de  Gray  Birch,  F.S.A.,  of  the 
British  Museum.  Vol.  4.  pp.  xxxv.  324.  2  Maps.  2  Illus.  Index  to  the 
4  vols.  Issued  for  1883. 

(Vol.  i  =  No.  53.     Vol.  2  =  No.  55.     Vol.  3  =  No.  62.) 

70-71- The  Voyage  of  John  Huyghen  van  Linschoten  to  the  East  Indies. 

From  the  Old  English  Translation  of  1598.  The  First  Book,  contaming  his 
Description  of  the  East.  In  Two  Volumes,  Edited,  the  First  Volume,  by 
the  late  Arthur  Coke  Burnrli,  Ph.D.,  CLE.,  Madras  C.  S.  ;  the 
Second  Volume,  by  PiETER  Anton  Tiele,  of  Utrecht.  Vol  i.  pp.  Hi.  307. 
Vol,  2.     pp.  XV.  341.  Index.  Issued  for  1884. 


72-73— Early  Voyages  and  Travels  to  Russia  and  Persia, 

By  Anthony  Jenkinson  and  other  Englishmen,  with  some  account  of  the 
first  Intercourse  of  the  Enghsh  with  Russia  and  Central  Asia  by  way  of  the 
Caspian  Sea.  Edited  by  Edward  Delmar  Morgan,  and  Charles  Henry 
CooTE,  of  the  British  Museum.  Vol.  I.  pp.  clxii.  176.  2  Maps.  2  Illus. 
Vol.  2.  pp.  177-496.  2  Maps.  I  Illus.  Index.  Is  sited  for  1885. 

74-75— The  Diary  of  William  Hedges,  Esq., 

Afterwards  SiR  William  Hedges,  during  his  Agency  ni  Bengal ;  as  well  as  on 
his  Voyage  out  and  Return  Overland  (1681-1687).  Transcribed  for  the  Press, 
with  Introductory  Notes,  etc.,  by  R.  Barlow,  and  Illustrated  by  copious 
Extracts  from  Unpublished  Records,  etc.,  by  Col.  Sir  Henry  Yule, 
K.C.S.I.,  R.E.,  C.B.,  LL.D.  Vol.  i.  The  Diary,  with  Index,  pp.  xii.  265. 
Vol.  2.  Notices  regarding  Sir  William  Hedges,  Documentary  Memoirs  of  Job 
Charnock,  and  other  Biographical  &  Miscellaneous  Illustrations  of  the  time  in 
India,     pp.  ccclx.  287.  18  Illus.  Issued  for  1886. 

(Vol.  3  =  No.  78.) 

76-77— The  Voyage  of  Frangois  Pyrard,  of  Laval,  to  the  East  Indies, 
The  Maldives,  the  Moluccas  and  Brazd.     Translated  mto  English  from  the 
Third    French    Edition    of  1619,    and    Edited,    with    Notes,    by   Albert 
Gray,   K.C,  assisted   by  Harry   Charles   Purvis  Bell,  Ceylon   C.  S. 
Vol.  I.  pp.  Iviii.  I  Map.  ii  Illus.     Vol.  2.  Part  I.  pp.  xlvii.  287.  7  Illus. 
(Vol.  2.  Part  II.  =No.  80.)  Issued  for  1887. 

78— The  Diary  of  William  Hedges,  Esq. 

Vol.  3.  Documentary  Contributions  to  a  Biography  of  Thomas  Pitt,  Governor 
of  Fort  St.  George,  with  Collections  on  the  Early  Historj'  of  the  Company's 
Settlement  in  Bengal,  &  on  Early  Charts  and  Topography  of  the  Ilugli  River, 
pp.  cclxii.  I  Map.  8  Illus.  Index  to  Vols.  2,  3.  Issued  for  1888. 

(Vols.  I,  2  =  Nos.  74,  75.) 

79— Tractatus  de  Globis,  et  eorum  usu. 

A  Treatise  descriptive  of  the  Globes  constructed  by  Emeiy  Molyneux,  and 
Published  in  1592.     By  Robert  Hues.    Edited,  with  annotated  Indices  &  an 
Introduction,  by  SiR  Clements   K.   Markham,  K.C.B.,   F.R.S.,  ex-Pres. 
R.G.S.     To  which  is  appended. 

Sailing  Directions  for  the  Circumnavigation  of  England, 

And  for  a  Voyage  to  the  Straits  of  Gibraltar.  From  a  Fifteenth  Century 
MS.  Edited,  with  an  Account  of  the  MS.,  by  James  Gairdner,  of  the 
Public  Record  Office  ;  wnh  a  Glossary  by  Edward  Delmar  Morgan. 
pp.  1.  229.  37.  I  Illus.  I  Map.  Issued  for  1888. 

80— The  Voyage  of  Frangois  Pyrard,  of  Laval,   to   the   East   Indies,  the 
Maldives,  the  Moluccas,  and  Brazil. 

Translated  into  English  from  the  Third  French  Edition  of  1619,  and  Edited, 
with  Notes,  by  Albert  Gray,  K.C,  assisted  by  Harry  Charles  Purvis 
Bell,  Ceylon  Civil  Service.    Vol  2.  Pt.  II.  pp.  xii.  289-572.    2  Maps.    Index. 
(Vol  I.  Vol.  2.  Pt.  I.  =Nos.  76,  77.)  Issued  Jar  1889, 

81— The  Conquest  of  La  Plata,  1535-1555. 
I. — Voyage  of  Ulrich  Schmidt  to  the  Rivers  La  Plata  and  Paraguai,  from 
the  original  German  edition,  1567.  II.  The  Commentaries  of  Alvar  Nunez 
Cabeza  de  Vaca.  From  the  original  Spanish  Edition,  1555.  Translated, 
with  Notes  and  an  Introduction,  by  II.  E.  DON  Luis  L.  Dominguez, 
Minister  Plenipotentiary  of  the  Argentine  Republic,  pp.  xlvi.  282.  i  Map, 
Bibliography.  Index.  Issued  for  1889. 


82-83-The  Voyage  of  Francois  Leguat,  of  Bresse,  1690-98. 

To  Rodriguez,  Mauritius,  Java,  and  the  Cape  of  Good  Mope.  Transcribed 
from  the  First  English  Edition,  1 708.  Edited  and  Annotated  by  Capt.  Samuel 
Pasfield  Oliver,  (late)  R.A.  Vol  i.  pp.  Ixxxviii.  137.  i  Illus.  6  Maps. 
Bibliography.     Vol.  2.  pp.  xviii.  433.  5  Illus.  5  Maps.  Index. 

Is  sited  for  1890. 

84-85  -The  Travels  of  Pietro  della  Valle  to  India. 

P'rom  the  Old  English  Translation  of  1664,  by  G.  Havers.  Edited,  with 
a  Life  of  the  Author,  an  Introduction  &  Notes  by  Edward  Grey,  late 
Bengal  C.  S.  Vol.  i.  pp.  Ivi.  192.  2  Maps.  2  Illus.  Bibliography.  Vol.  2. 
pp.  xii.  193-456.  Index.  Issued  for  \%(^i. 

86— The  Journal  of  Christopher  Columbus 

During  his  First  Voyage  (1492-93),  and  Documents  relatmg  to  the  Voyages 
of  John  Cabot  and  Caspar  Corte  Real.  Translated,  with  Notes  &  an 
Introduction,  by  SiR  Clements  K.  Makkham,  K.C.B.,  F. R.S.,  ex-Pres. 
R.G.S.     pp.  liv.  259.  3  Maps.  I   Illus.  Index.  Issued  for  1892. 

87— Early  Voyages  and  Travels  in  the  Levant. 

I. — The  Diary  of  Master  Thomas  Dallam,  1599- 1600.  II.— Extracts  from 
the  Diaries  of  Dr.  John  Covel,  1670- 1679.  With  some  Account  of  the 
Levant  Company  of  Turkey  Merchants.  Edited  by  James  Theodore  Bent, 
F.S.A.,  F. R.G.S.     pp.  xlv.  305.  Illus.  Index. 

Issued  for  1892. 

88-89— The  Voyages  of  Captain  Luke  Foxe,  of  Hull,  and  Captain  Thomas 
James,  of  Bristol, 

In  Search  of  a  N.-W.  Passage,  1631-32  ;  with  Narratives  of  the  Earlier 
North-West  Voyages  of  FroVnsher,  Davis,  Weymouth,  Hall,  Knight,  Hudson, 
Button,  Gibbons,  Bylot,  Baffin,  Hawkridge,  &  others.  Edited,  with  Notes  & 
an  Introduction,  by  Robert  Miller  Christy,  P\L.S.  Vol.  i.  pp.  ccxxxi. 
259.  2  Maps.  2  Illus.     Vol.  2.  pp.  viii.  261-681.  3  Maps.  I  Illus.  Index. 

Issued  for  1893. 

90— The  Letters  ot  Amerigo  Vespucci 

And  other  Documents  illustrative  of  his  Career.  Translated,  with  Notes  & 
an  Introduction,  by  SiR  Clements  K.  Makkham,  K.C.B.,  F.  R.S.,  ex-Pres. 
R.G.S.     pp.  xliv.  121.  I  Map.  Index. 

Issued  for  1894. 

91— Narratives  of  the  Voyages  of  Pedro  Sarmiento  de  Gamboa  to  the 

Straits  ot  Magellan,  1579-80. 

Translated   and   Edited,    with   Illustrative    Documents  and   Introduction,    by 

Sir  Clements  R.   Markham,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S.,  ex-Pres.  R.G.S.     pp.  xxx. 

401.  I  Map.  Index. 

Issued  for  1894. 

92-93-94— The  History  and  Description  of  Africa, 

And  of  the  Notable  Things  Therein  Contained.  Written  by  Al-Hassan  Ibn- 
Mohammed  Al-Wezaz  Al-Fasi,  a  Moor,  baptized  as  Giovanni  Leone,  but 
better  known  as  Leo  African  us.  Done  into  English  in  the  year  1600  by 
John  Pory,  and  now  edited  with  an  Introduction  &  Notes,  by  Dr.  Robert 
Brown.  In  3  Vols.  Vol.  i.  pp.  viii.  cxi.  224.  4  Maps.  Vol.  2.  pp.  225-698. 
Vol.  3.  pp.  699-1 1 19.  Index. 

Issued  for  1S95. 

95— The  Chronicle  of  the  Discovery  and  Conquest  of  Guinea. 

Written  by  GoMES  Eannes  de  Azurara.  Now  first  done  into  English 
and  Edited  by  Charles  Raymond  ]5eazley,  M.A.,  F.R.G.S.,  and  Edgar 
Prestage,  B.A.  Vol.  I.  (Ch.  i. — xl.)  With  Introduction  on  the  Life  & 
Writings  of  the  Chronicler,     pp.  Ixvii.  127.  3  Maps,  i  Illus. 

(Vol.  2  =  No.  100.)  Issued  for  1896. 

96-97— Danish  Arctic  Expeditions,  1605  to  1620.     In  Two  Books. 

Book  I.  The  Danish  Expeditions  to  Greenland,  1605-07;  to  which  is  added 
Captain  James  Hall's  Voyage  to  Greenland  in  1612.  Edited  by  Christian 
Carl  August  Gosch.     pp.  xvi.  cxvii.  205.  10  Maps.  Index. 

Issued  for  1896. 

Book  2.  The  Expedition  of  Captain  Jens  Munk  to  Hudson's  Bay  in  search 
of  a  North- West  Passage  in  1619-20.  Edited  by  Christian  Carl  August 
Gosch.     pp.  cxviii.  187.  4  Maps.  2  Illus.  Index.  Issued  for  1S97. 

98— The  Topographia   Christiana  of  Cosmas  Indicopleustes,   an 
Egyptian  Monk. 

Translated  from  the  Greek  and  Edited  by  John  Watson  McCrindle,  LL.D., 
M.R.A.S.     pp.  xii.  xxvii.  398.  4  Illus.  Index.  Issued  for  1897. 

99— A  Journal  of  the  First  Voyage  of  Vasco  da  Gama,  1497-1499. 

By  an  unknown  writer.  Translated  from  the  Portuguese,  with  an  Intro- 
duction and  Notes,  by  Ernest  George  Ravenstein,  F.R.G.S.  pp.  xxxvi. 
250.   8  Maps.   23  Illus.    Index.  Issued  for  1S98. 

100— The  Chronicle  of  the  Discovery  and  Conquest  of  Guinea. 

Written  by  Gomes  Eannes  de  Azurara.  Now  first  done  into  English  and 
Edited  by  Charles  Raymond  Beazley,  M.A.,  F.R.G.S.,  and  Edgar 
Prestage,  B.A.  Vol.  2.  (Ch.  xli. — xcvii.)  With  an  Introduction  on  the 
Early  History  of  African  Exploration,  Cartography,  &c.  pp.  cl.  362.  3  Maps. 
2  Illus.  Index.  Issued  for  1898. 

(Vol.  i=No.  95.) 



1899,  etc. 

1-2— The  Embassy  of  Sir  Thomas  Roe  to  the  Court  of  the  Great  Mogul, 


Edited  from  Contemporary  Records  by  William  Foster,  B.A.,  of  the 
India  Office.    2  vols.    Portrait,  2  Maps,  &  6  Illus.  Index. 

{Out  of  print.)     Issued  for  1899. 

3— The  Voyage  of  Sir  Robert  Dudley  to  the  West  Indies  and 
Guiana  In  1594. 

Edited  by  George  Frederic  Warner,  Litt.D.,  F.S.A.,  Keeper  of 
Manuscripts,  British  Museum.  pp.  Ixvi.  104.  Portrait,  Map,  A:  i  Illus. 
Index.  Issued  for  1899. 

4— The  Journeys  of  William  of  Rubruck  and  John  of  Plan  de  Carpine 

To  Tartary  in  the  13th  century.  Translated  and  Edited  by  H.  E.  the  Hon. 
Wm.   Woodville  Rockhill.      pp.  Ivi.  304.  Bibliography.  Index. 

( Out  of  print. )      Issued  for  1 900. 

5— The  Voyage  of  Captain  John  Saris  to  Japan  in  1613. 

Edited  by  H.  E.  Sir  Ernest  Mason  Satow,  G.C.M.G.  pp.  Ixxxvii.  242. 
Map,  &  5  Illus.  Index.  Isstied  for  1900. 

6— The  Strange  Adventures  of  Andrew  Battell  of  Leigh  in  Essex. 
Edited  by  Ernest  George  Ravenstein,  F.R.G.S.     pp.  xx.  210.2  Maps. 
Bibliography.  Index.  Issiied /or  1900. 

7-8— The  Voyage  of  Mendana  to  the  Solomon  Islands  in  1568. 

Edited  by  the  I  OkU  Amherst  of  Hackney  and  Basil  Thomson.  2  vols. 
5  Maps.  iX:  33  Illus.  Index.  (Out  of  print.)     Issued  for  1901. 

9- The  Journey  of  Pedro  Teixeira  from  India  to  Italy  by  land,  1604-05; 

With  his  Chronicle  of  the  Kings  of  Ormus.  Translated  and  Edited  by  William 
Frederic  Sinclair,  late  Bombay  C.  S.,  with  additional  Notes,  &c.,  by 
Donald  William  Ferguson,     pp.  cvii.  292.  Index. 

{Out  of  print. )     Issued  for  1 90 1 . 

10 -The  Portuguese  Expedition  to  Abyssinia  in  1541,  as  narrated  by 

Castanhoso  and  Bermudez.  Edited  by  Richard  Stephen  Whiteway, 
late  I.C.S.  With  a  Bibliography,  by  Basil  H.  Soulsby,  F.S.A.,  Super- 
intendent of  the  Map  Department,  British  Museum,  pp.  cxxxii.  296.  Map,  (\: 
2  Illus.  Bibliography.  Index.  {Out  of  print.)     Issued  for  i<)02. 

11  — Early  Dutch  and  English  Voyages  to  Spitzbergen  in  the  Seventeenth 


Including  Hessel  Gerritsz.  "  Plistoire  du  Pays  nomme  Spitsberghe,"'  1613, 
translated  into  English,  for  the  first  time,  by  Basil  H.  Soulsby,  P'.S.A.,  of 
the  British  Museum  :  and  Jacob  Segersz.  van  der  Brugge,  "Journael  of  Dagh 
Register,"  Amsterdam,  1634,  translated  inio  English,  for  the  first  lime,  by 
J.  A.  J.  de  Villiers,  of  the  British  Museum.  Edited,  with  introductions 
and  notes  by  Sir  Martin  Conway.  pp.  xvi.  191.  3  Maps,  &  3  Illus. 
Bibliography.     Index.  Issued  for  1902. 


12— The  Countries  round  the  Bay  of  Bengal. 

Edited,  from  an  unpublished  MS.,  1669-79,  by  Thomas  Bowrey,  by  Col.  Sir 
Richard  Carnac  Temple,  Bart.,  CLE.  pp.  Ivi.  387.  19  Illus.  &  i  Chart. 
Bibliography.   Index.  Issued  for  1903. 

13— The  Voyage  of  Captain  Don  Felipe  Gonzalez 

in  the  Ship  of  the  Line  San  Lorenzo,  with  the  Frigate  Santa  Rosalia  in 
company,  to  Easter  Island,  in  1770-1771.  Preceded  by  an  Extract  from 
Mynheer  Jacob  Roggeveen's  Oiificial  Log  of  his  Discovery  of  and  Visit  ta 
Easter  Island  in  1722.  Translated,  Annotated,  and  Edited  by  Boi.ton 
Glanvill  Corney,  Companion  of  the  Imperial  Service  Order.  With  a 
Preface  by  Admiral  SiR  Cyprian  Bridge,  G.C.B.  3  Maps  &  4  Illus. 
Bibliography.      Index,     pp.  Ixxvii.    176.  Issued  for  1903. 

14,  15— The  Voyages  of  Pedro  Fernandez  de  Quiros,  1595  to  1606. 

Translated  and  Edited  by  SiR  Clements  Markham,  K.C.B.,  Pres.  R.G.S., 
President  of  the  Hakluyt  Society.  With  a  Note  on  the  Cartography  of  the 
Southern  Continent,  and  a  Bibliography,  by  Basil  H.  Soulsby,  F.S.A., 
Superintendent  of  the  Map  Department,  British  Museum.  2  vols  3  Maps. 
Bibliography.  Index.  Issued  for  1904. 

16-John  Jourdain's  Journal  of  a  Voyage  to  the  East  Indies,  1608-1617. 

(Sloane  MS.  858,  British  Museum).  Edited  by  William  Foster,  B.A., 
of  the  India  Office,  pp.  Ixxxii.  394.  With  Appendices,  A— F,  and  a  Biblio- 
graphy, by  Basil  H.  Soulsby,  F.S.A.  4  Maps.  Index.      Issued  for  1905. 

17 -The  Travels  of  Peter  Mundy  in  Europe  and  Asia,  1608-1667. 

(Bodleian  Library.  Rawl.  MSS.  A.  315.)  Vol.  I.  Travels  in  Europe, 
160S-1628.  Edited  by  Lieut. -Col.  SiR  Richard  Carnac  Temple,  Bart., 
CLE.,  Editor  of  "  A  Geographical  Account  of  Countries  round  the  Bay  of 
Bengal."  3  Maps  &  3  Illus.  With  a  Bibliography,  alphabetically  arranged. 
Index,     pp.  Ixiii.    284.  Issued  for  \()0^. 

18— East  and  West  Indian  Mirror. 

By  Joris  van  Speilbergen.  An  Account  of  his  Voyage  Round  the  World 
in  the  years  1614  to  1617,  including  the  Australian  Navigations  of  Jacob  le 
Maire.  Translated  from  the  Dutch  edition,  "  Oost  ende  West-Indische 
Spiegel,  &c. ,"  Nicolaes  van  Gcelkerckm  :  Leyden,  1619,  with  Notes  and  an 
Introduction,  by  John  A.  J.  de  Villiers,  of  the  British  Museum.  With  a 
Bibliography  &  Index  by  Basil  H.  Soulsby,  F.S.A.  26  Illus.  &  Maps. 
Index,     pp.  Ixi.   272.  Issued  for  1906. 

19— A  New  Account  of  East  India  and  Persia. 

In  eight  Letters,  being  Nine  Years'  Travels,  begun  1672,  and  finished  1681. 
By  John  Fryer,  M.D.,  Cantabrig.,  and  Fellow  of  the  Royal  Society. 
Printel  hy  R.  K.  for  Ri.  Chiswell ;  at  the  Rose  and  Cro^un  in  St.  Paul's 
Clnirchyard,  London,  1688.  Fol.  Edited,  with  Notes  and  an  Introduction, 
by  William  Crooke,  B.A.  ,  Bengal  Civil  Service  (retired).  Editor  of 
"  Hobson  Jobson,'"  &c.,  &c.       Vol.  i.  Issued  for  igoc). 

21— The  Guanches  of  Tenerife,  The  Holy  Image  of  Our  Lady  of  Candelaria. 

With  the  Spanish  Conquest  and  Settlement.  By  the  Friar  Alonso  de 
Espinosa,  of  the  Order  of  Preachers.  1594.  Translated  and  Edited,  with 
Notes  and  an  Introduction,  by  Sir  Clkments  Markham,  K.C.B.,  President  of 
the  Hakluyt  Society.  With  a  Bibliography  of  the  Canary  Islands,  A.D.  1341- 
1907,  chronologically  arranged,  with  the  British  Museum  press-marks,  and  an 
alphabetical  list  of  authors,  editors,  and  titles.  2  Maps,  by  Sir  Clements 
Markham,  and  4  Illus.     Index,     pp.  xxvi.  221.  Issued  for  1907. 



22— History  of  the  Incas. 
By  Pedro  Sarmiento  ue  Gamboa.  1572.  From  the  MS.  sent  to 
King  Philip  II.  of  Spain,  and  now  in  the  Gottingen  University  Library. 
And  The  Execution  of  the  Inca  Tupac  Amaru.  1571.  By  Captain 
Baltasar  de  Ocampo.  1610.  (British  Museum  Add.  MSS.  17,  585.) 
Translated  and  Edited,  with  Notes  and  an  Introduction,  by  Sir  Clements 
Markham,  K.C.B.  2  Maps,  by  Graham  Mackay,  R.G.S.,  and  10  Illus. 
Index,     pp.  xxii.  395. 

Supplement.     A  Narrative  of  the  Vice-Regal  Embassy  to  Vilcabambal 

1571,  and  of  the  Execution  of  the  Inca  Tupac  Amaru,  Dec.  1571.  By  Friar 
Gabriel  de  Oviedo,  of  Cuzco,  1573.  Translated  by  Sir  Clements 
Markham,  K  C.B.     Index,     pp.  397-412.  Issued  for  1907. 

23,  24.,  25— Conquest  of  Newr  Spain. 
The  True  History  of  the  Conquest  of  New  Spain.  By  Bernal  Diaz 
del  Castillo,  one  of  its  Conquerors.  From  the  only  exact  copy  made  of  the 
•Original  Manuscript.  Edited  and  published  in  Mexico,  by  Genaro  Garcia, 
1904.  Translated  into  English,  with  Introduction  and  Notes,  by  ALFRED 
Percival  ]Maudsi.ay,  M.A. ,  Hon.  Professor  of  Archaeology,  National 
Museum,  Mexico.     Vols,  i-lll.  Issued  for  190S  aud  1910. 

26,  27.— Storm  van's  Gravesande. 

The  Rise  of  British  Guiana,  compiled  from  his  despatches,  by  C.  A.  Harris, 
■C.B.,  C.M.G.,  Chief  Clerk,  Colonial  Office,  and  J.  A.  j.  DE  Villiers, 
■of  the  British  Museum.     2  vols.  Issiud for  igii. 

28.— Magellan's  Strait. 

Early  Spanish  Voyages,  edited,  with  Notes  and  Introduction,  by  Sir  Clements 
R.  Markham,  K.C.B.  ///  the  press. 


1-12— The  Principal  Navigations,  Voyages,  Trafflques,  &  Discoveries  of  the 

English  Nation, 
Made  by  Sea  or  Over-land  to  the  remote  and  farthest  distant  quarters  of  the 
earth  at  any  time  within  the  compasse  of  these  1600  yeeres.  By  Richard 
Hakluyt,  Preacher,  aad  sometime  Student  of  Christ  Church  in  Oxford. 
With  an  Essay  on  the  English  Voyages  of  the  Sixteenth  Century,  by 
Walter  Raleigh,  Professor  of  the  English  Language  in  the  University  of 
Oxford.  Index  by  Madame  Marie  Michon  and  Miss  Elizabeth  Carmont. 
12  vols.     James  MacLehose  &  Sons  :    Glasgow,   1903-5.  [Out  of  print.) 

13— The  Texts  &  Versions  of  John  de  Piano  Carpini  and  William  de 

As  printed  for  the  first  time  by  Hakluyt  in  1598,  together  with  some  shorter 
pieces.  Edited  by  Charles  Raymond  Beazley,  M.A.,  F.R.G.S. 
pp.  XX.  345.  Index.  University  Press:   Cambridge,  1903.  (  Out  of  print.) 

14-33— Hakluytus  Posthumus  or  Purchas  His  Pilgrimes. 

Contayning  a  History  of  the  World  in  Sea  Voyages  and  Lande  Travells  by 
Englishmen  and  others.  By  Samuel  Purchas,  B.D.  20  vols.  Maps  <& 
Illus.  With  an  Index  by  Madame  Marie  Michon.  James  MacLehose  and 
Sons  :  Glasgow,  1905-7. 



1.  Cathay    and    the    Way    Thither.       Translated    and    Edited  by    the    late 

Colonel  Sir  Henry  Yule,  K.C.S.I.,  R.E.,  C.B.  Second  Edition 
(of  Series  I.,  Vols.  36  &  37),  by  M.  Henri  Cordier,  Professeur  a 
I'Ecole  Speciale  des  Langues  Orientales  Vivantes,  Paris  ;  President 
de  la  Societe  de  Geographic,  Paris. 

2.  Diary  of  the  Journey  of  Father  Samuel  Fritz,  Missionary  of  the  Crown  of 

Castillc  in  the  Rio  Maraiion,  from  S.  Joaquin  de  Omaguas  to  the 
City  of  Gran  Para  in  the  year  ^689.  Translated  from  the  Evora 
MS.,  and  Edited  with  an  Introduction  and  Notes,  by  the  Rev.  George 
Edmundson,  M.A.,  Vicar  of  St.  Saviour's,  Chelsea,  London,  S.W. 

3.  The   Journals    of    the    Spanish    Expeditions    to    Tahiti,     conducted    by 

Capt.  Don  Domingo  Boenechea,  and  others,  in  the  years  1772-6. 
Now  first  collected  and  translated  by  BoLTON  Glanvill  Corney, 
I.S.O.  (This  work,  to  which  vol.  13  of  the  Second  Series  forms  a 
precursor,  will  include  the  ten  months'  diary  of  the  first  European  who 
who  ever  resided  in  Tahiti.) 

4.  The  Voyage  of  Sir  Henry  Middleton  to  Bantam  and  the  Maluco  Islands, 

being  the  Second  Voyage  set  forth  by  the  Governor  and  Company  of 
Merchants  of  London  trading  into  the  East  Indies.  From  the  rare 
Edition  of  1606.  Annotated  and  Edited  by  Bolton  Corney, 
M.R.S.L.  New  Edition  (of  Ser.  I.,  vol.  19),  by  Bolton  Glanvill 
Corney,  I.S.O. 

5.  The  Discovery  of  the  Large,  Rich,  and  Beautiful  Empire  of  Guiana,  with 

a  relation  of  the  great  and  golden  City  of  Manoa  (which  the  Spaniards 
call  El  Dorado),  etc.,  performed  in  the  year  1595  by  Sir  Walter 
Raleigh,  Knt.  .  .  .  Reprinted  from  the  edition  of  1596.  With  some 
unpublished  Documents  relative  to  that  country.  Edited  (in  1848) 
with  copious  explanatory  Notes  and  a  biographical  Memoir  by  SiR 
Robert  Hermann  Schomburgk,  Ph.D.  Second  Edition  (of  Ser.  I, 
vol.  3),  by  H.  E.  Sir  Evekard  Ferdinand  im  Thurn,  K.C.M.G., 
C.B.,  F.R.G.S. 

6.  The  Voyages  of  Luigi  di  Cadamosto,  the  Venetian,  along  the  West  Coast 

of  Africa,  in  the  years  1455  and  1456.  Translated  from  the  earliest 
Italian  text  of  1507,  in  Montalboddo  Fracan's  Paesi  iiovatnente 
ritfovati,  and  Edited  by  Henry  Yule  Oldham,  M.A.,  F.R.G.S. 

7.  The    Letters   of   Pietro    Delia  Valle  from   Persia,   &c.      Translated  and 

Edited  by  Lieut. -Colonel  Sir  Matthew  Nathan,  K.C.M.G., 
R.E.,  F.R.G.S. 

AND     continuations    OF 

8.  The  Travels  of  Peter  Mundy.     (See  No.  17,  p.  xvi. ) 

9.  Fryer's  East  India  and  Persia.     (See  No.  19,  p.  xvi.) 

10.   The  Conquest  of  New  Spain.      (See  Nos.  23,  24,  25,  p.  xvii.) 



PUBLICATIONS,  1847-1908. 

Abd-er-Razzak,  i.  22 
Abyssinia,  i.  32,  64  ;  ii.  10 
Acosta,  Joseph  de,  i.  60,  61 
Acuna,  Cristoval  de,  i.  24  ;  ii.  22 
Adams,  Will.,  i.  8,  66,  67  ;  ii.  5 
Africa,  i.  21,  58,  82,  83,  92-94,  95,  100 
Africa,  East,  i.  32,  35,  64  ;  ii.  10 
Africa,  West,  ii.  6 
Aguirre,  Lope  de,  i.  28,  47 
Alamiiios,  Autou  de,  ii.  23 
Albuquerque,    Affonso    de,  i.  53,  55, 

62,  69 
Alcock,  Thomas,  i.  72,  73 
Alessaudri,  Viucentio  d',  i.  49 
Al  Hassan  Ibn  Muhauimad.  See  Hasan 
Alvarado,  Pedro  de.  ii.  23 
Alvarez,  Franci.sco,  i.  64 
Alvo,  Francisco,  i.  52 
Amapaia,  i.  3 
Amat  y  Junient,  Manuel  de.  Viceroy 

of  Peru,  ii.  13 
Amazon,  i.  24 
America,  Central,  i.  40 
America,  North,  i.   2,  4,  6,  7,  9,  11, 

18,  21,  2.3,  43,  50,  65,  96,  97 
America.  South,  i.  3,  21,  24,  28,  33, 

34,  41,  43,  45,  47,  51,  60,  61,  68, 

76,  77,  80,  81,  91 ;  ii.  3, 13, 14, 15,  22 
Amherst  of  Hackney,  Lord,  ii.  7,  8 
Andagoya,  I'ascual  de,  i.  34  ;  ii.  22 
Augiolello,  Giovanni  Maria,  i.  49 
Angola,  ii.  6 

Aquines,  Juan.  See  Hawkins,  Sir  John. 
Arabia,  i.  32 ;    ii.  16 
Arctic  Regions,  i.  13,  54,  88,  89,  96,  97 
Arias,  Dr.  Juan  Luis,  i.  25  ;  ii.  14,  15 
Arias  d'Avila,  Pedro,  i.    21,   34,   47  ; 

ii.  22,  23 
Arriaga  y  Rivera,  Julian  de,  ii.  13 
Arromaia,  i.  3 

Asher,  George  Michael,  i.  27 
Asia,  i.  5,  8,  13-15,  17,    19,   22,    26, 

35-39,  42,  44,  49,  53-55,  58,  62,  66, 

67,  69-78,  80,  82,  83,  87;  ii.  1,  2,  4, 

5,  12,  16,  17 

Astete,  Miguel  de,  i.  47  ;  ii.  22 
Atahualpa,  i.  47,  68  ;  ii.  22 
Australasia,  i.  25  ;  ii.  7,  8,  14,  15,  18 
Avila,  Francisco  de,  i.  48  ;  ii.  22 
Avila,    Pedro    Arias    d'.      <See   Arias 

Azov,  i.  49 
Azurara,    Gomes    Eannes    de.       Sec 


Badger,  George  Percy,  i.  32,  44 

Baffin,  William,  i.  5,  63,  88,  89 

Balak,  John,  i.  13,  54 

Bantam,  i.  19 

Barbaro,  Giosafat,  i.  49 

Barbosa,  Duarte,  i.  35,  52 

Barcelona  MSS.,  i.  35 

Bardsen,  Ivar,  i.  50 

Barentsz.,  William,  i.  13,  27,  54 

Barker,  Edmund,  i.  56 

Barlow,  R.,  i.  74,  75,  78 

Barrow,  John,  F.R.S.,  i.  11 

Battell,  Andrew,  ii.  6 

Beazley,  Charles  Raymond,  i.  95,  100  ; 

Extra  Ser.  13 
Behrens,  Carl  Friedrich,  ii.  13 
Beke,  Charles  Tilstone,  i.  13,  54' 
Bell,  Harry  Charles  Purvis,  i.  76,  77, 

Belraonte   y  Bermudez,  Luis   de,   ii, 

14,  15 
Bengal,  i.  74,  75,  78  ;  ii._  12 
Bent,  James  Theodore,  i.  87 
Benzoni,  Girolamo,  i.  21 
Bermudas,  i.  65,  86 
Bermudez,  Joao,  ii.  10 
Beste,  George,  i.  38 
Bethencourt,  Jean  de,  i,  46  ;  ii.  21 
Bethune,  Charles  Ramsay  Drinkwater, 

i.  1,  30 
Beynen,  Koolemans,  i.  54 
Biedma,  Luis  Hernandez  de,  i.  9 
Bilot,  Robert,  i.  88,  89 
Birch,  Walter  de  Gray,  i.  53,  55,  62, 


Bollaert,  William,  i.  28 

Bond,  Sir  Edward  Augustus,  K.C.B., 

i.  20 
Bontier,  Pierre,  i.  46  ;  ii.  21 
Boty,  Iver,  i.  13 
Bowrey,  Thomas,  ii.  12 
Bracciolini,  Poggio,  i.  22 
Brazil,  i.  51,  76,  77,  80 
Bridge,  Admiral  Sir  Cyprian  Arthur 

George,  G.C.B,  ii.  13 
British  Guiana,  ii.  26,  27 
British  Museum  MSS.,  i.  2,  4,  'k  6.  8. 

16,  20,  25,  38,  52,  53,  55,  62.  65-67, 

69  ;  ii.  13,  16,  22 
Brown,  Dr.  Robert,  i.  92-94 
Brugge,  Jacob,  van  der.    See 

Segersz,  Jacob 
Bruun,  Philip,  i.  58 
Burnell  Arthur  Coke,  C.I.E.,  i.  70,  71 
Burre,  Walter,  i.  19 
Burrough,  Christopher,  i.  72,  73 
Burrough,  William,  i.  72,  73 
Burton,    Sir    Richard    Francis, 

K.C.M.G.,i.  51 
Butler,  Nathaniel,  i.  65,  86 
Button.  Sir  Thomas,  i.  5.  88,  89 
Bylot,  Robert,  i.  5,  63,  88,  89 

■Cabe^a  de  Vaca,  Alvar  Nuiiez.      See  . 

Nunez  Cabeca  de  Vaca. 
Cabot,  John,  i.  86 
Cabot,  Sebastian,  i.  5, 12 
Cambodia,  i.  39 
Canarian,  The,  i.  46  ;  ii.  21 
Canary  Islands,  i.  21,  46  ;  ii.  21 
Candelaria,  Our  Lady  of,  ii.  21 
Cape  of  Good  Hope,  "i.  22,  36,  37,  82, 

Garment,  Elizabeth,  Extra  Ser.  12 
Carpino,    Joannes,    de    Piano.       See 

Caspian  Sea,  i.  72,  73 
Cassano,  Ussan.  i.  49 
Castanhoso,  Miguel  de,  ii.  10 
Castilla  del  Oro,  i.  34,  47 
Cathay,  i.  5,  13,  36-38,  54;  ii.  19,  20 
Chamj)lain,  Samuel,  i.  23 
Chanca,  Dr.,  i.  2,  43 
Charles  V.,  Emj^eror,  i.  40,  47  ;  ii.  22, 

Charndck,  Job,  i.  74.  75,  78 
Cheinie,  Richard,  i.  72,  73 
China,  i.  5, 13-15, 17,  36,  37,  39,  54  ;  ii. 

19,  20 
Christy,  Robert  Miller,  i.  88,  89 
Cieza  de  Leon,  Pedro  de,  i.  33,  68  ;  ii. 

Cinnamon,  Land  of,  i.  24 
Clavigo,  Ruy  Gonzalez  de.     Sec  Gon- 
zalez de  Clavigo. 

Clifife,  Edward,  i.  16 
Clifford,  George,  i.  59 
Coats,  William,  i.  11 
Cocks,  Richard,  i.  8,  66,  67 
Cogswell,  Joseph  G.,  i.  27 
Collinson,  Sir  Richard,  K.C.B..  i.  38 
Columbus,  Christopher  : 

Journal,  i.  86 

Letters,  i.  2,  43 
Congo,  ii.  6 

Contarini,  Ambrogio,  i.  49 
Conti,  Nicol5,  i.  22 
Conway,  Sir  William  Martin   ii.  11 
Cooley,  William  Desborough.  i.  4 
Cook,  Captain  James,  i.  25 
Coote,Charles  Henry,  i.  72,  73 
Corney,  Bolton,  i.  19 
Corn ey,  Bolton  Glauvill,  l.S.O. 

ii.  13 
Correa,  Gaspar,  i.  42 
Corte  Real.  Gaspar,  i.  86 
Cortes,  Hernando,  i.,   21,  40  ;  ii.  23, 

24,  25 
Cosmas  Indicopleustes,  i.  98 
Covel,  John,  i.  87 
Crosse,  Ralph,  i.  56 
Crooke,  William,  ii.  19 
Cumberland,  Earl  of,  i.  59 
Cuzco,  i.  47  ;  ii.  22 

Dalboquerque,    Afonso.       See    Albu- 

Dallam,  Thomas,  i.  87 

Dalrymple,  Alexander,  i.  25  ;  ii.  14,15 

Dampier,  William,  i.  25 

Danish  Arctic  Expeditions,  i.  96,  97 

Darien,  Gulf  of,  i.  33 

Dati,  Giuliano,  i.  2,  43 

Daviia,  Pedrarias.    Sec  Arias  d'Avila. 

Davis,  Edward,  ii.  13 

Davis,  John,  i.  5,  59,  88,  89 

De  Villiers,  John  Aliraham  Jacob, 
ii.    11,  18,  26,  27 

Diaz,  Juan,  Clerigo,  ii.  23 

Diaz  del  Castillo,  Bernal,  ii.  23,  24,  25 

Digges,  Sir  Dudley,  i.  63 

Dominguez,  Don  Luis  L.,  i.  81 

Donck,  Adrian  van  der,  i.  27 

Dorado,  El,  i.  3,  28 

Doughty,  Thomas,  i.  16 

Downton,  Nicholas,  i.  56 

Drake,  Sir  Francis,  i.  4,  16 

Drake,  Sir  Francis,  the  Younger,  i,  16 

Dryandri,  Joh.,  i.  51 

Ducket,  Jeffrey,  i.  72,  73 

Dudley,  Sir  Robert,  ii.  3 

Dutch  Voyages,  i.  13  ;  ii.  11,  13,  18 

East  India,  ii.  19 

East  India  Company,  i.  5,  19 


East  Indies.     Sec  India. 
Easter  Inland,  ii.  13 
Eannes,  Gomes,  de  Zurani,  i.  95,  100 
Egerton  MSS.,  ii.  1:5 
Eden,  Richard,  i.  12 
Edwards,  Arthur,  i.  72,  73 
Egypt,  i.  32 
El  Dorado,  i.  3,  28 
EUesmere,  Earl  of,  i.  17 
Elvas,  Gentleman  of,  i.  9 
Emeria,  i.  3 

England,  Circumnavigation  of,  i.  79 
Engronelanda,  i.  50 
Enriquez  de  Guzman,  Alonzo,  i.  29 
Eslanda,  i.  50 
Espinosa,  Alimso  de,  ii.  21 
Estotilandai,  i.  50 
Ethiopia.     IScc  Abyssinia. 
Europe,  i.  10,  12,  13,  18,  20,  49,  54, 
58,64,  72,  73,79  ;  ii.  9,  11,  17 

Ferguson,  Donald  William,  ii.  9 
Fernandez  de  Quiros,  Pedro  de.     Sec 

Figueroa,  Christoval  Suarez  de.     See 

Suarez  de  Figueroa. 
Fletcher,  Francis,  i.  16 
Fletcher,  Giles,  i.  20 
Florida,  i.  7,  9 
Fort  St.  George,  i.  74,  75,  /8 
Foster,  William,  B.A.,  ii.  1,  2,  16 
Fotherby,  Robert,  i.  63 
Fox,  Luke,  i.  5,  88,  89 
Foxe,  Luke.     See  Fox. 
Frislanda,  i.  50 

Frobisher,  Sir  Martin,  i.  5,  38,  88,  89 
Fryer,  John,  ii.  19 
Furnace,  H.M.S.,  i.  11 

Gairdner,  James,  i.  79 

Galvao,  Antonio,  i.  30 

Gama,  Christovao  da,  ii.  10 

Gama,  Vasco  da,  i.  42,  99 

Gamboa,    Pedro    Sarmiento   de.     See 

Sarmiento  de  Gamboa. 
Garcia,  Genaro,  ii.  23,  24,  25 
Garcilasso  de  la  Vega,  el  Inca,  i.  24, 

41,  45  ;  ii.  22 
Gastaldi,  Jacopo,  i.  12 
Gatonbe,  John,  i.  63 
Gayangos,  Pascual  de,  i.  40  ;  ii.  22 
Gerritsz.,  Hessel,  i.  27,  54  ;  ii.  11 
Gibbons,  William,  i.  5,  88,  89 
Gibraltar,  Straits  of,  i.  79 
Globes,  i.  79 

God's  Pozver  <(•  Providence,  i.    18 
Gonzalez  de  Clavijo,  Ruy,  i.  26;  ii.  21 
Gonzalez  y  Haedo,  Felipe,  ii.  13 
Gosch.  Christian  Carl  August,  i.  96,  97 
Gray,  Albert,  K.C-,  i.  76,  77,  80 

Great  Mogul,  ii.l,  2 

Greenland,  i.  18,  50,  96,  97 

Grey,  Charles,  i.  49 

Grey,  Edward,  i.  84,85 

Grijalva,  Juan  de,  ii.  23 

Grimstou,  Edward.     See  Grimstone, 

Grimstone,  Edward,  i.  60,  61 

Guanches,  ii.  21 

Guiana,  i.  3  ;  ii.  3 

Guinea,  i.  95,  100;   ii.  6 

Hackit,  Thomas,  i.  7 
Hakluyt,  Richard  : 

Divers  Voyages,  i.  7 

Galvano,  i.  30 

Principall  Navigations,  i.   16,  20,. 
38,  59  ;  Extra  Ser.  1-12 

Terra  Florida,  i.  9 

Will  of,  i.  7 
Hall,  James,  i.  5,  88,  89,  96,  97 
Harleian  MSS.,  i.  8 
Harris,  C.  A.,  ii.  26,  27 
Hasan  Ibn  Muhammad,  al  Wazzan,  al 

Fasi,  i.  92-94 
Havers,  George,  i.  84,  85 
Hawkins,  Sir  John,  i.  1,  57 
Hawkins,  Sir  Richard,  i.  1,  57 
Hawkins,  William,  i.  57 
Hawkridge,  William,  i.  88,  89 
Hedges,  Sir  William,  i.  74,  75,  78 
Heidelberg  MS.,  i.  58 
Herbei  stein,  Sigismund  von,  i.  10,  12: 
Hernandez  de  Biedma,  Luis,  i.  9 
Herrera,  Antonio  de,  i.  24  ;  ii.  22,  23 
Herve,  Juan,  ii.  13 
Honduras,  i.  40 
Horsey,  Sir  Jerome,  i.  20 
Houtman's  Abrolhos,  i.  25 
Howard,  Eliot,  ii.  12 
Hudson,  Henry,  i.  13,  27,  88  89 
Hudson's  Bay,  i.  11,  96,  97 
Hues,  Robert,  i.  79 
Hugli  River,  i.  78  ;  ii.  12 

Icaria,  i.  50 

Imams  and  Seyyids  of  'Oman  i.  44 
Incas,  i.  41,  45,  47,  48  ;  ii.  22 
Incas,  Rites  and  Laws,  i.  48  ;  ii.  22 
Incas,    Roval    Commentaries,    i.    41,. 

45  ;  ii.  22 
India,  i.  5,  22,  32,  38,  42,  53,  55,  56, 

69,  62,  70,  71,  74-78,  80,  84,  85  ;  ii. 

1,  2,  9,  12,  16,  17 
India  Office  MSS.,  i.  5,  56,  66,  67 
Indian  Language,  Dictionarie  of  the,  i.  6' 
Italy,  ii.  9 

James  I.,  i.  19 
James,  Thomas,  i.  5, 
Janes,  John,  i,  59 

i,  89 

Japan,  i.  8,  39,  66,  67  ;  ii.  5 
Java,  i.  82,83 
Jeannin,  P.,  i.  27 
Jeiikioson,  Anthony,  i.  72,  73 
Joannes,    de    Piano    Carpino,   ii.    4  ; 

Extra  Ser.  13 
Jones,  John  Winter,  i.  7,  22,  32 
Jordanus  [Catalani],  i.  31 
Jourdain,  John,  ii    16 
Jovius,  Paulus,  i.  12 
Juet,  Robert,  i.  27 

Keeling,  William,  i.  56 
Knight,  John,  i.  5,  56,  88,  89 

Lambrechtsen,  i.  27 

Lancaster,  Sir  James,  i.  56 

La  Peyrere,  Isaac  de,  i.  18 

La  Plata,  City,  i.  SH 

La  Plata,  River,  i.  81 

Lefroy,  Sir   Jolm   Henry,  K.C.M.G., 

i.  65,  86 
Leguat,  Frani^ois,  i.  82,  83 
Le  Maire,  Jacob,  ii.  18 
Lendas  da  India,  i.  42 
Leo  Africanus,  i.  92-94 
Leone,  Giovanni,  i.  92-94 
Leupe,  P.  A.,  i.  25 
Levant,  i.  87 

Le  Verrier,  Jean,  i.  46  ;  ii.  21 
Leza    Gaspar  Gonzalez  de,  i.  39  ;   ii. 

14^  15 
Linschoten,  Jan  Huyghen  van,  i.  70  71 

McCrindle,  John  Watson,  i.  89 
Madras,  i.  74,  75,  78 
Madrid  MSS.,  i.  29 
Magellan,  Ferdinand,  i.  52 
Magellan,  Straits  of,  i.  91  ;  ii.  18 
Major,  Richard  Henry,  i.  2,  6.  10,  12, 

14,  15,  17,  22,  25,  43,  46,  50 
Malay  Archipelago,  ii.  16,  18 
Malabar,  i.  35 

Maldive  Islands,  i.  76,  77,  80 

Maluco  Islands.    See  Molucca  Islands. 

Manoa,  i.  3 

Markham,  Sir  Albert  Hastings,  K.C.B., 
i.  59 

Markham.  Sir  Clements  Robert,  K.C.B., 
i.  24,  26,  28,  29,  33,  34,  41,  56,  57, 
60,  61,  63,  68,  79,  86,  90,  91  ;  ii.  14 

15,  21,  22 
Martens,  Friedrich,  i.  18 
Maudslav,  Alfred  Percival,  ii.  23,  24,26 
Mauritius,  i.  82,  83 

Maynarde,  Thomas,  i.  4 

Mendafia  de  Neyra,  Alvaro,  i.  25,  39  ; 

ii.  7,  8,  14,  15 
Mendoza,  Juan  Gonzalez  de,  i.  14,  15 
Mexico,  i.  23  ;  ii.  23,  24 

Michon,  Marie,  Extra  Ser.,  12,  33 

Middleton,  Christopher,  i.  11 

Middleton,  Sir  Henry,  i.  19,  56 

Mirahilm  Descripta,  i.  31 

Mogul,  The  Great,  ii.  1,  2 

Molucca  Islands,  i.  19, 39,  52,  76,  77,  80 

Molyneux,  Emery,  i.  79 

Montezuma,  i.  61  ;  ii.  23,  24 

Morga,  Antonio  de,  i.  39  ;  ii.  14,  15 

Morgan,  Henry,  i,  59 

Morgan,    Edward    Delmar,   i.  72.  7'-^, 

79,  83,  86 
Mundy,  Peter,  ii.  17 
Munk,  Jens,  i.  96,  97 
Minister,  Sebastian,  i.  12 
Muscovy  Company,  i.  7,  63  ;  ii.  11 

Neumann,  Karl  Friedrich,  i.  58 

New  Hebrides,  ii.  14,  15 

New  Spain,  ii.  23 

New  World,  i.  2,  43 

Nicaragua,  i.  34 

Nicopolis,  i.  58 

Nikitin,  Athanasius,  i.  22 

Nombre  de  Dios,  i.  16 

Norsemen  in  America,  i.  2,  50 

North-East  Voyages,  i.  13 

North-West  Passage,  i.  5,   11,  38,  56, 

88,  89,  96,  97 
Northern  Seas,  i.  50 
Nova  Zembla,  i.  13,  54 
Nunez  Cabe9a  de  Vaca.  Alvar,  i.  81 

Ocampo,  Baltasar  de,  ii.  22 
Olaondo,  Alberto,  ii.  13 
Olid,  Cristoval  de.  ii.  23 
Oliver,  Samuel  Pasfield,  i.  82,  83 
Omagua,  i.  28 
'OmS,n,  i.  44 

Ondegardo,  Polo  de,  i.  48  ;  ii.  22 
Orellana,  Francisco  de.  i.  24 
Orleans,  Pierre  Joseph  d',  i.  17 
Oi'muz,  Kings  of,  ii.  9 
Oviedo,  Gabriel  de.  ii.  22 

Pachacamac,  i.  47;  ii.  22 

Pacific  Ocean,  i.  1,  34,  57 ;  ii.  13,  18 

Paraguay,  River,  i.  81 

Parke,  Robert,  i.  14,  15 

Pellham,  Edward,  i.  18 

Pelsart,  Francis,  i.  25 

Pereira,  Thomas,  i.  17 

Persia,  i.  32,  49,  72.  73  ;   ii.  19 

Peru,  i.  33,  34,  41,  45,  47,  60,  61,  68  ; 

ii.  22 
Peru,  Chronicle  of,  i.  33,  68 
Philip,  William,  i.  13,  54 
Philippine  Islands,  i.  89 
Pigafetta,  Antonio,  i.  52 
Pitt  Diamond,  i.  78 


Pitt,  Thomas,  i.  74,  75,  78 

Pizarro.  Francisco,  i.  21,  47  ;  ii.  22 

Pizarro,  Gonzalo,   i.  21,  24,  47  ;  ii.  22 

Pizarro,  Hernando,  i.  47  ;  ii.  22 

Pochahontas,  i.  6 

Pool,  Gerrit  Thoniasz.,  i.  25 

Portugal,  i.  64  ;  ii.  10 

Porj-,  John.i.  92-94 

Powhatan,  i.  6 

Prado     y    Tovar,     Don     Diego     de, 

ii.  14,  15 
Prestage,  Edgar,  i.  9.5,  100 
Prester  John,  i.  64  ;  ii.  10 
Pricket  Abacuk,  i.  27 
Public  Record  Office  MSS.,  i.  38 
Puerto  Rico,  i.  4 
Purchas,  Samuel,  i.  13,  .''.6.  63  ;  Extra 

Ser.  14-33 
Pyrard,  Franjois,  i.  76,  77,  80 

Quatremere,  i.  22 

Quiros,  Pedro  Fernandez  de,  i.  25. 
39  ;  ii.  14,  15 

Raleigh,  Sir  Walter,  i.  3 

Raleigh,  Walter,  Professor,  Extra 
Ser.  12 

Ramusio,  Giovanni  Battista,  i.  49,  52 

Ravenstein,  Ernest  George,  i.  99  ;  ii.  6 

Rawlinson  MSS.,  ii.  17 

Recueil  de  Voyages,  i.  31 

Remon,  Alonzo,  ii.  23 

Ribault,  John,  i.  7 

Rockhill,  William  Woodville,  ii.  4 

Rodriguez,  Lsland,  i.  82,  83 

Roe,  Sir  Thomas,  ii.  1,  2 

Roggeveen,  Jacob,  ii.  13 

Roy,  Eugene  Armand,  i.  49 

Rubruquis,  Gulielraus  de,  ii.  4  ;  Ex- 
tra Ser.  13 

Ruudall,  Thomas,  i.  5,  8 

Russe  Commonwealth,  i.  20 

Russia,  i.  10,  12,  20,  72,  73 

Rye,  William  Brenchley,  i.  9 

Salil-Ibn-Ruzaik,  i.  44 

Samarcand,  i.  26 

Sancho,  Pedro,  i.  47  ;  ii.  22 

Santo-Stefano,  Hieronimo  di,  i.  22 

Saris,  John,  i.  8  ;  ii.  5 

Sarmiento  de  Gamboa,  Pedro,  i.  91  ; 

ii.  22 
Satow,  Sir  Ernest  Mason.  G.C.M.G., 

ii.  5 
Schiltberger,  Johann,  i.  58 
Schmidel,  Ulrich,  i.  81 
Schmidt,  Ulrich.     See  Schmidel. 
Sch  mburgk.    Sir  Robert    Hermann, 

i.  3 
Schouten,  Willem  Cornelisz.,  ii.  18 

Scorj-,  Sir  Edmund,  ii.  21 
Seaman's  Secrets,  i.  59 
Segersz.,  Jacob,  ii.  11 
Sellman,  Edward,  i.  38 
Shakspere's  "New  Map,"  i.  59 
Sharpeigh,  Alexander,  i.  56 
Shaw,  Norton,  i.  23 
Siain,  i.  39 
Simon,  Pedro,  i.  28 
Sinclair,  William  Frederic,  ii.  9 
Sloane  MSS..  i.  25,  65  ;  ii.  16 
Smith,  Capt.  John,  i.  65,  86 
Smith,  Sir  Thomas,  i.  19,  63,  65 
Smyth,  William  Henry,  i.  21 
Solomon  Islands,  ii.  7,  8,  14,  15 
Somers,  Sir  George,  i.  65 
Soto,  Ferdinando  de,  i.  9,  47 
Soulsby,  Basil  Harrington,  ii.  10,  11, 

14,  15,  16,  18 
Sousa  Tavares,  Francisco  de,  i.  30 
South  Sea  .     See  Pacific  Ocean. 
Spanish  MSS.,  i.  29,  48 
Spanish  Voyages,  i.  25,  39  ;    ii.  7,  8, 

13,  14,  15 
Speilbergen,  Joris  van,  ii.  18 
Spitsbergen,  i.  13,  18,  54  ;  ii.  11. 
Staden,  Johann  von,  i.  51 
Stanley  of  Alderley,  Lord,  i.  35,  39, 

42,  52,  64 
Staunton,  Sir  George  Thomas,  Bart., 

i.  14,15 
Stere,  William,  i.  13 
Storm  van  's  Gravesande,  ii.  26,  27 
Strachey,  William,  i.  6 
Suarez  de  Figueroa.  Christoval,  i.  57  ; 

ii.  14,  15 
Summer  Islands,  i.  65,  86 
Syria,  i.  32 

Tabasco,  ii.  23 

Tahiti,  ii.  13 

Tamerlane,  The  Great,  i.  26 

Tana  (Azov),  i.  49 

Tapia,  Andres  de,  ii.  23 

Tartary,  i.  17  ;    ii.  1,  2,  4 

Tavares,    Francisco    de    Sousa.     See 

Sousa  Tavares,  F.  de. 
Teixeira,  Pedro,  ii.  9 
Telfer.  John  Buchan,  i.  58 
Temple,   Sir    Richard   Carnac,  Bart., 

ii.  12,  17 
Tenerife,  ii.  21 
Terra  Australis,  i.  25 
Terra  Florida,  i.  9 
Thomas,  William,  i.  49 
Thompson.     Sir     Edward     Mauude, 

K.C.B.,i.  66,67 
Thomson,  Basil  Home,  ii.  7,  8 
Tliorne,  Robert,  i.  7 
Tiele,  Pieter  Anton,  i.  70,  71 


Tierra  Firme,  i.  2S,  34,  47 
Timour,  Great  Khau,  i.  26 
Toledo,  Franci.sco  cle.  Viceroy  of  Peru, 

ii.  22 
Tootal,  Albert,  i.  51 
Topographia  Christiana,  i.  98 
Torquem&fla,  Fray  Juan  de,  ii.  14,  15 
Torres,  Luis  Vaez  de,  i.  25,  39  ;  ii.  14, 

Toscanelli,  Paolo,  i.  86 
Towerson,  Gabriel,  i.  19 
Tractatus  de  Glohis,  i.  79 
Transylvaiius,  ]Maximilianus,  i.  52 
Tupac  Amaru,  //ica,  ii.  22 
Turbervile,  George   i.  10 
Turkey  Merchants,  i.  87 

Ursua,  Pedro  de,  i.  28,  47 

Yalle,  Pietro  della,  i.  84,  85 

Vartbema,  Ludovico  di,  i.  19,  32 

Vaux,  William  Sandys  AYriglit,  i,  16 

Vaz,  Lopez,  i.  16 

Veer,  Gerrit  de,  i.  13,  54 

Velasquez,  Diego,  ii.  23 

Vera  Cruz,  ii.  23 

Verarzauus,  John,  i.  7,  27 

Verbiest,  Ferdinand,  i.  17 

Vespucci,  Amerigo,  i.  90 

Vilcapampa,  ii.  22 

Virginia  Britannia,  i.  6 

Vivero  y  Velasco,  Rodrigo  de  i.  8 

Vlamingh,  ^Yillem  de,  i.  25 
Volkersen,  Samuel,  i.  25 

Warner,    George    Frederic,    Litt.D. 

ii.  3 
Weigates,  Straits  of,  i.  13,  54 
West  Indies,  i.  4,  23  ;  ii.  3,  23 
Weymouth,  George,  i.  5,  88,' 89 
White,  Adam,  i.  18 
Whiteway,  Richard  Stephen,  ii.flO 
Wielhorsky,  i.  22 
William  of  Rubruck.    See  Rubruquis, 

Gulielmus  de 
Wilmere,  Alice,  i.  23 
Winter,  John,  i.  16 
Witsen,  Nicolaas,  i.  17,  25 
Wolstenholme,  Sir  John,  i.  63,  88,  89 
Worlde's  Hydrographical  Description,^ 

i.  59 
Wright,  Edward,  i.  59 

Xeres,  Francisco  de,  i.  47  ;  ii.  22 

Yncas.     See  Incas. 
Yucatan,  ii.  23 

Yule,    Sir  Henry,  K.C.S.L,  i.  31,  36, 
37,  74,  75,  78  ;  ii.  19,  20 

Zeno,  Antonio,  i.  50 
Zeno,  Caterino,  i.  49 
Zeno,  Nicolo.  i.  50 
Zychmau,  i.  51 



I.  The  object  of  this  Society  shall  be  to  print,  for  distribution  among  the 
members,  rare  and  valuable  Voyages,  Travels,  Naval  Expeditions,  and  other 
geographical  records. 

II.  The  Annual  Subscription  shall  be  One  and  a-half  Guinea  (for  America, 
eight  dollars,  U.S.  currency),  payable  in  advance  on  the  ist  January. 

III.  Each  member  of  the  Society,  having  paid  his  Subscription,  shall  be 
entitled  to  a  copy  of  every  work  produced  by  the  Society,  and  to  vote  at  the 
general  meetings  within  the  period  subscribed  for  ;  and  if  he  do  not  signify, 
before  the  close  of  the  year,  his  wish  to  resign,  he  shall  be  considered  as  a  member 
for  the  succeeding  year. 

IV.  The  management  of  the  Society's  affairs  shall  be  vested  in  a  Council 
consisting  of  twenty-two  members,  viz.,  a  President,  three  Vice-Presidents,  a 
Treasurer,  a  Secretary,  and  si-xteen  ordinary  members,  to  be  elected  annually ; 
but  vacancies  occurring  between  the  general  meetings  shall  be  filled  up  by  the 

V.  A  General  Meeting  of  the  Subscribers  shall  be  held  annually.  The 
Secretary's  Report  on  the  condition  and  proceedings  of  the  Society  shall  be 
then  read,  and  the  meeting  shall  proceed  to  elect  the  Council  for  the  ensuing  year. 

VI.  At  each  Annual  Election,  three  of  the   old  Council  shall  retire. 

VII.  The  Council  shall  meet  when  necessary  for  the  dispatch  of  business,  three 
forming  a  quorum,  including  the  Secretary;  the  Chairman  having  a  casting  vote. 

VIII.  Gentlemen  preparing  and  editing  works  for  the  Society,  shall  receive 
twenty-five  copies  of  such  works  respectively. 

LIST     OF     MEMBERS.— 1911.* 

Members  are  requested  to  inform  the  Hon.  Secretary  of  any  errors  or 
alterations  in  this  List. 

1899  Aberdare,  The  Eight  Hon.  Lord,  83,  Eaton  Square,  S.  W. 

1S47  Aberdeen  University  Library,  Aberdeen. 

1895  Adelaide  Public  Library,  North  Terrace,  Adelaide,  South  Australia. 

1847  Admiralty,  The,  Whitehall,  S.W.     [2  copies.] 

1847  Advocates'  Library,  11,  Parliament  Square,  Edinburgh. 

1899  Alexander,  William  Lindsay,  Esq.,  Piukieburn,  Musselburgh,  N.B. 

1847  AH  Souls  College,  Oxford. 

1847  American  Geographical  Society,  11,  West  81st  Street,  New  York  City,  U.S.A. 

1901  Andrews,    Commander    Francis   Arthur   Lavington,    R.N. ,    H.M.S.    London, 

Channel  Fleet. 

1906  Andrews,  Michael  C,  Esq.,  17,  University  Square,  Belfast. 

1847  Antiquaries,  The  Society  of,  Burlington  House,  Piccadilly,  W. 

1909  Armstrong,  Capt.  H.  G.  B.,  E.M.,  Royal  Marine  Barracks,  Plymouth. 

1909  Armstrong,  Capt.  B.  H.  0.,  R.E.,  Natal. 

1847  Army  and  Navy  Club,  36,  Pall  Mall,  S.W. 

1904  Arnold,   Dr.   Clarence  R.,  4,   5,  6,  First  National  Bank  Building,  Colorado 

Springs,  Colorado,  U.S.A. 

1909  Ascoli,  W.  S.,  Esq.,  Brooklyn  Lodge,  Withington,  Manchester. 

1847  Athenaeum  Club,  Pall  Mall,  S.W. 

1899     Baer,  Joseph  &  Co.,  Messrs.,  Hochstrasse  6,  Frankfort-on-Main,  Germany. 
1847     Bagram,  John  Ernest,  Esq.,  10,  Old  Post  Office  Street,  Calcutta. 

1909  Baldwin,  Stanlej^  Esq.,  M.P.,  Astley  Hall,  nr.  Stourport. 
1899     Ball,  John  B.,  Esq.,  Ashburton  Cottage,  Putney  Heath,  S.W. 
189.3     Barclay,  Hugh  Gurney,  Esq.,  Colney  Hall,  Norv^ich. 

1899     Basset,  M.  Rene,  Directeur  de  I'Ecole  Superieure  des  Lettres  d' Alger,  Villa 

Louise,  rue  Denfert  Rochereau,  Algiers. 
1894     Baxter,  James  Phinney,  Esq.,  61,  Deeriug  Street,  Portland,  Maine,  U.S.A. 
1896     Beaumont,    Admiral    Sir    Lewis  Anthony,   K.C.B.,  K.C.M.G.,    St.   Georges, 

Hurstpierpoint,  Sussex. 
1904     Beetem,  Charles  Gilbert,  Esq.,  110,  South  Hanover  Street,  Carlisle,  Pa.,  U.S.A. 
1899     Belfast   Library  and   Society   for   Promoting   Knowledge,    Donegall   Square 

North,  Belfast. 
1896     Belhaven   and  Stenton,   Col.   The  Right  Hon.  the  Lord,  R.E.,  41,  Lennox 

Gardens,  S.W.  {Vice-President). 
1847     Berlin  Geographical  Society  (Gesellschaft  fur  Erdkunde),  Wilhelmstrasse  23, 

Berlin,  S.W.,  48. 
1847     Berlin,  the  Royal  Library  of,  Opernplatz,  Berlin,  W. 
1847     Berlin  University,  Geographical  Institute    of,  Georgenstrasse  34-36,   Berlin 

N.W.  7. 
1875     Birch,  Dr.  Walter  de  Gray,  Belmont,  Nascot  Road,  Watford. 
1899     Birmingham  Central  PYee  Library,  Ratclift  Place,  Birmingham. 
1847     Birmingham  Old  Library,  The,  Margaret  Street,  Birmingham. 

1910  Birmingham  University  Library. 

*  Sent  to  2^ress,  December  1st,  1910. 


1899  Board  of  Educatiou,  The  Keeper,  Science  Library,  Science  Museum,  South 

Kensington,  S.W. 

1847  Bodleian  Librarj^,  Oxford. 

1894  Bonaparte,  H.  H.  Prince  Roland  Napoleon,  Avenue  d'Jeua  10,  Paris. 

1847  Boston  Athenaeum  Library,  lOJ,  Beacon  Street,  Boston,  Mass.,  U.S.A. 

1847  Boston  Public  Library,  Copley  Square,  Boston,  Mass.,  U.S.A. 

1899  Bowdoin  College,  Brunswick,  Maine,  U.S.A. 

1894  Bower,   Major  -  General    Hamilton,    c/o  Messrs.   Cox  and  Co.,    16,    Charing 


1899  Bowes  &  Bowes,  Messrs.,  1,  Trinity  Street,  Cambridge. 

1S96  Bowring,  Thomas  B.,  Esq..  7,  Palace  Gate,  Kensington,  W. 

191)6  Brereton,  The  Rev.  William,  The  Rectory,  Steeple  Giddiiig,  Peterboro'. 

1894  Brewster,  Charles  0.,  Esq.,  133  East  65th  Street,  New  York  City,  U.S.A. 

1S93  Brighton  Public  Library,  Royal  Pavilion,  Church  Street,  Brighton. 

1890  British    Guiana  Royal  Agricultural  and    Commercial   Society,    Georgetown, 


LS47  British  Museum,  Department  of  British  and  Mediaeval  Antiquities. 

1847  British  Museum,  Department  of  Printed  Books. 

1896  Brock,  Henry  G.,  Esq.,  161-2,  Walnut  Street,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  U.S.A. 

]y09  Brooke,  John  Arthur,  Esq.,  J.P.,  Feuay  Hall,  Huddersfleld. 

1899  Brookline  Public  Library,  Boston,  Mass.,  U.S.A. 

1899  Brooklyn  Mercantile  Library,  197,  Montague  Street,  Brooklyn,  N.Y.,  U.S.A. 

1899  Brown,  Arthur  William  Whateley,  Esq.,  62,  Carlisle  Mansions,  Carlisle  Place, 

Victoria  Street,  S.W. 

1898  Brown  University,  Providence,  Rhode  Island,  U.S.A.,  P.O.  Box  109. 
1903  Buckle,  Admiral  Claude  Edward,  The  Red  House,  Raithby,  Spilsby. 
1896  Buda-Pesth,  The  Geographical  Institute  of  the  University  of,  Hungary.  _ 
1910  Buenos  Aires,  Biblioteca  Nacional  (c/o  E.  Terquem,  19,  Rue  Scribe,  Paris). 

1899  Bunting,  William  L.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Royal  Naval  College,  Osborne,  Isle  of  Wight. 
1899  Burdekin,  Benjamin  Thomas,  Esq.,  The  Terrace,  Eyam,  Sheffield. 

1894  Burgess,  James,  Esq.,  CLE.,  LL.D.,  22,  Seton  Place,  Edinburgh. 

1890  Burns,  Capt.  John  William,  Leesthorpe  Hall,  Melton  Mowbray. 

1903  California,  University  of,  Berkeley,  Cal.,  U.S.A. 

1899  Cambray  &  Co.,  Messrs.  R.,  6,  Hastings  Street,  Calcutta. 

1847  Cambridge  University  Library,  Cambridge. 

1847  Canada.  The  Parliament  Library,  Ottawa. 

1896  Cardiff  Public  Library,  Trinity  Street,  Cardiff. 

1847  Carlisle,  The  Rt.  Hon.  the  Earl  of,  Naworth  Castle,  Bampton,  Cumberland. 

1847  Carlton  Club  Library,  94,  Pall  Mall,  S.W. 

1899  Carnegie  Library,  Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  U.S.A. 

1901  Cator,  Ralph  Bertie  Peter,  Esq.,  (Judge    of    H.B.M.    Supreme  Court,  Con- 

stantinoi^le),  Wateringbury,  Kent. 

1910  Cattarns,  Richard,  Esq.,  4.  Albert  Terrace,  Regent's  Park,  N.W. 

1894  Chamberlain,  Right  Hon.  Joseph,  M.P.,  40,  Princes  Gardens,  S.W. 

1899  Chambers,  Captain  Bertram  Mordaunt,  R.N.,  H.M.S.,  "  Repulse,"  Devonport. 

1910  Chapelot  et  Cie.,  30,  Rue  et  Passage  Dauphine,  Paris. 

1847  Chetham's  Library,  Hunt's  Bank,  Manchester. 

1910  Chicago,  Geographical  Society  of,  P.O.  Box  223,  Chicago. 

1899  Chicago  Public  Library.  Chicago,  111.,  U.S.A. 

1899  Chicago  University  Library,  Chicago,  111.,  U.S.A. 

1896  Christ  Church,  Oxford. 

1847  Christiania  University  Library,  Christiania,  Norway. 

1899  Cincinnati  Public  Library,  Ohio,  U.S.A. 

1907  Clark,  Arthur  H.,  Esq.,  Caxton  Buildings,  Cleveland,  Ohio. 


1903  Claj',  John,  Esq.,  Uuiversity  Press  and  Burrell's  Corner,  Cambridge. 

1909  Close,  A.  M.,  Esq. 

1908  Close,    Lieut.-Col.    Charles    Frederick,    C.M.G.,  R.E.,    War    Office,    White- 
hall, S.W. 

1895  Colgau,  Nathaniel,  Esq.,  15,  Breffin  Terrace,  Sandycove,  co.  Dublin. 
1847  Colonial  Office,  The,  Downing  Street,  S.W. 

1899  Columbia  University,  Library  of,  New  York,  U.S.A. 

1896  Conway,  Sir  William  Martin,  Allington  Castle,  Maidstone,  Kent. 
1903  Cooke,  William  Charles,  Esq.,  Vailima,  Bishopstown,  Cork. 

1847  Copenhagen  Royal  Library  (Det  Store  KougeliKe  Bibliothek),  Copenhagen. 

1894  Cora,  Professor  Guido,  M.A.,  Via  Nazionale,  181,  Home. 

1847  Cornell  University,  Ithaca.  New  York,  U.S.A. 

1903  Corney,  Bolton  Glanvill,  Esq.,  I.S.O.,  19,  Abingdon  Court,  Ken.sington,  W. 
1893  Cow,  John,  Esq.,  Elfinsward,  Hay  ward's  Heath   Sussex. 

1902  Cox,  Alexander  G. ,  Esq.,  Imperial  Railways  of  North  China,  Tientsin. 

1908  Crewdson,  W.,  Esq.,  J. P.,  Southside,  St.  Leonards-on-Sea. 

1904  Croydon  Public  Libraries,  Central  Library,  Town   Hall,  Croydon. 

1893  Curzon  of  Kedleston,  The  Right  Hon.  Lord,  G.M.S.L,  G.M.I.E.,  1,  Carlton 

House  Terrace,  S.W. 

1911  Cutting,  Lady  Sybil,  c/o  the  Earl  of  Desart,  2,  Rutland  Gardens,  S.W. 

1847     Dalton,  Rev.  Canon  John  Neale,  C.M.G.,  C.V.O.,  4,  The  Cloisters.  Windsor. 

1899     Dampier,  Gerald  Robert,  Esq.,  I.C.S.,  Dehra  Dun,  N.W.P.,  India. 

1899  Danish  Royal  Naval  Library  (Det  Kongelige  Danske  S</>kaart  Archiv),  Copen- 

1908     Darwin,  Major  Leonard,  late  R.E.,  President  R.G.S.,  12,  Egerton  Place,  S.  W. 

1908     Davis,  N.  de  Lancey,  Esq.,  Toynbee  Hall,  28,  Commercial  Street,  E. 

1890  Davis,  Hon.  Nicholas  Darnell,  C.M.G.,  Royal  Colonial  Institute,  Northumber- 
land Avenue,  W.C. 

1894  De  Bertodano,  Baldomero  Hyacinth,  Esq.,  Cowbridge  House,  Malme.sbury, 

1899     Detroit  Public  Library,  Michigan,  U.S.A. 

1893     Dijon  Uuiversity  Library,  Rue  Monge,  Dijon,  Cote  d'Or,  France. 

1899  Dresden  Geographical  Society  (Verein  fiir  Erdkunde),  Kleine  Briidergasse 
21 1 1,  Dresden. 

1902     Dublin,  Trinity  College  Library. 

1847     Ducie,  The  Right  Hon.  the  Earl  of,  F.R.S.,  Tortworth  Court,  Falfield. 

1910     Dunn,  J.  H.,  Esq.,  Coombe  Cottage,  Kingston  Hill,  S.W. 

1903  Eames,  James  Bromley,  Esq., M.A.,B.C.L,,  1 0,  King's  Bench  Walk,  Temple,  E.C. 

1899  Ecole  Fran^aise  d'Extreme  Orient,  Saigon,  Indo-Chine  Franyaise. 

1905  Edge-Partington,  James,  Esq.,  c/o  The  Keeper  of  the  Department  of  British 

and  Mediceval  Antic[uities,  British  Museum,  W.C. 

1892  Edinburgh  Public  Library,  George  IV.  Bridge,  Edinburgh. 

1847  Edinburgh  University  LilDrary,  Edinburgh. 

1847  Edwards,  Francis,  Esq.,  83,  High  Street,  Marylebone,  W. 

1906  Enoch  Pratt  Free  Library,  Baltimore,  Md.,  U.S.A. 

191U  Fairorother,  Colouel  W.  T.,  C.B.,  Indian  Army,  Bareilly,  N.P.,  India. 

1899  Fellowes  Athenseum,  46,  Millmont  Street,  Boston,  Mass.,  U.S.A. 

1899  Ferguson,  David,  Esq..  M.I.M.E.,  140,  Hyndland  Drive,  Kelvinside,  Glasgow. 

1894  Fisher,  Arthur,  Esq.,  The  Mazry,  Tiverton,  Devon. 

1896  Fitzgerald,  Captain  Edward  Arthur,  5th  Dragoon  Guards. 

1847  Ford,  John  Walker,  Esq.,  D.L.,  EnBeld  Old  Park,  Winchmore  Hill,  N. 

1847  Foreign  Office  of  Germany  (AuswJirtiges  Amt),  Wilhehustrasse,  Berlin,  W. 

1893  Forrest,  George  William,  Esq.,  CLE.,  Rose  Bank,  liiley,  Oxford. 

1902  Foster,  F.  Apthorp,  Esq.,  24,  Milk  Street,  Boston,  Mass.,  U.S  A. 

1893  Foster,  William,  Esq.,  India  Office,  S.W. 

1910  Eraser,  Lovat,  Esq.,  The  White  House,  Slough. 

1847     George,  Charles  William,  Esq.,  51,  Hampton  Road,  Bristol. 

1901     Gill,    William    Harrison,    Esq.,    Marunouchi,    Tokyo    (c/o  Messrs.    Nichols, 

Peninsular  House,  Monument  Street,  E.G.). 
1847     Gladstone  Library,  National  Liberal  Club,  Whitehall  Place,  S.W. 
1847     Glasgow  University  Librarj^,  Glasgow. 
1880     Godman,  Frederick  Du  Cane,  Esq.,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S.,  45,  Pont  Street,  S.W. 

1905  Goldie,  The  Right.  Hon.  Sir  George  Taubmau,  K.C.M.G.,  F.R.S.,  Naval  & 

Military  Club,  Piccadilly,  W. 

1906  Goodrich,  Professor  Joseph  K.,  Imperial  Government  College,  Kyoto,  Japan. 

1897  Gosch,  Christian  Carl  August,  Esq.,  21,  Stanhope  Gardens,  S.W. 
1847     Gottingen  University  Library,  Gottiugen,  Germany. 

1877     Gray,  Albert,  Esq.,    K.C.   {President),   Catherine   Lodge,   Trafalgar  Square, 

Chelsea,  S.W. 
1894     Gray,  Matthew  Hamilton,  Esq.,  Lessness  Park,  Abbey  Wood,  Kent. 
1903     Greenlee,  William  B.,  Esq.,  130    Kene.saw  Terrace,  Chicago,  III,  U.S.A. 

1898  Greever,  C.  0.,  Esq.,  1345,  East  Ninth  Street.  Des  Moines,  Iowa,  U.S.A. 

1899  Griffiths,  John  G.,  Esq.,  4,  Hyde  Park  Gardens,  W. 
1899     Grosvenor  Library,  Buffalo,  N.Y.,  U.S.A. 

1899     Gruzeviski,   C.    L.,   Essq.,  424,  West  Houston  Street,  San    Antonio,    Texas, 

1847     Guildhall  Library,  E.G. 
1887     Guillemard,   Francis  Henry  Hill,  Esq.,  M.A.,   M.D.,   The  Old  Mill  House, 

Trumpington,  Cambridge. 

1847  Hamburg  Commerz-Bibliothek,  Hamburg,  Germany. 

1901  Hammersmith  Public  Libraries,  Carnegie  (Central)  Library,  Hammersmith,  W. 

1898  Hanuen,  The  Hon.  Henry  Arthur,  The  Hall,  West  Farleigh,  Kent. 
1906  Harrison,  Carter  H. ,  Esq.  (c/o  Messrs.  Stevens  and  Browm). 

1905  Harrison,  William  P.,  Esq.,  192,  West  Division  Street,  Chicago,  111.,  U.S.A. 

1847  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass..  U.S.A. 

1899  Harvie-Browu,  John  Alexander,  Esq.,  Duuipace,  Larbert,  Stii-lingshire. 

1899  Haswell,    George   Handel,   Esq.,    Ashleigh,    Hamstead    Road,    Handsworth, 


1887  Heawood,  Edward,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Church  Hill,  Merstham,  Surrey,  and  1,  Savile 

Row,  W.  {Treasurer). 

1899  Heidelberg  University  Library,  Heidelberg  (Koestersche  Buchhandlung). 

1904  Henderson,  George,  Esq.,  Tower  House,  The  Park,  Harrow. 

1903  Henderson,  Turner,  Esq.,  Studley  Priory,  Oxford. 


1890     Hervey,    Dudley    Francis    Amelius,    Esq.,    C.M.G.,    Westfields,     Aldeburgh, 

1899     Hiersemann,  Hen-  Karl  Wilhelm,  Konigsstrasse,  3,  Leipzig. 
1902     Hippisley,  Alfred  Edward,  Esq.,  I.M.  Customs,  Shanghai,  China. 

1893  Hobhouse.  Charles  Edward  Henry,  Esq.,  M.P.,  The  Ridge,  Corsham,  Wilts. 
1904     Holdich,  Colonel  Sir  Thomas    Hungerford,  K.C.M.G.,  K.C.I.E..   C.B.,  R.E., 

41,  Courtfield  Road,  S.W. 
1899     Hoover,  Herbert  Clarke,  Esq.,  HorntonHonse,  Hornton  Street,  Kensington,  W. 
1SS7     Horner,  Sir  John  Francis  Fortescue,  K.C.V.O.,  Mells  Park,  Frome,  Somerset. 
1890     Hoyt  Public  Library,  East  Saginaw,  Mich.,  U.S.A. 
1909     Hubbard,  H.  M.,  Esq.,  H6,  The  Albany,  Piccadilly,  W. 
1899     Hiigel,    Baron    Anatole    A.   A.   von.    Curator,   Museum    of    Archieology    and 

Ethnology,  Cambridge. 

1894  Hull  Public  Libraries,  Baker  Street,  Hull. 

1899     Im  Thurn,  H.  E.  Sir  Everard  Ferdinand,  K.C.M.G.,  C.B.,  Government  House, 

Suva,  Fiji,  and  1,  East  India  Avenue,  E.C. 
1847     India  Office.  Downing  Street,  S.W.     [20  COPIES.] 
1899     Ingle,  William  Bruncker,  Esq.,  4,  Orchard  Road,  Blackheath,  S.E. 
1892     Inner  Temple,  Hon.  Society  of  the.  Temple,  E.C. 
1899     Ireland,    Prof.    Alleyne,    St.    Botolph    Club,   2,  Newbury    Street,    Bostor, 

Mass..  U.S.A. 
190.3     Irvine,  William,  Esq.,  HoUiscroft,  49,  Castelnau  Barnes,  S.W. 

1899  Jackson,  Stewart  Douglas,  Esq.,  61,  St.  Vincent  Street,  Glasgow. 

1898  James,  Arthur  Curtiss,  Esq.,  92   Park  Avenue,  New  York  City,  U.S.A. 
1896  James,  W^alter  B.,  Esq.,  M.D.,  17,  West  54th  Street,  New  York  City,  U.S.A. 
1907  Johannesburg  Public  Library,  Johannesburg,  South  Africa. 

1847  John   Carter  Brown  Library,  357,  Benefit  Street,  Providence,  Rhode  Island, 


1847  John  Rylands  Library,  Dean.sgate,  Manchester. 

1847  Johns  Hopkins  University,  Baltimore,  Md.,  U.S.A. 

1899  Johnson,  S.  T.,  Esq.,  48,  Victoria  Grove,  Bridport. 
1899  Johnson,  W.  Morton,  Esq.,  Woodleigh,  Altrincham. 
1910  Jones,  L.  C,  Esq.,  M.D.,  Maiden,  Mass.,  U.S.A. 

1903  Kansas  University  Library,  Lawrence,  Kans.,  U.S.A. 

1887  Keltie,  John  Scott,  Esq.,  LL.D.,  Secretary  R.G.S.,  1,  Savile  Row,  Burlington 

Gai'dens,  W. 

1909  Kesteven,  C.  H..  Esq.,  2,  Hungerford  Street,  Calcutta. 

1899  Kiel,  Royal  University  of,   Kiel,  Schleswig-Holstein. 

1899  Kimberley  Public  Library,  Kimberley,  Cape  Colony. 

1907  Kindberg,  Herrn  Captain  J.  P.,  Goteborg,  Sweden. 

1898  Kinder,  Claude  William,  Esq.,  C.M.G.,  Kelvin,  Avondale  Road,  Fleet,  Hants. 

1890  King's  Inns,  The  Hon.  Society  of  the,  Henrietta  Street,  Dublin. 


1899     Kitching,  John,  Esq.,  Oaklands,  Queen's  Road,  Kingston  Hill,  S.W. 
1899     Kliucksieck,  M.  Charles,  11,  Rue  de  Lille,  Paris. 

1910     Kouinklijk  lustituut  voor  de  Taal  Laud  en  Volkenkunde  van  Nederlaadsch 
Indie.     The  Hague. 

1899  Langton,  J.  J.  P.,  Esq.,  802,  Spruce  Street,  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  U.S.A. 

1899  Larchmont  Yacht  Club,  Larchmont,  N.Y.,  U.S.A. 

1899  Leeds  Library,  18,  Commercial  Street,  Leeds. 

1899  Lehigh  University,  South  Bethlehem,  Pa.,  U.S.A. 

1893  Leijjzig,  Library  of  the  University  of  Leipzig. 

1906  Le  Mair,  Den  Heer  Jacob  Willebeek,  Eendrachtsvveg,  Rotterdam. 

1899  Levy,  Judah,  Esq.,  17,  Greville  Place,  N.W. 

1905  Lincoln,  Arthur,  Esq.,  7,  Nassau  Street,  New  York  City,  U.S.A. 

1899  Lindsay-Smith,    Fred.    Ales.,   Esq.,  J.P.,  IS,  Sussex  Place.  Regent's  Park. 

1847  Liverpool  Free  Public  Library,  William  Brown  Street,  Liverpool. 

1896  Liverpool    Geographical    Society,  14,    Hargreaves    Buildings,    Chapel   Street, 


1899  Liverpool,  University  of  Liverpool. 

1899  Loescher,  Messrs.  J.,aud  Co.,  Corso  Umberto  1°,  307,  Rome. 

1899  Logan,  William,  Esq.,  Heatheryhaugh,  Moffat,  Damfriesshire. 

1847  London  Institution,  11,  Finsbury  Circus,  E.C. 

1847  Loudon  Library,  12,  St.  James's  Square,  S.W. 

1895  Long  Island  Historical  Society,  Pierrepont  Street,  Brooklyn,  N.Y.,  U.S.A. 

1899  Los  Angeles  Public  Library,  Los  Angeles,  Cal,  U.S.A. 

1899  Lowrey,  Joseph,  Esq.,  The  Hermitage,  Loughtou,  Essex. 

1880  Lucas,  Sir  Charles  Prestwood,  K.C.B.,  Colonial  Office,  Downing  Street,  S.W. 

1895  Lucas,  Frederic  Wm.,  Esq.,  21,  Surrey  Street,  Strand,  W.C. 

1898  Lydenberg,  H.  M..  Esq.,  New  York  Public  Library,  40,  Lafayette  Place,  New 

York  City,  U.S.A. 

1880  Lyons  University  Librarj^  Lyon,  France. 

1899  Lyttleton-Aimesley,  Lieut. -General  Sir  Arthur  Lyttelton,  K.C.V.O.,  Temple- 

mere,  Oatlands  Park,  Weybridge. 

1910  McCulloch,  H.  A.,  Esq.,  Arequipa,  Peru. 

1910  MacDonald,   H.   E.   The  Right  Hon.   Sir  Claude  M.,  G.C.M.G.,  G.C.V.O., 

K.C.B.,  British  Embassy,  Tokio,  Japan. 

1899  Macrae,  Charles  Colin,  Esq.,  93,  Onslow  Gardens,  S.W, 

1908  Maggs  Brothers,  Messrs.,  109,  Strand,  W.C. 

1904  Malvern  Public  Libi-ary,  Graham  Road,  Great  Malvern. 

1 847  Manchester  Public  Free  Libraries,  King  Street,  Manchester. 

1899  Manierre,  George,  Esq.,  135,  Adams  Street,  Chicago,  111,  U.S.A. 

1880  Markham,  Admiral  Sir  Albert  Hastings,  K.C.B.,  6,  Marble  Arch,  W. 

1852  Markham,  Sir  Clements  Robert,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S.,  21,  Eccleston  Square,  S.W. 

( Vice-President). 

1892  Marquand,  Henry,  Esq.,  \Miitegates  Farm,  Bedford,  New  York,  U.S.A. 

1905  Marsden,  T.  LL,  Esq.,  Prestbury,  near  Macclesfield. 

1899  Martelli,  Ernest  Wynne,  Esq.,  4,  New  Square,  Lincoln's  Inn,  W.C. 

1847  Massachusetts  Historical  Society,  1154,  Boylston  Street,  Boston,  Mass.,  U.S.A. 

1899  Massie,  Major  Roger  Henry,  R.A.,  Rangoon. 

1905  Maudslay,  Alfred  Percival,  Esq.,  32,  Montpelier  Square,  Knightsbridge,  S.W. 


1899  McClurg,  Messrs.  A.  C,  &  Co..  215-221,  Wabash  Avenue,  Chicago,  111.,  U.S.A. 

1896  McKay,  J.  Albert,  Esq.    421,  Wood  Street,  Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  U.S.A. 

1901  Merriinan,  J.  A.,  Esq.,  Standard  Bank  of  South  Africa,  Durban. 
1893  Michigan,  University  of,  Ann  Arbor,  Mich.,  U.S.A. 

1899  Middletowu,  Conn.,  Wesleyan  University  Library,  U.S.A. 

1904  Mikkelsen,  Michael  A.,  Esq.,  610,  South  Fifth  Avenue,  Mt.  Vernon,  New  York. 

1S47  Mills,  Colonel  Dudley  Acland,  R.E.,  Athenfeum  Club,  Pall  Mall,  S.W. 

1896  Milwaukee  Public  Library,  Milwaukee,  Wisconsin,  U.S.A. 

189-5  Minneapolis  Atheuteum,  Minneapolis,  Minn.,  U.S.A. 

1899  Minnesota  Historical  Society,  St.  Paul,  Minnesota,  U.S.A. 

1899  Mitchell  Library,  21,  Miller  Street,  Glasgow. 

1898  Mitchell,  Alfred,  Esq.,  New  London.  Conn.,  U.S.A. 

1899  Mitchell,  Wm.,  Esq.,  c/o  Union  Bank  of  Scotland,  Aberdeen. 

1902  Mombasa  Club,  Mombasa,  East  Africa. 

1899  Monson,  The  Pdght  Hon.  Lord,  C.V.O.,  Burton  Hall,  Lincoln. 

1901  Moreno,  Dr.  Francisco  J., La  Plata  Museum,  La  Plata,  Argentine  Republic. 

1893  Morris,  Henry  Cecil  Low,  Esq.,  M.D.,  Gothic  Cottage,  Bognor,  Sussex. 

1896  Morris,  Mowbray,  Esq.,  59a,  Brook  Street,  Grosvenor  Square,  W. 

1899  Morrison,   George    Ernest,  Esq.,    M.D.,  Times   Correspondent,  c/o    H.B.M. 

Legation,  Peking. 

1899  Morrisson,  James  W.,  Esq.,  200-206,  Randolph  Street,  Chicago,  111,,  U.S.A. 

1906  Morse,  Chas.  J.,  Esq.,  1825,  Asbury  Avenue,  Evanston,  Illinois,  U.S.A. 

il895  Moxon,   Alfred  Edward,  Esq.,  c/o  Mrs.   Gough,  The  Lodge,  Souldern,  near 


1899  Mukhopadhyay,  The  Hon.  Dr.  Asutosh,  M.A.,  LL.D.,  77,  Russa  Road  North, 

Bhowanipore,  Calcutta. 

1847  Munich  Royal  Library  (Kgl.  Hof  u.  Staats-Bibliothek),  Munich,  Germaay. 

1901  Murray,  Hon.  Charles  Gideon,  Bachelor's  Club,  Piccadilly,  W. 

1899  Nathan,    Lt.-Col.    Sir   Matthew,    K.C.M.G.,  R.E.,    36,    St.    George's   Court, 

Gloucester  Road,  S.W. 

1894  Naval  and  Military  Club,  94,  Piccadilly,  W. 

1909  Nebraska  University  Library,  Lincoln,  Nebraska,  U.S.A. 

1880  Netherlands,   Royal  Geographical   Society   of  the    (Koninklijk  Nederlandsch 

Aardrijkskuudig  Geuootschap),  Singel  421,  Amsterdam. 

1899  Netheiiands,  Royal  Library  of  the.  The  Hague. 

1847  Newberry  Library,  The,  Chicago,  111.,  U.S.A. 

1847  Newcastle-upon-Tyne    Literary  and  Philosophical   Society,  Westgate   Road, 

Newcastle  on-Tyne. 

1899  Newcastle-upou-Tj'ne  Public  Library,  New  Bridge  Street,  Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

1894  New  Loudon  Public  Library,  Conn.,  U.S.A. 

1899  New  South  Wales,  Public  Library  of,  Sydney,  N.S.W. 

1899  New  York  Athletic  Club,  Central  Park,  South,  New  York  City,  U.S.A. 

1895  New  York  Public  Library,  40,  Lafayette  Place,  New  York  City,  U.S.A. 
1847  New  York  State  Library,  Albany,  New  York,  U.S.A. 

1894  New  York  Yacht  Club.  67,  Madison  Avenue,  New  York  City,  U.S.A. 

1897  New  Zealand,  The  High  CoTnmissioner  for,  13,  Victoria  Street,  S.W. 

1905  Nichols,  George  L.,  Esq.,  66  East  56th  Street,  New  York  City,  U.S.A. 

1896  North  Adams  Public  Library.  Massachusetts,  U.S.A. 

1893  Northcliffe,  The  Right  Hon.  Lord,  Elmwood,  St.  Peter's,  Thanet. 

1899  Nottingham  Public  Libraiy,  Sherwood  Street,  Nottingham. 

1898     Omaha  Public  Library,  19th  and  Harney  Streets,  Omaha,  Nebraska,  U.S.A. 
1890     Oriental  Club,  18,  Hanover  Square,  W 


1902     Otani,  Kozui,  Esq.,  Nishi  Honganji,  Horikawa,  Kyoto,  Japan. 
1899     Oxford  and  Cambridge  Club,  71,  Pall  Mall,  S.\Y. 
1847     Oxford  Union  Society,  Oxford. 

1899  Palmella,  Hi.s  Grace  the  Duke  of,  Lisbon. 

1847  Pari.?,  Bibliotheque  Nationale,  Rue  de  Richelieu,  Paris. 

1847  Paris,  Institut  de  France,  Quai  de  Conti  23,  Paris. 

1899  Parlett,  Harold  George,  Esq.,  H.B.M.  Consulate,  Dairen,  Japan. 

1880  Peabody  Institute,  Baltimore,  Md.,  U.S.A. 

1908  Pearson,  Dr.  F.  S.,  Coombe  House,  Kingston  Hill,  S.W. 

1847  Peckover  of  Wisbech,   The  Right  Hon.  Lord,  Bank  House,  Wisbech  ( Vice- 


1896  Peech,  W.  H.,  Esq.,  St.  Stephen's  Club,  Westminster,  S.W. 

1893  Peek,  Sir  Wilfred,  Bart.,  c/o  Mr.  Grover,  Rousdon,  Lyme  Regis. 
1904  Peirce,  Harold,  Esq.,  222,  Drexel  Building,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  U.S.A. 
1899  Peixoto,  Dr.  J.  Rodrigues,  8,  Rue  Almte.  Comandar^,  Rio  de  Janeiro. 
1899  Pequot  Library,  Southport,  Conn.,  U.S.A. 

1880  Petherick,  Edward  Augustus,  Esq.,  Melbourne,  Victoria,  Australia. 

1895  Philadelphia  Free  Library,  Pa.,  U.S.A. 

1899  Philadelphia,  Library  Company  of,  N.W.   corner  Juniper  &  Locust  Streets, 
Philadelphia.  Pa.,  U.S.A. 

1899  Philadelphia,  Union  League  Club,  8,  Broad  Street,  Philadelphia,  Pa..  U.S.A. 
1890  Philadelphia,  University  Club,  1510  Walnut  Street,  Philadelphia.  Pa.,  U.S.A. 
1910  Pierce,  H.  S.,  Esq.,  New  York  (c/o  Suckling  &  Co.,  13,  Garrick  Street,  W.C.) 

1900  Plymouth,  Officers'  Libi'ary,  Roj'al  Marine  Barracks. 

1899  Plymouth  Proprietary  and  Cottonian  Library,  Cornwall  Street,  Plymouth. 

1847  Poor,  Henry  William,  Esq.,  1,  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  City,  U.S.A. 

1899  Portico  Library,  57,  Mosley  Street,  Manchester. 

1904  Pratt,  John  Thomas,  Esq.,  H.B.M.  Consulate  General,  Tientsin,  China. 

1894  Pretoria  Government  Library,  Pretoria,  Transvaal,  South  Africa. 

1894     Quaritch,   Bernard  Alfred,  Esq.,  11,   Grafton  Street,  New  Bond  Street,  W 
(12  copies). 

1890     Raffles  Museum  and  Library,  Singapore. 

1890     Ravenstein,  Ernest  George,  Esq.,  2,  York  Mansions,  Battersea  Park,  S.W. 
1910     Reeves,  E.  A.,  Esq.,  ^lap-Curator,  R.G.S.,  Ridgecroft,  Ridgeway  Rd.,  Redhill. 
1847     Reform  Club,  104,  Pall  Mall,  S.W. 

1899     Reggio,  Andrd  C,  Esq.,  43,  Tremont  Street,  Boston,  Mass.,  U.S.A. 
1895     Rhodes,  Josiah,  Esq.,  The  Elms,  Lytham,  Lancashire. 

1902     Rice,  A.  Hamilton.  Esq.,  M.D.,  389,  Beacon  Street,  Boston,  Mass.,  U.S.A. 
1887     Richards,    Admiral   of    the   Fleet    Sir   Frederick   William,    G.C.B.,    D.C.L., 
34,  Hurlingham  Court,  S.W. 



1907  Ricketts,  D.  P.,  Esq.,  Imperial  Chinese  Railways,  Tientsin,  China. 
1882  Riggs,  E.  F.,  Esq.,  1311,  Mass.  Avenue,  Washington,  D.C.,  U.S.A. 
1899     Rockhill.    H.E.    the  Hon.    William   Woodville,    United  States  Ambassador, 

St.  Petersburg,  Russia. 
1899     Rodd,  H.E.  The  Right  Hon.  Sir  James  Rennell,  G.C.V.O.,  K.C.M.G.,  C.B., 

British  Embassy,  Rome. 

1898  Rohrscheid  and  Ebbecke,  Herrn,  Am  Hof,  28,  Bonn,  Germany. 
1893     Royal  Artillery  Institution,  Woolwich. 

1847     Royal  Colonial  Institute,  Northumberland  Avenue,  W.C. 

1896  Royal  Cruising  Club,  40,  Chancery  Lane,  W.C. 
1847     Royal  Engineers'  Institute,  Chatham. 

1847  Royal  Geographical  Society,  1,  Savile  Row,  Burlington  Gardens,  W. 

1890  Royal  Scottish  Geographical  Society,   Synod  Hall,  Castle  Terrace,  Edinburgh. 

1897  Royal  Societies  Club,  63,  St.  James's  Street,  S.W. 
1847  Royal  United  Service  Institution,  Whitehall,  S.W. 

1899  Ruuciman,  The  Right  Hon.  AValter,  M.R,  Doxford,  Chathill,  Northumberland. 
1904  Ruxton,  Captain  Upton  Fitz  Herbert,  Worcestershire  Regiment,  The  Residency, 

Sokoto,  Northern  Nigeria. 

1900  Ryley,  John  Horton,  Esq. ,  Primrose  Lodge,  Little  Maplestead,  Halstead,  Essex. 

1899  St.  Andrews  University,  St.  Andrews. 

1899  St.  Deiniol's  Library,  Hawarden. 

1893  St.  John's,  New  Brunswick,  Free  Public  Libi\ary. 
1890  St.  Louis  Mercantile  Library,  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  U.S.A. 

1899  St.  Martin's-in-the-FieldsFree  Public  Library,  115,  St.  Martin's  Lane,  W.C. 

1847  St.  Petersburg  University  Library,  St.  Petersburg. 

1894  St.  Wladimir  University,  Kiew,  Russia. 

1899  San  Francisco  Public  Library,  San  Francisco,  Cal.,  U.S.A. 

1899  Sclater,  Dr.  William  Lutley,  Odiham  Priory,  Winchfield. 

1899  Seattle  Public  Library,  Seattle,  Washington,  U.S.A. 

1906  Seligmann,   Charles  Gabriel,   Esq.,   M.B.,  15,  York  Terrace,  Regent's  Park, 


1894  Seymour,  Admiral  of  the  Fleet  the  Right  Hon.  Sir  Edward  Hobart,  G.C.B., 

O.M.,  G.C.V.O.,  LL.D.,  Queen  Anne's  Mansions,  St.  James's  Park,  S.W. 

1898  Sheffield  Free  Public  Libraries,  Surrey  Street,  Sheffield. 
1847  Signet  Library,  11,  Parliament  Square,  Edinburgh. 

1890  Sinclair,  Mrs.  William  Frederic,  102,  Cheyne  Walk,  Chelsea,  S.W. 

J910  Skimming,  E.  H.  B.,  Esq.,  6,  Cleveland  Terrace,  W. 

Il9(i)4  Smith,  John  Langford,  Esq.,  H.  B.  M.  Consular  Service,  China,  c/o  E.  Green- 
wood, Esq.,  Frith  Kuowl,  Elstree. 

1906  Smith,  J.  de  Berniere,  Esq.,  4,  Gloucester  Terrace,  Regent's  Park,  N.W. 

1896  Smithers,  F.  Oldershaw,  Esq.,  Dashwood  House,  9,  New  Broad  Street,  E.G. 

1899  Societd  Geografica  Italiana,  Via  del  Plebiscite  102,  Rome. 
1847  Societe  de  Geographic,  Boulevard  St.  Germain,  184,  Paris. 

1909  Solomon,  Hon.  E.  P.,  Minister  of  Public  Works,  Pretoria,  Transvaal. 

1899  Soulsby,  Basil  H.,  Esq.,  Nat.  Hist.  Museum,  Cromwell  Road,  S.W. 

1899  South  African  Public  Library,  Queen  Victoria  Street,  Cape  Town,  South  Africa. 

1904  Speight,  Ernest  Edwin,  Esq.,  Slemdal,  Christiania. 

1904  Stanton,  John,  Esq.,  High  Street,  Chorley,  Lancasliire. 

1894  Stephens,  Henry  Charles,  Esq.,  Cholderton  Lodge,  Cholderton,  Salisbury. 

1847  Stevens,  Son,  and  Stiles,  Messrs.  Henry,  39,  Great  Russell  Street,  W.C. 

-1847  Stockholm,  Royal  Library  of  (Kungl.  Biblioteket),  Sweden. 


1895  Stockton  Public  Library,  Stockton,  Cal.,  U.S.A. 

1905  Storer,  Albert  H..  Esq.,  Ridgefield,  Ct.,  U.S.A. 

1890  Strachey,  Lady,  67,  Belsize  Park  Gardens,  N.W. 

1882  Strassburg,  Kaiserl.  Universitiits  u.  Laudesbibliothek. 

1904  Suarez,  Colonel   Don  Pedro  (Bolivian  Legation),  Santa  Cruz,  74,  Compayne 

Gardens,  N.W. 

1905  Sullivan.   John    Cotter,    Esq.,    301,    West   Commerce   Street,    San    Antonio, 

Texas,  U.S.A. 

1909  Swan,  J.  D.  C,  Esq., 

1908     Sydney,  University  of,  New  South  Wales. 

1899     Sykes,  Major  Percy  Molesworth,  C.M.G.,  Queen's  Bays,  H.M.'s  Consul  General 
for  Khorasan,  Meshed,  via  Berlin  and  Askhabad,  Transcaspia,  Russia. 

1910  Syuion,  The  Hon.  Sir  Josiah,  K.C.M.G.,  K.C.,  Gladstone  Chambers,  Adelaide. 

1899  Tangye,  Richard  Trevithick  Gilbertstone,  Esq.,  LL.B.,  1,  King's  Bench  Walk, 

Temple,  E.C. 

1897  Tate,  George  Passman,  Esq.,  Survey  of  India  Department,  Dehra  Dun,  U.P., 


1894  Taylor,  Captain  William  Robert,  1.  Daysbrook  Road,  Streatham  Hill,  S.W. 

1910  Teleki,  Count  Paul,  Joszef -ten,  7,  Budapest  V. 

1899  Temple,  Lieut.-Col.  Sir  Richard  Caruac,  Bart.,  C.I.E.,  The  Nash,  nr.  Worcester. 

1894  Thomson,  Basil  Home,  Esq.,  81,  Victoria  Road.  Kensington,  W. 

1906  Thomson,  Colonel  Charles    FitzGerald,  late  7th  Hussars,  St.  James's  Club, 

106,  Piccadilly,  W. 

1896  Tighe,  Walter  Stuart,  Esq.,  Rossanagh,  Ashford,  Co.  Wickiow. 

1904  Todd,  Commander  George  James,  R.N.,  The  Manse,  Kingsbarns,  Fife. 

1896  Toronto  Public  Library,  Toronto,  Ont.,  Canada. 

1890  Toronto  University,  Toronto,  Out.,  Canada. 

1847  Travellers'  Club,  106,  Pall  Mall,  S.W. 

1899  Trinder,  Arnold.  Esq.,  River  House,  Walton-on-Thames. 

1899  Trinder,  Oliver  Jones,  Esq.,  Cedar  Grange,  Caterham  Valley,  Surrey. 

1847  Trinity  College,  Cambridge. 

1847  Trinity  House,  The  Hon.  Corporation  of.  Tower  Hill,  E.C. 

1894  Troop,  W.  H.,  Esq.,  c/o  Messrs.  Black  Bros,  and  C'\,  Halifax,  Nova  Scotia. 

1890  Turnbull,  Alexander  H.,  Esq.,  Elibank,  Wellington,  New  Zealand. 

1902  Tweedy,  Arthur  H.,  Esq.,  Widmore  Lodge,  Widmore,  Bromley,  Kent. 

1847  United  States  Congress,  Library  of,  Washington,  D.C.,  U.S.A. 

1899  United  States  National  Museum  (Library  of),  Washington,  D.C.,  U.S.A. 

1847  United  States  Naval  Academy  Library,  Annapolis,  Md.,  U.S.A. 

1899  University  of  London,  South  Kensington,  S.W. 

1847  Upsala  University  Library,  Upsala,  Sweden. 

1905     Van  Norden,  Theodore  Langdon,  Esq.,  22,  West  59th  Street,  New  York  City, 

1899     Vernon,  Roland  Venables,  Esq.,  Colonial  Ofifice,  Downing  Street,  S.W. 

1899     Victoria,    Public   Library,  Museums,    and    National    Gallery    of,   Melbourne, 

1847     Vienna  Imperial  Library  (K.  K.  Hof-Bibliothek),  Vienna. 
1905     Vienna,  K.  K.  Geographische  Gesellschaft,  WoUzeile  33,  Vienna. 
1887     Vignaud,  Henry,  Esq.,  LL.D.,  2,  Rue  de  la  Mairie,  Bagneux  (Seine\  France. 
1909     Villiers,  J.  A.  J.  de,  Esq.,  British  Museum. 

1904  Wagner,  Herrn  H. ,  and  E.  Debes,  Geographische  Anstalt,  Briiderstrasse  23, 


1907  Waite,  C.  B.,  Esq.,  San  Jnan  de  Letran  3,  Mexico,  D.F. 

1902  War  Office,  Mobilisation  and  Intelligence  Library,  Whitehall,  S.W. 

1894  Warren,  William  R.,  Esq.,  5,  Nassau  Street,  New  York  City,  U.S.A. 
1847  Washington,  Department  of  State,  D.C.,  U.S.A. 

1847  Washington,  Library  of  Navy  Depaitment,  Washington,  D.C..  U.S.A. 

1899  Watanabe,  Chiharu,  Esq.,  4,  Shimotakanawamachi,  Shibaku.  Tokyo,  Japan. 

1899  Watkiuson  Library,  Hartford,  Connecticut,  U.S.A. 

1906  Webb,  G.  H.  D.,  Esq.,  Ill,  Clifton  Hill,  St.  John's  Wood,  N.W. 

1899  Weld,    Rev.    George   Francis,    Hingham,    Mass.,     U.S.A.    (Weld wold,    Santa 
Barbara,  California). 

1903  Wells,  Professor  David  Collins,  Dartmouth  College,  Hanover,  N.  H.,  U.S.A. 
1899  Westaway,    Engineer    Capt.    Albert    Ernest    Luscombe,    H.M.S.    Dulc   of 

Edinburgh,  5th  Cruiser  Squadron. 

1898  Westminster  School,  Dean's  Yard,  S.W. 

1904  Whall,  William  B.,  Esq.,  Board  of  Trade,  Cardifif. 

1899  White,  Dr.  Henry,  English  Mission  Hospital,  Yezd,  Persia,  I'id  Berlin. 
1893  Whiteway,  Richard  Stephen,  Esq.,  Brownscombe,  Shottei-mill,  Surrey. 
1910  Wihlfahrt,  E.,  Esq.,  Russo-Chinese  Bank,  Peking,  China. 

1899  Williams,  O.  W.,  Esq.,  Fort  Stockton,  Texas.  U.S.A. 

1899  Wilmanns,  Frederick  M.,  Esq.,  89,  Oneida  Street,  Milwaukee,  Wise  ,  U.S.A. 

1895  Wisconsin,  State  Historical  Society  of,  Madison,  Wise,  U.S.A. 

1900  Woodford,    Charles    Mori'is,    Esq.,    Government    Residence,  Tulagi,  British 

Solomon  Islands. 

1907  Woolf,  Leonard  Sidney,  Esq.,  Hambantota,  Ceylon. 

1899  Worcester,  Massachusetts,  Free  Library,  Worcester,  Mass.,  U.S.A. 

1910  Worcester  College,  Oxford  (Parker  and  Son,  Oxford). 

1899  Wyndham,  The  Right  Hon.  George,  M.P.,  35,  Park  Lane,  W. 

1847     Yale  University,  New  Haven,  Conn.,  U.S.A. 

1894     Young,  Alfales,  Esq.,  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah,  U.S.A. 

1847     Zurich,  Stadtbibliothek,  Ziirich,  Switzerland. 



Santa  Barbara 





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